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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 28

Introduction

Overview

Exodus 28:1, Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest’s office; Exodus 28:2, Holy garments are appointed; Exodus 28:6, The ephod and girdle; Exodus 28:15, The breast-plate with twelve precious stones; Exodus 28:30, The Urim and Thummim; Exodus 28:31, The robe of the ephod, with pomegranates and bells; Exodus 28:36, The plate of the mitre; Exodus 28:39, The embroidered coat; Exodus 28:40, The garments for Aaron’s sons.

Verse 1

take: Leviticus 8:2, Numbers 16:9-1 Kings :, Numbers 17:2-1 Samuel :, 2 Chronicles 26:18-Ecclesiastes :, Hebrews 5:1-Deuteronomy :

among: Exodus 28:41, Exodus 29:1, Exodus 29:9, Exodus 29:44, Exodus 30:30, Exodus 31:10, Exodus 35:19, Numbers 18:7, Deuteronomy 10:6, 1 Chronicles 6:10, 2 Chronicles 11:14, Luke 1:8

Nadab: Exodus 6:23, Exodus 24:1, Exodus 24:9, Leviticus 10:1, Leviticus 10:12, Numbers 2:4, Numbers 26:61, 1 Chronicles 24:1-Numbers :

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:35 - he presented Numbers 3:2 - General Numbers 16:5 - even him Deuteronomy 18:5 - General 1 Samuel 2:28 - And did I 1 Chronicles 6:3 - Nadab 1 Chronicles 6:50 - Eleazar 1 Chronicles 23:13 - separated Psalms 105:26 - Aaron Psalms 115:10 - General Joel 1:9 - the Lord's Hebrews 5:4 - General Hebrews 7:5 - who Hebrews 8:2 - minister

Verse 2

holy garments: Exodus 29:5-1 Samuel :, Exodus 29:29, Exodus 29:30, Exodus 31:10, Exodus 39:1, Exodus 39:2, Exodus 40:13, Leviticus 8:7-1 Samuel :, Leviticus 8:30, Numbers 20:26-Hosea :, Psalms 132:9, Psalms 132:16, Isaiah 61:3, Isaiah 61:10, Isaiah 64:6, Zechariah 3:3, Zechariah 3:4, Romans 3:22, Romans 13:14, Galatians 3:27, Hebrews 7:26, Revelation 19:8

glory: Exodus 28:40, Exodus 19:5, Exodus 19:6, Numbers 27:20, Numbers 27:21, Job 40:10, Psalms 90:16, Psalms 90:17, Psalms 96:6, Psalms 149:4, Isaiah 4:2, Jeremiah 9:23, Jeremiah 9:24, John 1:14, 1 Corinthians 1:30, 1 Corinthians 1:31, Hebrews 2:9, 2 Peter 1:17, 1 John 3:2, Revelation 5:10, Revelation 19:8

Reciprocal: Genesis 27:15 - goodly raiment Exodus 39:41 - the holy Leviticus 8:2 - garments Leviticus 16:4 - holy linen coat Leviticus 21:10 - consecrated 2 Kings 10:22 - vestments Psalms 105:26 - Aaron Zechariah 3:5 - fair

Verse 3

wise hearted: Exodus 31:3-Joshua :, Exodus 35:30, Exodus 35:35, Exodus 36:1, Exodus 36:2, Proverbs 2:6, Isaiah 28:24-Ezekiel :

filled: Deuteronomy 34:9, Isaiah 11:2, 1 Corinthians 12:7-1 Kings :, Ephesians 1:17, James 1:17

Reciprocal: Exodus 29:1 - to minister Exodus 29:29 - holy Exodus 30:30 - consecrate Exodus 31:6 - wise hearted Exodus 35:25 - General Isaiah 28:26 - For his God

Verse 4

a breastplate: Choshen, in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob. Exodus 28:15, Exodus 39:8-Ecclesiastes :, Isaiah 59:17, Ephesians 6:14, 1 Thessalonians 5:8, Revelation 9:17

ephod: The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves. Exodus 28:6-2 Chronicles :, Exodus 39:2-Deuteronomy :, Exodus 39:21, Exodus 39:22, Leviticus 8:7, Leviticus 8:8, 1 Samuel 2:18, 1 Samuel 22:18, 1 Samuel 23:6, 1 Samuel 30:7, 2 Samuel 6:14

a robe: The word meil, from âlah, to ascend, go up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout. Exodus 28:31-Nahum :, Exodus 39:25, Exodus 39:26

broidered: Exodus 28:29, Exodus 28:40, Leviticus 8:7

a mitre: Exodus 39:28, Leviticus 8:9

a girdle: Isaiah 11:5

Reciprocal: Exodus 25:7 - ephod Exodus 28:37 - the mitre it Exodus 28:39 - embroider Exodus 28:41 - minister Exodus 29:29 - holy Leviticus 8:13 - coats Leviticus 16:4 - holy linen coat Leviticus 16:24 - his garments Judges 17:5 - ephod 1 Samuel 2:19 - a little coat 1 Samuel 2:28 - And did I Hosea 3:4 - ephod

