Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Exodus 28

Verse 1

take thou, Hebrew = bring thou near.

Aaron. Five named (Aaron and his four sons). App-10.

from among = from the midst of. Compare Deuteronomy 18:15, Deuteronomy 18:18 (Prophet).

children = sons.

minister unto Me. This was the one object here; and the same when Christ was transfigured, and so consecrated for His office of Priest. See notes on Exodus 28:2 below.

Verse 2

holy garments. Hebrew garments of holiness. See App-17: emphasis on "holy". See note on Exodus 3:5.

for glory and for beauty. Septuagint (time kai doxa), same as Hebrews 2:9 and 2 Peter 1:17. With which Christ was clothed and crowned for the same purpose when He was consecrated priest (Matthew 17:1-10. Mark 9:1-10. Luke 9:28-36) "to minister unto Me in the priest"s office. "

Verse 3

whom I have filled. This agrees with the Severus Codex (App-34), "I have filled them". See Exodus 35:30 - Exodus 36:7.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

Verse 4

garments. In this verse and Exodus 28:39 general. See Structure above.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton, App-6.

Aaron"s garments described first. There were in all eight: (1) the mitre (with its plate); (2) the breast- plate; (3) the ephod; (4) the robe of the ephod; (5) the tut ban; (6) the girdle; (7) the drawers; (8) the coat. Eight is the Dominical number, or number of the Lord See App-10.

Verse 6

ephod. From Hebrew aphad, to bind on, because it held the breastplate in its place. See Exodus 28:28. Worn by Aaron the priest, Samuel the prophet (1 Samuel 2:18), and David the king (2 Samuel 6:14), Christ combining all three offices.

cunning work = work of a skilful weaver.

Verse 8

curious = embroidered.

gold. Note the number five in these items. App-10.

Verse 9

two . . . stones, with six names on each: the names collectively, on the shoulders, the place of strength. The names on the breastplate, one on each stone (individually) on the heart, the place of love, verses: Exodus 28:15-2.

grave. Note the three gravings connected with the heart (Exodus 28:9), the shoulder (Exodus 28:21), and the head (Exodus 28:36).

Verse 10

according to their birth. Here, on the shoulders (the place of strength), all were borne up alike; but over the heart (the place of love) the order was "according to the tribes" as God chose them, Exodus 28:2.

Verse 11

ouches = sockets for precious stones.

Verse 12

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 15

breastplate of judgment. Genitive of relation, or Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, by which judgment is put for "giving judicial decision". See note on Exodus 28:30.

cunning = skilful. See note on Exodus 26:1.

Verse 16

span. See App-51.

Verse 17

four rows. Three in each row, 3 x 4 = 12, as 3 + 4 = 7. See App-10.

Verse 21

the names. Order according to the "twelve tribes "as God chose them. They were individual here, because over the heart, the place of love: one name on each stone.

the twelve tribes.Order not given here. In Exodus 28:10 according to the order of birth. Here, perhaps, according to Numbers 2. See App-45.

Verse 26

side = opposite side. Hebrew `ever.

Verse 27

sides = shoulders. Hebrew. katheph.

Verse 29

upon his heart. The place of love. See notes on verses: Exodus 28:9, Exodus 28:10, Exodus 28:21, and note the repetition of the word heart for emphasis.

Verse 30

Urim and Thummim. No command of God to make these. Only told to put (nathan, to give) them in the breastplate, i.e. into the bag of the breastplate (Compare Exodus 28:26 and Exodus 28:16, also Ch. Exodus 39:9 and Exodus 39:19). This bag was a doubled part, and the Urim and Thummim were probably two precious stones which were drawn out as a lot to give Jehovah"s judgment. "The lot is cast into the lap (Hebrew bosom); but the whole judgment thereof is of the Lord" (Proverbs 16:33), Bosom here is put for the clothing or covering over it (compare Exodus 4:6, Exodus 4:7. Ruth 4:16. Chek (bosom) = any hollow thing, as of a chariot, 1 Kings 22:35). The Hebrew Minx and Thummim mean "lights" and "per fections". Probably these are the plurals of majesty, the singular "light" (being put by Metonymy for what is brought to light, i.e. guilt), and "perfection" (put by Metonymy for moral perfection, i.e. innocence). Thus, these two placed in the "bag", and one drawn out, would give the judicial decision (the name connected with the breastplate, Compare Exodus 28:15, above), which would be "of the LORD". Hence, the breastplate itself was known as "the breastplate of judgment" (Exodus 28:15), because, by that, Jehovah"s judgment was obtained whenever it was needed. Hence, when the land was divided "by lot" (Numbers 26:55, &c.), Eleazar, the high priest, must be present (Numbers 34:17 (p. Exodus 27:21). Joshua 17:4). When he would decide it the lot "came up" (Joshua 18:11); "came forth" (Joshua 19:1); "came out" (Joshua 19:17): i.e. "out", or "forth" from the bag of the ephod. In Ezra 2:61-63 & Nehemiah 7:63-65, no judgment could be given unless the high priest was present with the breastplate, with its bag, with the lots of Urim and Thummim, which gave Jehovah"s decision, "guilty" or "innocent", "yes" or "no". The Hebrew for lot is always goral = a stone, except in Deuteronomy 32:9, 1 Chronicles 16:18 and Psalms 105:11, where it is = hebel -a measuring line, put by Metonymy for the inheritance so measured. In Joshua 13:6; Joshua 23:4. Ezekiel 45:1; Exodus 47:22; Exodus 48:29, it is naphal, to fall, put by Metonymy for the inheritance which falls to one from any cause. See all the passages where the Urim and Thummim are mentioned: Exodus 28:30. Leviticus 8:8. Deuteronomy 33:8. Numbers 27:2. 1 Samuel 28:6. Ezra 2:63. Nehemiah 7:65, and compare especially the notes on Numbers 26:55, and 1 Samuel 14:4.

Verse 32

hole in the top of it, in the midst. To enable the hand of the High Priest to be put into the bag to draw out the Urim or Thummim. Compare Exodus 28:16 and Exodus 28:26, also Exodus 39:8, Exodus 39:19. See also the note on Exodus 28:30.

habergron = coat of mail.

Verse 33

hem = skirts.

pomegranates. See note on Numbers 13:23.

Verse 34

Note the Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), "a golden bell and a pomegranate", instead of saying "alternately".

Verse 36

HOLINESS TO THE LORD. This is one of" the few places where the Authorized Version uses large capital letters (see App-48). Here it was worn only on the forehead of the high priest; but in Millennial days it will be worn even on the bells of the horses, Zechariah 14:20-21. Compare Revelation 19:11-14; Revelation 14:20.

Verse 37

the mitre = tiara, or turban. Hebrew miznepheth, from zanaph, to wind round.

Verse 38

bear = bear away, carry off. Leviticus 10:17. Psalms 32:1. Isaiah 33:24.

iniquity. Hebrew `avon. App-44.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

his . . . they. Note these words. Christ is our Representative, we are holy in Him, and this "always".

Verse 39

make. The making deferred to Exodus 39:3.

Verse 40

bonnets = caps.

Verse 41

consecrate them = instal them. Hebrew fill their hand, "hand" being put by Melonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the authority and official power given to them. Compare Latin. mandate.

Verse 42

linen. Priests were effendi (Leviticus 6:10. 1 Samuel 2:18; 1 Samuel 22:18). Prophets were fellahin, and wore coarse clothing (2 Kings 1:8. Zechariah 13:4. Matthew 3:4).

Verse 43

tabernacle = tent. Hebrew. "ohel. App-40.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 28". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/exodus-28.html. 1909-1922.