Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Amos 5

Verse 1

take up = lift up as a burden.

lamentation = dirge.

house of Israel. See note on Amos 8:1.

Verse 2

virgin. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the house of Israel, a young girl who is beloved, as in Hosea. Compare Isaiah 37:22; Isaiah 47:1. Jeremiah 14:17; Jeremiah 46:11, &c.

she. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac and Vulgate, read "and shall not": i.e. cannot rise again.

land = soil. Hebrew. "adamah.

there. Some codices read "and [there]".

Verse 3

the Lord GOD. Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah. App-4.

went out = goeth out [to war].

by a thousand = a thousand strong. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:30). App-92.

by an hundred = a hundred strong.

to = [belonging] to.

Verse 4

thus saith. Note the prophetic formula (see App-82), introducing the exhortation, and emphasising it.

the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Seek ye Me, &c.

Note this word "seek" in the several exhortations. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 12:5). App-92. As in Psalms 9:10. Isaiah 9:13. Jeremiah 10:21. Hosea 10:12. Zephaniah 1:6.

ye shall live. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:5, see note there. Deuteronomy 30:19). App-92. Compare Isaiah 55:3.

Verse 5

Bethel. Gilgal. Beer-sheba. Compare Hosea 4:15; Hosea 10:8. These were the seats of Israel"s idolatrous worship.

pass not = pass not through; which was necessary in order to get from the north to Beer-sheba in the south. Compare Amos 4:4; Amos 8:14.

Gilgal shall surely go into captivity. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6), for emphasis. Hebrew. Gilgal galoh yigleh = The Roller, rolling, shall roll away: i.e. be utterly removed. This is emphasized by the Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6).

Verse 6

Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole Northern Kingdom.

Verse 7

wormwood. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:18).

leave off. in = cast down. to.

Verse 8

the seven stars. Hebrew. kimah = cluster. Modern name, the Pleiades. See notes on Job 9:9; Job 38:31, Job 38:32. Compare Isaiah 13:10; and see App-12.

Orion. Hebrew. kesel = rigidity, strength; from kesalim = loins (Job 15:27): hence, "confidence" derived from strength (Job 8:14; Job 31:24, where the Septuagint has ichun = strength. Psalms 78:7. Proverbs 3:26). In the Denderah Zodiac his name is oar, from the Hebrew root "Or = light: hence the glorious One. See App-12. Compare Job 9:9; Job 38:31.

the shadow of death. Hebrew. tzalmaveth. Not "a late word". We find it ten times in Job; four times in Psalms. Isaiah 9:2. Jeremiah 2:6; Jeremiah 13:16.

Maketh the day, &c. Compare Psalms 104:20.

That = [Seek Him] That.

calleth, &c. Compare Amos 9:6. Job 38:34. Isaiah 48:13.

is = it[is].

Verse 9

strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong = that makes destruction to corns suddenly to flash upon the strong.

so that the, &c = and destruction will come upon the fortress.

Verse 10

They hate, &c. The connection is not "difficult". The Structure is the commentary. Compare Isaiah 29:21.

him that rebuketh, &c. = the reprover.

in the gate: i.e. before the judge.

uprightly = truthfully.

Verse 11

the poor an impoverished one. Hebrew. dal, See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11.

burdens = exaction. Singular.

ye have built, &c. Reference to Deut. (Deuteronomy 28:30, Deuteronomy 28:39).

pleasant vineyards = vineyards of desire. wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27.

Verse 12

transgressions. Hebrew pasha. App-44.

sins. Hebrew. chata App-44.

they afflict = oppressors [as ye are] of.

the just = a righteous one.

take a bribe. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 35:31, Numbers 35:32, the same word). App-92, turn aside. Reference to Pentateuch, (Exodus 23:6. Deuteronomy 16:19; Deuteronomy 24:17. The same Hebrew word in all three cases). App-92, Compare Isaiah 29:21. Malachi 3:5.

the poor" needy ones. Hebrew. "ebyee. See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11. Compare Amos 2:7. Isaiah 29:21.

