take up = lift up as a burden.
lamentation = dirge.
house of Israel. See note on Amos 8:1.
virgin. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the house of Israel, a young girl who is beloved, as in Hosea. Compare Isaiah 37:22; Isaiah 47:1. Jeremiah 14:17; Jeremiah 46:11, &c.
she. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac and Vulgate, read "and shall not": i.e. cannot rise again.
land = soil. Hebrew. "adamah.
there. Some codices read "and [there]".
the Lord GOD. Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah. App-4.
went out = goeth out [to war].
by a thousand = a thousand strong. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:30). App-92.
by an hundred = a hundred strong.
to = [belonging] to.
thus saith. Note the prophetic formula (see App-82), introducing the exhortation, and emphasising it.
the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.
Seek ye Me, &c.
Note this word "seek" in the several exhortations. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 12:5). App-92. As in Psalms 9:10. Isaiah 9:13. Jeremiah 10:21. Hosea 10:12. Zephaniah 1:6.
ye shall live. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:5, see note there. Deuteronomy 30:19). App-92. Compare Isaiah 55:3.
Bethel. Gilgal. Beer-sheba. Compare Hosea 4:15; Hosea 10:8. These were the seats of Israel"s idolatrous worship.
pass not = pass not through; which was necessary in order to get from the north to Beer-sheba in the south. Compare Amos 4:4; Amos 8:14.
Gilgal shall surely go into captivity. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6), for emphasis. Hebrew. Gilgal galoh yigleh = The Roller, rolling, shall roll away: i.e. be utterly removed. This is emphasized by the Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6).
Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole Northern Kingdom.
wormwood. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:18).
leave off. in = cast down. to.
the seven stars. Hebrew. kimah = cluster. Modern name, the Pleiades. See notes on Job 9:9; Job 38:31, Job 38:32. Compare Isaiah 13:10; and see App-12.
Orion. Hebrew. kesel = rigidity, strength; from kesalim = loins (Job 15:27): hence, "confidence" derived from strength (Job 8:14; Job 31:24, where the Septuagint has ichun = strength. Psalms 78:7. Proverbs 3:26). In the Denderah Zodiac his name is oar, from the Hebrew root "Or = light: hence the glorious One. See App-12. Compare Job 9:9; Job 38:31.
the shadow of death. Hebrew. tzalmaveth. Not "a late word". We find it ten times in Job; four times in Psalms. Isaiah 9:2. Jeremiah 2:6; Jeremiah 13:16.
Maketh the day, &c. Compare Psalms 104:20.
That = [Seek Him] That.
calleth, &c. Compare Amos 9:6. Job 38:34. Isaiah 48:13.
is = it[is].
strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong = that makes destruction to corns suddenly to flash upon the strong.
so that the, &c = and destruction will come upon the fortress.
They hate, &c. The connection is not "difficult". The Structure is the commentary. Compare Isaiah 29:21.
him that rebuketh, &c. = the reprover.
in the gate: i.e. before the judge.
uprightly = truthfully.
the poor an impoverished one. Hebrew. dal, See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11.
burdens = exaction. Singular.
ye have built, &c. Reference to Deut. (Deuteronomy 28:30, Deuteronomy 28:39).
pleasant vineyards = vineyards of desire. wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27.
transgressions. Hebrew pasha. App-44.
sins. Hebrew. chata App-44.
they afflict = oppressors [as ye are] of.
the just = a righteous one.
take a bribe. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 35:31, Numbers 35:32, the same word). App-92, turn aside. Reference to Pentateuch, (Exodus 23:6. Deuteronomy 16:19; Deuteronomy 24:17. The same Hebrew word in all three cases). App-92, Compare Isaiah 29:21. Malachi 3:5.
the poor" needy ones. Hebrew. "ebyee. See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11. Compare Amos 2:7. Isaiah 29:21.
