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a day : i.e. a certain day.
a pomegranate tree = the pomegranate tree: i.e. the well-known one.
Migron . North of Gilgal.
men. Heb, 'ish. App-14 .
Ahiah (= brother or friend of Jehovah). As Ahimelech (brother or friend of the king) was also the son of Ahitub, therefore Ahiah and Ahimelech were brothers, and the latter succeeded the former (1 Samuel 22:11 ). I-chabod's. Compare 1 Samuel 4:21 .
the LORD'S . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .
wearing an ephod . See note on 1 Samuel 14:18 .
sharp rock = a crag. Hebrew. sela '. See notes on Exodus 17:6 . Psalms 18:1 , Psalms 18:2 .
and. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, omit this "and".
Bozez = Shining.
Seneh = Sharp, or pointed. Hebrew = thorn.
was situate. Hebrew. mazuk, only here, and 1 Samuel 2:8 the sharp crag, or pillar of 1 Samuel 14:4 .
Michmash . Nine miles from Jerusalem.
Gibeah = - Geba.
the LORD (Jehovah) will work . Note the language of faith. Compare 2 Chronicles 14:11 .
behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .
men. Hebrew. 'enosh. App-14 .
Tarry = keep quiet.
hand . Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "hands ".
the Hebrews . Compare 1 Samuel 14:21 .
shew you a thing = tell you something.
acre . Hebrew = furrow, or a furrow's length. The Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 ) is supplied, but the words "in a day" might be added for completeness at end of verse. This is the standard measure throughout the Turkish empire, called a deunum = 40 arshuns.
host = camp.
trembled = were panic-stricken. Compare 2 Samuel 5:24 . 2 Kings 7:6 ; 2 Kings 19:7 .
a very great trembling = a preternatural trembling. Hebrew a trembling from Elohim . App-4 .
and they went on beating down , &c. Hebrew hither and thither. A supposed Ellipsis is unnecessarily supplied. Read "melted away hither and thither", with Septuagint and Syriac.
the ark of God . The word rendered "bring" (nayash) inappropriate for the Ark, which was at Kirjath-jearim (Judges 20:27 , and compare 2 Samuel 11:11 ; 2 Samuel 15:24 ). The Septuagint reads "the ephod, for he bare the ephod at that time before Israel". Compare 1 Samuel 14:3 . The context shows that inquiry of the LORD by Urim and Thummim was in Saul's mind. See 1 Samuel 14:18 and note on Exodus 28:30 , and compare 1 Samuel 28:6 , 1Sa 28:9 ; 1 Samuel 30:7 , 1 Samuel 30:8 , where the same word is used for "bring".
God . Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 . Literally "the God".
children = sons.
talked : i.e. concerning the inquiry proposed.
Withdraw : i.e. from the ephod = Stop!
hand. Some codices, with three early printed editions, and Septuagint, read "hands".
assembled themselves = were assembled (by proclamation).
every man's . Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
the Hebrews . Called so in distinction from the foreigners among whom they lived; referring to language rather than nationality. Compare 1 Samuel 14:11 . turned. Septuagint and Vulgate read "turned round".
mount = hill country of.
the LORD (Jehovah) saved : according to Jonathan's faith.
unto. Some codices, with Aramaean and Vulgate, read "as far as".
Beth-aven. The Septuagint adds: "and all the people with Saul were about 10,000 men: and the battle extended itself to every city in the mount Ephraim. And Saul committed a great trespass of ignorance on that day. "
food. Hebrew "bread", put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , for all kinds of food.
the ground. Hebrew "the face (i.e. surface) of the ground". Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6 .
behold. Figure of speech Asterismos.
an honeycomb. The Hebrew ya'ar never means honeycomb, but "a wood". It is rendered "forest" thirty-eight times, "wood" nineteen times, "honey-comb" only here and Song of Solomon 5:15
straitly = strictly.
faint = weary.
land = people. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 .
How. ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6 .
sin. Hebrew. chata'. App-44 .
transgressed = dealt treacherously.
this day . Septuagint reads "here".
his ox with him. Septuagint reads "what was in his hand".
the LORD = Jehovah. Punctuate thus: "Saul said unto Jehovah: `O God of Israel' ", &c.
Give a perfect lot = Give perfections: i.e. Thummim. See Exodus 28:30 . There is evidently a Homceoteleuton ( App-6 ) here. The scribes, having written the word "Israel", went forward to the word "Israel "a line or two farther on, and omitted the words between, which are preserved in two ancient versions, older than any Hebrew manuscript extant. These omitted words are enclosed within brackets below, in the translation given of the Septuagint version:-" LORD God of Israel, [Why hast thou not answered Thy servant this day? Is the iniquity in me, or in Jonathan my son? LORD God of Israel, Give clear [manifestation, i.e. Urim]; and if [the lot] should declare this, give, I pray Thee, to Thy People Israel, give, I pray, holiness" (i.e. Thummim, a perfect lot). The Hebrew (unpointed) thamim (perfect) would thus have been Thummim.
lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .
do so . Some codices, with three early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, add "unto me".
not one hair , &c. Figure of speech Parcemia. App-6 .
rescued . Hebrew pieta = redeemed. See note on Exodus 6:6 with Exodus 13:13 . Perhaps a victim was offered in his stead.
and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) in verses: 1 Samuel 14:47-48 .
children = sons.
he vexed them = he put them to the worse. But Septuagint reads "he was victorious".
an host . Hebrew "power". Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , put for the army which manifested the power. Or, it may be rendered "he wrought mightily".
Ishui . Called Abinadab in 1 Samuel 31:2 .
Kish was the father of Saul. For the difficulties of this genealogy, see note on 1 Chronicles 8:33 .
man . Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
valiant man . Hebrew son of valour.
he took him . As Samuel had said (1 Samuel 8:11 , 1 Samuel 8:16 ).
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30