Verse 5

gold: Exodus 25:3, Exodus 25:4, Exodus 39:2, Exodus 39:3

Reciprocal: Exodus 35:6 - blue Ezekiel 16:10 - broidered Revelation 15:6 - clothed

Verse 6

linen: Exodus 26:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 25:7 - ephod Exodus 28:4 - ephod Exodus 28:15 - after Exodus 35:6 - blue Exodus 39:2 - General Leviticus 8:7 - the ephod Judges 8:27 - an ephod 1 Samuel 2:28 - And did I 1 Samuel 21:9 - behind 1 Chronicles 22:15 - all manner Revelation 1:13 - and girt

Verse 7

Exodus 39:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:12 - the shoulders Exodus 28:25 - on the shoulder pieces

Verse 8

curious: or, embroidered, Exodus 28:27, Exodus 28:28, Exodus 29:5, Exodus 39:20, Exodus 39:21, Leviticus 8:7, Isaiah 11:5, 1 Peter 1:13, Revelation 1:13

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:39 - the girdle Exodus 39:5 - curious

Verse 9

onyx: Exodus 28:20, Exodus 39:13, Genesis 2:12, Job 28:16, Ezekiel 28:13

grave: Exodus 28:36, Exodus 39:6, 2 Chronicles 2:7, Song of Solomon 8:6, Isaiah 49:16

Reciprocal: Exodus 25:7 - Onyx stones Exodus 28:17 - thou shalt Exodus 28:21 - twelve Exodus 31:5 - General Exodus 32:4 - a graving Exodus 35:9 - General

Verse 10

according to their birth: Exodus 1:1-Numbers :, Genesis 43:33

Reciprocal: Ezekiel 10:9 - a beryl

Verse 11

engravings of a signet: Exodus 28:21, Exodus 28:36, Jeremiah 22:24, Zechariah 3:9, Ephesians 1:13, Ephesians 4:30, 2 Timothy 2:19, Revelation 7:2

ouches of gold: Exodus 28:13, Exodus 28:14, Exodus 28:25, Exodus 39:6, Exodus 39:13, Exodus 39:18

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:17 - thou shalt Exodus 32:4 - a graving 2 Kings 22:6 - carpenters Job 19:24 - graven

Verse 12

the shoulders: Exodus 28:7, Psalms 89:19, Isaiah 9:6, Isaiah 12:2, Zechariah 6:13, Zechariah 6:14, Hebrews 7:25-Hosea :

Aaron shall bear: Exodus 28:29, Exodus 39:6, Exodus 39:7

for a memorial: Exodus 12:14, Exodus 13:9, Exodus 39:7, Genesis 9:12-Esther :, Leviticus 24:7, Numbers 16:40, Numbers 31:54, Joshua 4:7, Isaiah 62:6, Zechariah 6:14, Luke 1:54, Luke 1:72, Acts 10:4

Reciprocal: Genesis 9:15 - remember Job 19:24 - graven Job 31:36 - I Psalms 105:26 - Aaron Hebrews 9:24 - appear

Verse 13

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:11 - ouches of gold Exodus 28:20 - enclosings Exodus 39:8 - General

Verse 14

chains of: Exodus 28:24, Exodus 39:15

of wreathen: Exodus 28:22-Lamentations :, Exodus 39:17, Exodus 39:18, 1 Kings 7:17, 2 Kings 25:17, 2 Chronicles 4:12, 2 Chronicles 4:13

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:11 - ouches of gold Exodus 28:25 - wreathen chains 1 Kings 7:18 - General Jeremiah 52:22 - with network

Verse 15

the breastplate: Exodus 28:4, Exodus 28:30, Exodus 39:8, Leviticus 8:8

after: Exodus 28:6, Exodus 26:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 25:7 - ephod Exodus 26:31 - cunning work Exodus 28:29 - in the Exodus 31:4 - General Exodus 35:6 - blue Judges 17:5 - ephod Song of Solomon 7:1 - the work

