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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Jonah 4

Verse 1

displeased = vexed. Not the waywardness of a child, but the displeasure of a man of God, for great and sufficient reason to him. Now that Nineveh was spared, it might after all be used as God's rod for Israel, and thus destroy the hope held out by him to Israel in 2 Kings 14:25 . See note on Jonah 3:5 and p. 1247.

Verse 2

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .

Therefore I fled = hasted to flee. The reason follows, as explained in note on Jonah 4:1 .

I knew. This was well known, from Jehovah's revelation of Himself. Jonah knew, and referred to the Pentateuch (Exodus 34:6 . Numbers 14:18 , Numbers 14:19 ). David knew (Psalms 86:5 ). Hosea knew (Hosea 11:8 , Hosea 11:9 ). Joel knew (Joel 2:13 ). Micah knew (Micah 7:18 ). Jonah's knowledge explains his flight (Jonah 1:3 ). No one could tall us this but himself. GOD. Hebrew El. App-4 .

evil. Hebrew. ra'a . App-44 .

Verse 3

life = soul Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

Verse 5

made him = made for himself.

booth = hut.

become of = happen to. Hoping for its overthrow.

Verse 6

God. Hebrew. Elohim (i.e. Creator). App-4 .

prepared = appointed: as in verses: Jonah 4:7 , Jonah 4:8 , Jon 4:17 .

gourd. Hebrew. kikayon . Art Egyptian word.

shadow. to deliver him. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. tzel. le hatztzel.

grief = evil, or evil ease. Heb ra'a'. App-44 .

was exceeding glad. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ) for emphasis. Hebrew = rejoiced with great rejoicing.

Verse 7

worm. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for a blight of such; as in Deuteronomy 28:39 . They were appointed during the night, and came at sunrise.

Verse 8

vehement = silent, still. Hence, sultry. Occurs only here. Not a "late" word, but not required to be used before this.

east wind = hot wind. Not the same kind as in western climes. Ref to Pent (Ex Jon 10:13 , Jon 10:19 ) App-92

wind. Hebrew. ruach . App-9 .

in himself = in his soul. Hebrew. Nephesh . App-13 .

Verse 9

I do well. Supply "I do well [it is right]".

Verse 10

hast had pity on: or, wouldst have spared: same word as in Jonah 4:11 .

came up in a night = was the son of a night.

perished in a night = perished as the son of a night.

Verse 11

should not I. ? Figure of speech Erotesis ( App-6 ), no answer being required.

are = exits. Hebrew. yesh. See note on Proverbs 8:21 .

that cannot discern, &c. Put by Hebrew Idiom ( App-6 ), for little children; a similar idiom in Deuteronomy 1:39 App-92 .

much cattle. See notes on "great city", Jonah 3:2 ; and "herd and flock", Jonah 3:7 . Nineveh's walls included large areas for pasturage and cultivation. In speaking of the innocent ones in the city these are naturally included. Thus the book suddenly ends; and we are left with the solemn reflection that, Nineveh being spared, the way was thus open for the execution of Jehovah's judgment on Israel by the sword of Assyria, which took place in due time.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jonah 4". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.