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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Amos 5

Verse 1

take up = lift up as a burden.

lamentation = dirge.

house of Israel. See note on Amos 8:1 .

Verse 2

virgin. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the house of Israel, a young girl who is beloved, as in Hosea. Compare Isaiah 37:22 ; Isaiah 47:1 .Jeremiah 14:17 ; Jeremiah 46:11 , &c.

she. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac and Vulgate, read "and shall not": i.e. cannot rise again.

land = soil. Hebrew. 'adamah.

there. Some codices read "and [there]".

Verse 3

the Lord GOD. Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . App-4 .

went out = goeth out [to war].

by a thousand = a thousand strong. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:30 ). App-92 .

by an hundred = a hundred strong.

to = [belonging] to.

Verse 4

thus saith. Note the prophetic formula (see App-82 ), introducing the exhortation, and emphasising it.

the Lord . Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

Seek ye Me, &c.

Note this word "seek" in the several exhortations. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 12:5 ). App-92 . As in Psalms 9:10 . Isaiah 9:13 .Jeremiah 10:21 .Hosea 10:12 .Zephaniah 1:6 .

ye shall live. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:5 , see note there. Deuteronomy 30:19 ). App-92 . Compare Isaiah 55:3 .

Verse 5

Bethel. Gilgal. Beer-sheba. Compare Hosea 4:15 ; Hosea 10:8 . These were the seats of Israel's idolatrous worship.

pass not = pass not through; which was necessary in order to get from the north to Beer-sheba in the south. Compare Amos 4:4 ; Amos 8:14 .

Gilgal shall surely go into captivity. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ), for emphasis. Hebrew. Gilgal galoh yigleh = The Roller, rolling, shall roll away : i.e. be utterly removed. This is emphasized by the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ).

Verse 6

Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for the whole Northern Kingdom.

Verse 7

wormwood. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:18 ).

leave off. in = cast down. to.

Verse 8

the seven stars. Hebrew. kimah = cluster. Modern name, the Pleiades. See notes on Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31 , Job 38:32 . Compare Isaiah 13:10 ; and see App-12 .

Orion. Hebrew. kesel = rigidity, strength; from kesalim = loins (Job 15:27 ): hence, "confidence" derived from strength (Job 8:14 ; Job 31:24 , where the Septuagint has ichun = strength. Psalms 78:7 . Proverbs 3:26 ). In the Denderah Zodiac his name is oar , from the Hebrew root 'Or = light: hence the glorious One. See App-12 . Compare Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31 .

the shadow of death. Hebrew. tzalmaveth . Not "a late word". We find it ten times in Job; four times in Psalms. Isaiah 9:2 .Jeremiah 2:6 ; Jeremiah 13:16 .

Maketh the day, &c. Compare Psalms 104:20 .

That = [Seek Him] That.

calleth, &c. Compare Amos 9:6 . Job 38:34 .Isaiah 48:13 .

is = it[is].

Verse 9

strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong = that makes destruction to corns suddenly to flash upon the strong.

so that the, &c = and destruction will come upon the fortress.

Verse 10

They hate, &c. The connection is not "difficult". The Structure is the commentary. Compare Isaiah 29:21 .

him that rebuketh, &c. = the reprover.

in the gate: i.e. before the judge.

uprightly = truthfully.

Verse 11

the poor an impoverished one. Hebrew. dal, See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11 .

burdens = exaction. Singular.

ye have built, &c. Reference to Deut. (Deuteronomy 28:30 , Deuteronomy 28:39 ).

pleasant vineyards = vineyards of desire. wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27 .

Verse 12

transgressions. Hebrew pasha. App-44 .

sins. Hebrew. chata App-44 .

they afflict = oppressors [as ye are] of.

the just = a righteous one.

take a bribe. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 35:31 , Numbers 35:32 , the same word). App-92 , turn aside. Reference to Pentateuch, (Exodus 23:6 . Deuteronomy 16:19 ; Deuteronomy 24:17 . The same Hebrew word in all three cases). App-92 , Compare Isaiah 29:21 .Malachi 3:5 .

the poor' needy ones. Hebrew. 'ebyee . See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11 . Compare Amos 2:7 . Isaiah 29:21 .

Verse 13

Therefore, &c. Compare Proverbs 28:11 , Proverbs 28:28 . an evil time, a time of calamity. Hebrew raa'. App-44 . See note on Amos 3:6 .