Therefore, &c. Compare Proverbs 28:11, Proverbs 28:28. an evil time, a time of calamity. Hebrew raa". App-44. See note on Amos 3:6.
Seek good. Note the Structure ("u1", "u2":u3", p. 1237).
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.
as = according as. Compare Micah 3:11.
Hate the evil, he. Compare Psalms 34:14; Psalms 97:10. Romans 12:9, This concludes the last of the three exhortations.
it may be. Hebrew. u lay. The whole versa is the exhortation: but the Heb, accent marks off this sentence, calling attention, not to uncertainty on the part of Jehovah, but to the difficulty on Israel"s part; and this order to stimulate obedience to the exhortation. Compare Exodus 32:30. 2 Kings 19:4. Joel 2:14.
Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole of the Northern Kingdom.
the LORD". One of the 134 places where the Sopherirm say they altered "Jehovah" (App-4.) of the primitive test to "Adenai" (App-4. See App-32.
streets = open places.
skilful of lamentation: i.e. the professional mourners. Compare 2 Chronicles 35:25. Ezekiel 12:5. Jeremiah 9:17.
pass through. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:12). App-92.
Woe. The first woe. See the Structure above. the day of the LORD. See notes on Isaiah 2:12; Isaiah 13:6. Joel 2:1
darkness, and not light. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm (App-6) for emphasis. Compare Jeremiah 30:7. Joel 2:2. Zephaniah 1:15.
man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.
a lion. Hebrew the face of a lion. A special various reading called Sevir (App-34) reads "the mouth of a lion".
a bear. The Syrian bear is fiercer than a lion (Daniel 7:5. Compare 2 Kings 2:24. Lamentations 3:10).
Shall not. ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), for emphasis
and no brightness. Note the Figures of speech Pleonasm and Erotesis (App-6). Some codices omit "and".
I hate, &c. Compare Proverbs 21:27, Isaiah 1:11-14. Jeremiah 6:20.
I will not smell, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:31) App-92.
solemn assemblies Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:36. Numbers 29:35. Deuteronomy 16:8). App-92.
offer = offer up.
burnt offerings . . . meat offerings. See App-43.
I will not accept, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 1:4. App-92.
peace offerings. See App-43
Take thou away &c. Compare Isaiah 1:13
viols = lutes
rundown = roll on. Reference to Gilgal
mighty = inexhaustible.
stream. Hebrew. nahal = a wady, or intermittent stream; not nahar, a constant-flowing river.
Have ye offered, &c . . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. This is a question in some codices and three early printed editions; but other codices, and four early printed editions, read it as an affirmative statement. If a question, the answer is No. See Deuteronomy 32:17. Joshua 5:5-7. Jeremiah 7:22, Jeremiah 7:23. Ezekiel 20:8, Ezekiel 20:16, Ezekiel 20:24.
unto Me, Not "unto demons". Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:7. Deuteronomy 32:17). App-92, Compare Psalms 106:37. 1 Corinthians 10:7.
ye have borne = borne aloft. Figure of speech Hysteresis. App-6.
tabernacle = booth. Hebrew. sikkuth.
Chiun. The Egyptian or Greek equivalent was Remphan (Septuagint Raiphan; another spelling preserved in the Septuagint and in Acts 7:43). Proper names frequently differ in spelling: e.g. Ethiopia is the Hebrew Kush; Egypt is Mizrain; Mesopotamia and Syria is "Aram, or "Aram naharaim, & c.
the star of your god: or, your star-god.
beyond Damascus. In Acts 7:43 beyond Babylon, which was of course "beyond Damascus", and included it, showing what was in the Divine purpose in the words of Jehovah (Amos 5:27) by Amos. Moreover, the road to Assyria lay through Damascus. Compare 2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 16:9. Isaiah 8:4. Isaiah 3:12. May not the Holy Spirit quote and adapt His own words as He pleases?
saith = hath said.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Amos 5". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany