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The ordinary view of this prophecy Jeremiah 34:0, that it is a more full account of the narrative given in Jeremiah 32:3-5, is not so probable as that which takes it in connection with Jeremiah 21:1-14. Jeremiah had then informed Zedekiah by his messengers that Jerusalem would certainly be captured: but he was still in a condition to obtain good terms, and the prophet goes to him and lays before him the alternative. Zedekiah with all the obstinacy of a weak man chose to continue the war, and lost kingdom, eyesight, and liberty.
People - Peoples, i. e., tribes, races, under the rule of one man.
In peace - See Jeremiah 12:12 note.
Burn odors - “Make a burning.” The burning was probably that of piles of wood, and spices were added only as an special honor. It was not a Jewish custom to burn the dead. As these burnings depended upon the estimation in which the dead king was held, the verse implies a prosperous reign, such as Zedekiah might have had as an obedient vassal to BabyIon.
I have pronounced the word - I have spoken the word.
This marks the exact time, that it was early in the campaign, while the outlying fortresses still occupied the attention of Nebuchadnezzars army. Lachish and Azekah were strong cities in the plain toward Egypt and must be taken before the Chaldseans could march upon Jerusalem: otherwise the Egyptians might collect there and fall upon them.
It is usual with commentators to say that, the laws dealing with the emancipation of the Hebrew slaves, as also that of the land resting during the sabbatical year, were not observed. The narrative teaches us the exact contrary. The manumission of the slaves on the present occasion was the spontaneous act of Zedekiah and the people. They knew of the law, and acknowledged its obligation. The observance of it was, no doubt, lax: the majority let their own selfish interests prevail; but the minority made might give way to right, and Zedekiah supported their efforts though only in a weak way.
Early in January, in the ninth year of Zedekiah, the Chaldaean army approached Jerusalem. The people made a covenant with the king, who appears as the abettor of the measure, to let their slaves go free. Possibly patriotism had its share in this: and as Jerusalem was strongly fortified, all classes possibly hoped that if the slaves were manumitted, they too would labor with a more hearty good-will in resisting the enemy. In the summer of the same year the Egyptians advanced to the rescue, and Nebuchadnezzar withdrew to meet their attack. The Jews with a strange levity, which sets them before us in a most despicable light, at once forced the manumitted slaves back into bondage. With noble indignation Jeremiah rebukes them for their treachery, assures them that the Chaldaean army will return, and warns them of the certainty of the punishment which they so richly merited.
As the Chaldaean army swept over the country the wealthier classes would all flee to Jerusalem, taking with them their households. And as the Mosaic Law was probably more carefully kept there than in the country, the presence in these families of slaves who had grown grey in service may have given offence to the stricter classes at the capital.
To proclaim liberty unto them - The words are those of the proclamation of the year of jubile to the people, whereupon it became their duty to set their slaves free.
Should serve himself of them - Should make them serve him (see Jeremiah 25:14).
They turned, and caused ... to return - But afterward they again made the slaves return.
The house of bondmen - The miserable prison in which, after being worked in the fields all day in gangs, the slaves were shut up at night.
At their pleasure - literally, for themselves.
I will make you to be removed into - “I will cause you to be a terror unto.” Men would shudder at them.
The words ... - The Jews spoke of “cutting” a covenant, because the contracting parties cut a calf in twain and passed between the pieces. Thus cutting a covenant and cutting a calf in twain, meant the same thing.
Which are gone up from you - i. e., which have departed for the present, and have raised the siege.
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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 34". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 9 / Ordinary 14