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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Micah 1

Verse 1

The word of the LORD. The only occurrence of this expression in this book: bidding us to receive it from Jehovah, not Micah, and to note Micah's pen but Jehovah's words.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

Micah = Who is like Jehovah? An abbreviated form of Micaiah (2 Chronicles 18:7 , &c.); it is used in Jeremiah 26:18 (in the Heb). Compare Micah 7:18 .

Morasthite: Mareshah (Micah 1:15 ) or Moresheth-gath (Micah 1:14 ); now Tel Sandahanna, in the Shephelah, or plain, between Judea and Philistia. In the excavations at Sandahanna the ancient name is seen as Marissa. Marissa was a Sidonian colony (cent. 3 B. C), and was afterward used as the capital of' Idumea by the Edomites during the captivity of Judah (see Records of the Past, vol. iv, part x, pp. 291-306).

which he saw. Compare Isaiah 1:1 .Obadiah 1:1 .Nahum 1:1 .

concerning, &c. This furnishes the subject.

Verse 2

Hear, all ye people. Micah begins by taking up the concluding words of the other Micah or Micaiah (1 Kings 22:28 ), and recurs to them in Micah 3:1 , Micah 3:9 ; Micah 6:1 , Micah 6:2 . Five times, not three, as some say; and forms no part of the Structure of the whole book. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:1 ). App-92 .

all ye = ye peoples, all of them.

people = peoples. Including ourselves.

all that therein is = her fullness.

let the Lord GOD be witness. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 31:50 ).

the Lord. Hebrew Adonai. App-4 .

GOD Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to "Adonai". See App-32 .

from His holy temple. Compare Psalms 11:4 .Jonah 2:7 . Habakkuk 2:20 .

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5 .

Verse 3

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

tread upon, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:13 ; Deuteronomy 33:29 ). App-92 . Compare Amos 4:13 .

Verse 4

the mountains, &c. This verse foretells the calamities of 2 Kings 17:0 and 25.

Verse 5

transgression = rebellion. Hebrew. pasha'. App-44 .

sins. Hebrew. chata'. App-44 . Aram, and Syriac read singular.

What = Whose.

is it not Samaria? = is it not Samaria's [idolatry]? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6 .

high places. Compare 1 Kings 12:31 ; 1 Kings 14:23 .Ezekiel 6:6 . These existed in Jerusalem (Jeremiah 32:35 ); hence the mention of them in the further question. Figure of speech Erotesis. Compare 2 Kings 16:4 .

are they not Jerusalem? = is it not Jerusalem's [idol altars]?

Verse 6

discover, &c. This has now recently (1911) been done in the unearthing of Ahab's wine-cellars.

Verse 7

graven images. Hebrew. pesilim. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 20:4 ). App-92 .

hires. The technical Pentateuchal word for a harlot's hire, to which idolatry is compared. Compare Hosea 8:9 , Hosea 8:10 ; Hosea 9:1 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:18 ). App-92 .

they shall return, &c.: i.e. the wealth gained by idolatry shall be taken away by the Assyrian idolaters.

Verse 8

wail = lament. Compare the Structure above; and note weight of the prophetic "burden".

dragons = jackals.

owls. Hebrew daughters of a doleful cry.

Verse 9

wound = stroke. Hebrew. makkah (feminine)

it. Aramaean and Syriac read "she". Referring to her stroke, which is feminine.

he = he, referring to some unnamed foe. Aram, and Syriac read "she", referring to the "stroke" of judgment.

the gate. Compare Obadiah 1:11 , Obadiah 1:13 .

Verse 10

Declare ye it not at Gath. Compare 2 Samuel 1:20 .

Gath. Now Tell es Safi (Joshua 11:22 , &c).

at all. Hebrew. bakko, written defectively for beakko. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. bakko 'al tibku "[in] Weep-town weep not".

in . . . Aphrah roll thyself in the dust. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew in 'aphrah . . . 'aphar, English, "in Dust-house roll thyself in dust, "

Verse 11

Pass ye away: i.e. go into exile.

Saphir, having thy shame, &c. Here we have contrast. Saphir = Beautytown, with beauty shamed; now es Suafir.

inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth. Hebrew not gone forth hath . . . Zaanan. Hebrew Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ): lo yatz'ah . . . tz'anan = not gone out [to weep] hath the inhabitant of Outhouse.

in the mourning . . . his standing. Commence a fresh sentence here; thus: "The trouble of Beth-ezel (Neighbour-town) shall be a useless neighbour". Or, "the Bystander's house will, from you, get its standing-room".

he shall receive, &c. : or, he will take from you its support.

Verse 12

Maroth waited carefully. The inhabitress of Bitter town bitterly grieved for her goods [taken from her].

evil = calamity. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 . Not by chance.

the gate of Jerusalem. In Taylor's Cylinder, Sennacherib mentions his breaking of this gate (col. iii, lines 22:23).

Verse 13

inhabitant = inhabitress.

Lachish . . . swift beast. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. larekesh . . . lakish = [bind the chariot] to the horse, O inhabitress of Horse-town,

Lachish. Now Ummtum Lakis, or Tell el Hesy. See notes on 2 Kings 14:19 ; 2 Kings 19:8 .

she. Evidently Samaria. Compare verses: Micah 5:9 ; Micah 6:16 .

Verse 14

give presents to = give up possessions at.

Achzib . . . a lie. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia, = the houses of False-town ( 'Akzib) shall prove false ( iakzab).

Achzib. Now es Zib (Joshua 15:44 ; Joshua 19:29 . Judges 1:31 ).

Verse 15

an heir . . . Mareshah. Hebrew the possessor ( hayyoresh) . . . O Possession ( Mareshah) . The possessor whom Jehovah would bring was Assyria.

he shall come, &c. The glory: i.e. the nobility (Isaiah 5:13 ) of Israel shall go (or flee) unto [the cave] Adullam; as David had done (1 Samuel 22:1 ).

Verse 16

Make thee bald, &c. The signs of mourning. Compare Job 1:20 . Isaiah 15:2 ; Isaiah 22:12 .Jeremiah 7:29 ; Jeremiah 16:6 ; Jeremiah 47:5 ; Jeremiah 48:37 ). This is addressed to Judah. It was forbidden under the law (Deuteronomy 14:1 ). Judah had become as the heathen: let them mourn as the heathen.

children = sons.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Micah 1". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/micah-1.html. 1909-1922.