Verse 13

Therefore, &c. Compare Proverbs 28:11, Proverbs 28:28. an evil time, a time of calamity. Hebrew raa". App-44. See note on Amos 3:6.

Verse 14

Seek good. Note the Structure ("u1", "u2":u3", p. 1237).

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

as = according as. Compare Micah 3:11.

Verse 15

Hate the evil, he. Compare Psalms 34:14; Psalms 97:10. Romans 12:9, This concludes the last of the three exhortations.

it may be. Hebrew. u lay. The whole versa is the exhortation: but the Heb, accent marks off this sentence, calling attention, not to uncertainty on the part of Jehovah, but to the difficulty on Israel"s part; and this order to stimulate obedience to the exhortation. Compare Exodus 32:30. 2 Kings 19:4. Joel 2:14.

Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for the whole of the Northern Kingdom.

Verse 16

the LORD". One of the 134 places where the Sopherirm say they altered "Jehovah" (App-4.) of the primitive test to "Adenai" (App-4. See App-32.

streets = open places.

skilful of lamentation: i.e. the professional mourners. Compare 2 Chronicles 35:25. Ezekiel 12:5. Jeremiah 9:17.

Verse 17

pass through. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:12). App-92.

Verse 18

Woe. The first woe. See the Structure above. the day of the LORD. See notes on Isaiah 2:12; Isaiah 13:6. Joel 2:1

darkness, and not light. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm (App-6) for emphasis. Compare Jeremiah 30:7. Joel 2:2. Zephaniah 1:15.

Verse 19

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

a lion. Hebrew the face of a lion. A special various reading called Sevir (App-34) reads "the mouth of a lion".

a bear. The Syrian bear is fiercer than a lion (Daniel 7:5. Compare 2 Kings 2:24. Lamentations 3:10).

Verse 20

Shall not. ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), for emphasis

and no brightness. Note the Figures of speech Pleonasm and Erotesis (App-6). Some codices omit "and".

Verse 21

I hate, &c. Compare Proverbs 21:27, Isaiah 1:11-14. Jeremiah 6:20.

I will not smell, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:31) App-92.

solemn assemblies Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:36. Numbers 29:35. Deuteronomy 16:8). App-92.

Verse 22

offer = offer up.

burnt offerings . . . meat offerings. See App-43.

I will not accept, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 1:4. App-92.

peace offerings. See App-43

Take thou away &c. Compare Isaiah 1:13

viols = lutes

Verse 24

rundown = roll on. Reference to Gilgal

mighty = inexhaustible.

stream. Hebrew. nahal = a wady, or intermittent stream; not nahar, a constant-flowing river.

Verse 25

Have ye offered, &c . . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. This is a question in some codices and three early printed editions; but other codices, and four early printed editions, read it as an affirmative statement. If a question, the answer is No. See Deuteronomy 32:17. Joshua 5:5-7. Jeremiah 7:22, Jeremiah 7:23. Ezekiel 20:8, Ezekiel 20:16, Ezekiel 20:24.

unto Me, Not "unto demons". Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:7. Deuteronomy 32:17). App-92, Compare Psalms 106:37. 1 Corinthians 10:7.

Verse 26

ye have borne = borne aloft. Figure of speech Hysteresis. App-6.

tabernacle = booth. Hebrew. sikkuth.

Chiun. The Egyptian or Greek equivalent was Remphan (Septuagint Raiphan; another spelling preserved in the Septuagint and in Acts 7:43). Proper names frequently differ in spelling: e.g. Ethiopia is the Hebrew Kush; Egypt is Mizrain; Mesopotamia and Syria is "Aram, or "Aram naharaim, & c.

the star of your god: or, your star-god.

Verse 27

beyond Damascus. In Acts 7:43 beyond Babylon, which was of course "beyond Damascus", and included it, showing what was in the Divine purpose in the words of Jehovah (Amos 5:27) by Amos. Moreover, the road to Assyria lay through Damascus. Compare 2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 16:9. Isaiah 8:4. Isaiah 3:12. May not the Holy Spirit quote and adapt His own words as He pleases?

saith = hath said.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Amos 5". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.