Verse 14

Seek good. Note the Structure ("u1", "u2":u3", p. 1237).

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

as = according as. Compare Micah 3:11 .

Verse 15

Hate the evil, he. Compare Psalms 34:14 ; Psalms 97:10 . Romans 12:9 , This concludes the last of the three exhortations.

it may be . Hebrew. u lay. The whole versa is the exhortation: but the Heb, accent marks off this sentence, calling attention, not to uncertainty on the part of Jehovah, but to the difficulty on Israel's part; and this order to stimulate obedience to the exhortation. Compare Exodus 32:30 . 2 Kings 19:4 .Joel 2:14 .

Joseph. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for the whole of the Northern Kingdom.

Verse 16

the LORD". One of the 134 places where the Sopherirm say they altered "Jehovah" ( App-4 .) of the primitive test to "Adenai" ( App-4 . See App-32 .

streets = open places.

skilful of lamentation: i.e. the professional mourners. Compare 2 Chronicles 35:25 .Ezekiel 12:5 .Jeremiah 9:17 .

Verse 17

pass through. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:12 ). App-92 .

Verse 18

Woe. The first woe. See the Structure above. the day of the LORD. See notes on Isaiah 2:12 ; Isaiah 13:6 . Joel 2:1

darkness, and not light. Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ) for emphasis. Compare Jeremiah 30:7 . Joel 2:2 .Zephaniah 1:15 .

Verse 19

man. Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .

a lion . Hebrew the face of a lion. A special various reading called Sevir ( App-34 ) reads "the mouth of a lion".

a bear. The Syrian bear is fiercer than a lion (Daniel 7:5 . Compare 2 Kings 2:24 .Lamentations 3:10; Lamentations 3:10 ).

Verse 20

Shall not. ? Figure of speech Erotesis ( App-6 ), for emphasis

and no brightness. Note the Figures of speech Pleonasm and Erotesis ( App-6 ). Some codices omit "and".

Verse 21

I hate, &c. Compare Proverbs 21:27 , Isaiah 1:11-23.1.14 .Jeremiah 6:20 .

I will not smell, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:31 ) App-92 .

solemn assemblies Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:36 . Numbers 29:35 .Deuteronomy 16:8; Deuteronomy 16:8 ). App-92 .

Verse 22

offer = offer up.

burnt offerings . . . meat offerings. See App-43 .

I will not accept, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 1:4 . App-92 .

peace offerings. See App-43

Take thou away &c. Compare Isaiah 1:13

viols = lutes

Verse 24

rundown = roll on. Reference to Gilgal

mighty = inexhaustible.

stream. Hebrew. nahal = a wady, or intermittent stream; not nahar, a constant-flowing river.

Verse 25

Have ye offered, &c . . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6 . This is a question in some codices and three early printed editions; but other codices, and four early printed editions, read it as an affirmative statement. If a question, the answer is No. See Deuteronomy 32:17 . Joshua 5:5-6.5.7 . Jeremiah 7:22 , Jeremiah 7:23 .Ezekiel 20:8 , Ezekiel 20:16 , Ezekiel 20:24 .

unto Me, Not "unto demons". Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 17:7 . Deuteronomy 32:17 ). App-92 , Compare Psalms 106:37 . 1 Corinthians 10:7 .

Verse 26

ye have borne = borne aloft. Figure of speech Hysteresis. App-6 .

tabernacle = booth. Hebrew. sikkuth.

Chiun. The Egyptian or Greek equivalent was Remphan (Septuagint Raiphan; another spelling preserved in the Septuagint and in Acts 7:43 ). Proper names frequently differ in spelling: e.g. Ethiopia is the Hebrew Kush; Egypt is Mizrain; Mesopotamia and Syria is 'Aram, or 'Aram naharaim, & c.

the star of your god: or, your star-god.

Verse 27

beyond Damascus. In Acts 7:43 beyond Babylon, which was of course "beyond Damascus", and included it, showing what was in the Divine purpose in the words of Jehovah (Amos 5:27 ) by Amos. Moreover, the road to Assyria lay through Damascus. Compare 2 Kings 15:29 ; 2 Kings 16:9 . Isaiah 8:4 .Isaiah 3:12 . May not the Holy Spirit quote and adapt His own words as He pleases?

saith = hath said.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Amos 5". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/amos-5.html. 1909-1922.