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queen of Sheba. Compare 2 Chronicles 9:1 .
Sheba , a grandson of Cush, settled in Ethiopia (Genesis 10:7 ): i.e. Nubia and North Abyssinia, where female sovereigns were not unusual. Compare Acts 8:27 .
heard = kept hearing. By the commercial intercourse of 1 Kings 9:26-11.9.28 . Compare 2 Chronicles 8:17 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1 . Note her seven steps: heard (1 Kings 10:1 ); came (1 Kings 10:2 ); communed (1 Kings 10:2 ); saw (1 Kings 10:4 ); said (1 Kings 10:6 ); gave (1 Kings 10:10 ); returned (1 Kings 10:13 ).
fame = report.
hard = abstruse, or difficult.
she came. Note the use of this made by the Lord Jesus in Matthew 12:42 .Luke 11:31 .
Solomon. Some codices, with four early printed editions, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "King Solomon".
sitting = seated assembly.
attendance = standing.
ascent. The covered stairway connecting Mount Zion (Jebus) with Mount Moriah. Compare 2 Kings 16:18 . Ascent is the word for burnt or "ascending offering", by the merits of which we ascend now.
spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
acts = words.
delighted. See note on Numbers 14:8 . 2 Samuel 15:26 .
justice = righteousness.
navy also of Hiram. Joined with Solomon (1 Kings 10:22 ; 1 Kings 9:27 , 1 Kings 9:28 ).
Ophir. See note on 2 Chronicles 8:18 .
of his royal bounty. Hebrew according to the hand of king Solomon.
came. Probably in tariffs.
six hundred threescore and six = 666. Symbolical of the height or essence of man's desire, but all vanity ( App-10 ). Compare Ecclesiastes 2:8 , Ecclesiastes 2:11 . 1 Timothy 6:10 .
shields. Taken away by Shishak in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:26 ).
the best = pure.
top = canopy.
stays = supports. Literally hands.
navy of Tharshish = Tharshish ships, a name for large ocean-going ships (like English "East-Indiamen"). When mentioned as a place it is identified by Oppert with Tartessis = the Andalusia of to-day, noted for silver (not gold), iron, tin, and lead (Jeremiah 10:9 . Ezekiel 27:12 ). They sailed from Tyre to the West Mediterranean, and from Ezion-geber to Ophir (Arabia, India, and East Africa), 1 Kings 9:26-11.9.28 and 1 Kings 10:11 .
ivory = elephants' tusks.
apes, and peacocks. The Hebrew for these are Indian words (Tamil).
brought = kept bringing.
sycomore. Not English, but Eastern; a kind of fig, or mulberry.
horses. Compare Isaiah 31:1 ; Isaiah 36:9 . Also Ezekiel 17:15 .
linen yarn. Probably = by strings, or droves (i.e. the horses).
kings of the Hittites. Compare 1 Samuel 26:6 . 2 Kings 7:6 . These passages alleged to be unhistoric! but they are confirmed by the discoveries made in 1874 throughout Asia Minor and North Syria, which identify them with the "sons of Heth" (Genesis 23:3 , Genesis 23:5 , Genesis 23:7 ; Genesis 25:10 ; Genesis 27:46 ; Genesis 49:32 ), the Khatta of the Accadian and the Kheta of the Egyptian records. They contended on equal terms with Assyria and Egypt. Crushed by Sargon II, 717 B.C. Chief centers, Carchemish on the Euphrates and Kadesh on the Upper Orontes.
by their means. Hebrew by their hand. Hand put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for what is done by it: by means of Solomon's merchants.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
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