Verse 16

Reciprocal: Exodus 39:10 - the first row

Verse 17

thou shalt: Exodus 28:9, Exodus 28:11, Exodus 39:10-Ecclesiastes :, Malachi 3:17

set in it settings of stones: Heb. fill in its fillings of stone

the first row: Ezekiel 28:13, Revelation 21:19-Ecclesiastes :

a sardius: or, ruby, The Hebrew odem, from adam, to be red, ruddy, seems to denote the ruby; as adam does in Persian a beautiful gem, of a fine deep red colour, with a mixture of purple. Job 28:18, Proverbs 3:15, Proverbs 8:11, Proverbs 20:15, Proverbs 31:10, Lamentations 4:7

a topaz: Pitdah, is constantly rendered by the LXX פןנבזיןם, and Vulgate, topazius, with which agrees Josephus. The topaz is a precious stone, of a pale, dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a fine yellow; and hence called chrysolyte by the moderns, from its gold colour. Job 28:19; Revelation 21:20

a carbuncle: Bareketh, from barak, to lighten, glitter, a very elegant gem, of a deep red colour, with a mixture of scarlet. Isaiah 54:11, Isaiah 54:12

Reciprocal: Exodus 35:9 - General 1 Chronicles 29:2 - onyx stones

Verse 18

emerald: Nophech, an emerald, the same with the ancient smaragdus; one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and of a bright green colour, without any mixture. Exodus 39:11, Ezekiel 27:16

sapphire: Exodus 24:10, Job 28:6, Job 28:16, Song of Solomon 5:14, Ezekiel 1:26, Ezekiel 10:1, Revelation 4:3

diamond: Jeremiah 17:1, Ezekiel 28:13

Verse 19

a ligure: Exodus 39:12

an agate: Isaiah 54:12

Verse 20

a beryl: Ezekiel 1:16, Ezekiel 10:9, Daniel 10:6, Revelation 21:20

an onyx: Exodus 28:9

a jasper: Revelation 4:3, Revelation 21:11, Revelation 21:18-Proverbs :

enclosings: Heb. fillings, Exodus 28:13

Reciprocal: Genesis 2:12 - onyx Exodus 1:3 - Benjamin 1 Samuel 28:6 - by Urim 1 Chronicles 29:2 - onyx stones Job 28:16 - onyx

Verse 21

twelve: Exodus 28:9-1 Kings :

according to the twelve: 1 Kings 18:31, Luke 22:30, James 1:1, Revelation 7:4-Ruth :, Revelation 21:12

Reciprocal: Genesis 49:28 - every one Exodus 24:4 - according Exodus 28:11 - engravings of a signet Exodus 39:10 - the first row Joshua 4:9 - set up twelve Job 19:24 - graven Song of Solomon 8:6 - as a seal Zechariah 3:9 - I will engrave Matthew 19:28 - the twelve

Verse 22

Exodus 28:14

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 7:17 - General 1 Kings 7:18 - General

Verse 23

Exodus 25:11-Ezra :

Verse 24

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:14 - chains of 1 Kings 7:17 - General 1 Kings 7:18 - General

Verse 25

wreathen chains: Exodus 28:14, Exodus 39:15

on the shoulder pieces: Exodus 28:7

of the ephod: Exodus 39:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:11 - ouches of gold 1 Kings 7:17 - General 1 Kings 7:18 - General Jeremiah 52:22 - with network

Verse 26

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 14:3 - wearing

Verse 27

the curious girdle: Exodus 28:8

Verse 28

a lace: Exodus 28:31, Exodus 28:37, Exodus 39:30, Exodus 39:31, Numbers 15:38

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:8 - curious

Verse 29

in the: Exodus 28:15, Exodus 28:30

upon: Exodus 28:12, Jeremiah 30:21, Romans 10:1

a: Song of Solomon 8:6, Isaiah 49:15, Isaiah 49:16

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:4 - broidered Exodus 39:7 - a memorial Numbers 10:10 - a memorial Nehemiah 2:20 - memorial Psalms 105:26 - Aaron Zechariah 6:14 - a memorial Hebrews 9:24 - appear

Verse 30

the Urim and Thummim, את אורים ואת התמים the Urim and Thummim, lights and perfections; rendered by the LXX החכשףיϚ ךבי בכחטויב, manifestation and truth; and, by the Vulgate, doctrina et veritas, doctrine and truth. Among the various and contradictory opinions respecting the form and substance of these mysterious appendages, the most probable seems to be that of Josephus, Philo, Bp. Patrick, Parkhurst, and the Jewish writers generally; who state, that they were no other than the twelve precious stones of the high priest's breastplate. In support of this statement, it is observed:

1. That in the description of the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 39:8, et seq., the Urim and Thummim are not mentioned, but only the rows of stones; and on the contrary, in Leviticus 8:8, the Urim and Thummim are expressly mentioned, but not a word is said of the four rows of stones.

