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Hear . . . ye. Masculine
kine = heifers: the women. Compare Psalms 22:22 (masculine), Ezekiel 39:18 (masculine)
mountain = hill country.
oppress. Hebrew. ashak , as in Amos 3:9 (feminine) Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:13 .Deuteronomy 24:14; Deuteronomy 24:14 ). Compare 2 Samuel 12:3 , 2 Samuel 12:4 .
the poor = exhausted ones. Hebrew. dal (masculine) See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11
the needy = needy ones. Hebrew ' ebyan (masculine) See note "poverty" Proverbs 6:11 .
The Lord GOD . See note on Amos 1:7 .
sworn by His holiness. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 22:16 ).
lo. Figure of speech Asferismos. App-6 .
hooks. In the Assyrian monuments we see the captives with literal "hooks" in their noses. Compare 2 Chronicles 33:11 .Job 40:24 ; Job 41:2 .Isaiah 37:29 . Ezekiel 29:4 .
your posterity = the remnant of you. Hebrew. 'aharith, as in Ezekiel 23:25 . Not posterity.
cow , i.e. woman.
at that which is before her = each woman through the breach [in the wall of Samaria].
before her i.e. without turning to the left or right. Compare Joshua 6:5 , Joshua 6:20 .
ye shall cast them into the palace . Palace, Hebrew. harmon (see note on Amos 1:4 ). Here it is haharmonah, which forms the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ) with 'arman (Amos 3:11 ). The clause is to be interpreted by Amos 3:11 , Amos 3:12 , end Amos 5:27 , and would then road: "ye shall be cast forth toward Ha-Harmon". The place is not known, but it may mean "ye women who are at ease in your palaces" (arman, Amos 3:11 , Amos 3:12 ) will be cast forth into Ha-Harmonak: into exile. The text is not necessarily "corrupt" because we do not happen to know a place of that name.
saith the LORD = is Jehovah's oracle.
the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
Come to Beth-el, &c. Here we have Divine irony, as though it meant "Fill up the measure of your iniquity". Compare Matthew 23:32 .
transgress . . . transgression. Hebrew pasha'. App-44 .
Beth-el . . . Gilgal. Compare Amos 3:14 ; Amos 5:5 .Hosea 4:15 ; Hosea 9:15 ; Hosea 12:11 .
after three years . The ref is to the Pentateuch (Numbers 28:3 .Deuteronomy 14:28; Deuteronomy 14:28 ), App-92 ; not to "days", or to modern "Mohammedan pilgrimages".
offer a sacrifices = offer as incense. Hebrew katar. App-43 . Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 7:13 ; Leviticus 23:17 ). App-92 . Compare Psalms 56:12 .Jeremiah 17:26 ; Jeremiah 33:1 .Hebrews 13:15 .
with leaven. Leavened bread might be eaten by the offerer, but not consumed on the altar (Leviticus 2:11 , Leviticus 2:12 ). Leaven is mentioned five times in Exodus; four in Leviticus; one in Deuteronomy; and not elsewhere. The Mosaic law was well known. App-92 . There was no "historic growth" of the Pentateuch.
free offerings. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 22:18 , Leviticus 22:21 .Deuteronomy 12:6; Deuteronomy 12:6 ). App-92 .
this liketh you = so ye have loved [to have it).
children = sons.
saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.
cleanness of teeth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for famine.
yet have ye not . &c. Note the Structure above, showing the Figure fo Speech Amoeboeon ( App-6 ). Compare Isaiah 26:11 .Jeremiah 5:3 .Haggai 2:12 .
have withholden , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:22-24 ).
piece = portion of land.
it. Ginsburg thinks this should be "I".
I have smitten , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:22 ). App-92 . Compare Haggai 2:17 .
the palmerworm = the gnawer. Hebrew. gazam. See note on Joel 1:4 .
I have sent, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:25 .Deuteronomy 28:21 , Deuteronomy 28:27 , Deuteronomy 28:60 ). App-92 .
the pestilence = a pestilence. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for the
death resulting from it. Septuagint renders it "death". See note on Amos 6:10 .
after the manner, &c. Reference to Pentateuch, (Exodus 9:3 , Exodus 9:6 ; Exodus 12:29 . Deuteronomy 28:27 ). App-92 . Compare Psalms 78:50 . Isaiah 10:24 , Isaiah 10:26 .
taken. away , &c. Compare 2 Kings 13:7 .
I have made, &c. Compare Joel 2:20 .
as God overthrew, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 19:24 , Genesis 19:25 .Deuteronomy 29:23; Deuteronomy 29:23 ). App-92 . Compare Isaiah 13:19 . Jeremiah 49:18 . God. Hebrew Elobim. App-4 .
ye were as a firebrand, &c. Compare Zechariah 3:2 .Jude 1:23 .
prepare to meet, &c. i.e. in judgment. Compare Ezekiel 13:5 ; Ezekiel 22:30 . Amos 4:11 and Amos 4:12 are not "out of place" or an "interpolation", but are required by the Structure, "M", below.
Amos 4:1-13 (F2). THE NORTHERN KINGDOM. (THE KINE OF BASHAN.) (Extended Alternation.)
F2 | K |1-. call to Hear.
L | -1. Judgements deserved.
M | 2,3. Threatening.
| K | 4,5. call to Come.
L | 6-11. Judgements inflicted.
M | 12,13. Threatening.
createth. Some modern critics allege that this word (Hebrew. bara, Genesis 1:0 Amos 1:1 ) was not used before the time of Jeremiah; but it is used, besides the Pentateuch, in Psalms 51:10 ; Psalms 89:12 , Psalms 89:47 ; Psalms 102:18 ; Psalms 104:30 ; Psalms 148:5 .Ecclesiastes 12:1 ; and in Isaiah frequently.
wind. Hebrew ruach. App-9 .
declareth unto man, &c. Compare Psa 189:2 .Daniel 2:28 .
man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .
That maketh, &c. Compare Amos 5:8 ; Amos 8:9 .
and treadeth, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:13 ; Deuteronomy 33:29 ). App-92 . Compare Micah 1:3 .
is His name. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 15:3 ). App-92 . Compare Amos 5:8 ; Amos 9:6 . Isaiah 47:4 .Jeremiah 10:16 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Amos 4". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13