2. As Moses has given such a particular description of every thing relative to the high priest's dress, these would certainly have been described had they been different from what was previously mentioned. Leviticus 8:8, Numbers 27:21, Deuteronomy 33:8, Judges 1:1, Judges 20:18, Judges 20:23, Judges 20:27, Judges 20:28, 1 Samuel 23:9-2 Kings :, 1 Samuel 28:6, 1 Samuel 30:7, 1 Samuel 30:8, Ezra 2:63, Nehemiah 7:65

bear the judgment: Zechariah 6:13

upon his heart: 2 Corinthians 6:11, 2 Corinthians 6:12, 2 Corinthians 7:3, 2 Corinthians 12:15, Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:8, Hebrews 2:17, Hebrews 4:15, Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:24

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:15 - the breastplate Exodus 28:29 - in the Joshua 9:14 - asked not 1 Samuel 23:6 - an ephod Song of Solomon 8:6 - as a seal John 11:51 - being

Verse 31

Exodus 28:4, Exodus 28:28, Exodus 39:22, Leviticus 8:7

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:37 - blue 1 Samuel 23:6 - an ephod

Verse 32

as it were: Exodus 39:28, 2 Chronicles 26:14, Nehemiah 4:16, Job 41:26

that it be not rent: John 19:23, John 19:24, Ephesians 4:3-Nehemiah :

Verse 33

And: Exodus 39:24-Ezekiel :

hem: or, skirts

pomegranates: 1 Kings 7:18, 2 Kings 25:17

bells: Zechariah 14:20

Reciprocal: Exodus 35:6 - blue Exodus 39:25 - bells 2 Chronicles 4:13 - four hundred Matthew 14:36 - hem

Verse 34

Psalms 89:15, Song of Solomon 2:3, Song of Solomon 4:3, Song of Solomon 4:13, Song of Solomon 6:7, Song of Solomon 6:11, Song of Solomon 8:2, John 15:4-Ruth :, John 15:16, Colossians 1:5, Colossians 1:6, Colossians 1:10

Reciprocal: Exodus 39:25 - bells Exodus 39:26 - pomegranate 2 Chronicles 4:13 - four hundred

Verse 35

goeth in: Leviticus 16:2, Hebrews 9:12

Reciprocal: Hebrews 8:2 - minister

Verse 36

a plate of pure gold: The word tzitz, which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX נופבכןם, a leaf, and is called nezer, a crown in Exodus 29:6 and היבהחלב, a diadem, by the author of the book of Wisdom, 28:24. Josephus says that it was adorned with three rows of the flower which the Greeks call ךץבםןע. It was two fingers broad, of a circular form, suited to the shape of the head, and so long that it reached from ear to ear, and was fastened upon a blue lace or ribband, which was tied behind the head; and as the plate reached only half round the head, the remaining part of the ribband was highly ornamented with artificial flowers.

grave upon it: Exodus 28:9, Exodus 28:11

HOLINESS: Exodus 39:30, Leviticus 8:9, Leviticus 10:3, Leviticus 19:2, Psalms 93:5, Ezekiel 43:12, Zechariah 14:20, Hebrews 7:26, Hebrews 12:14, 1 Peter 1:15, 1 Peter 1:16, 1 Peter 2:9, Revelation 21:27

Reciprocal: Leviticus 21:6 - holy Leviticus 21:12 - for the crown Deuteronomy 33:8 - Let thy Psalms 106:16 - the saint Zechariah 3:9 - I will engrave Zechariah 6:11 - make

Verse 37

blue: Exodus 28:28, Exodus 28:31, Numbers 15:38

the mitre it: Exodus 28:4, Exodus 29:6, Exodus 39:30, Exodus 39:31, Leviticus 8:9, Zechariah 3:5

Verse 38

bear the iniquity: Exodus 28:43, Leviticus 10:17, Leviticus 22:9, Numbers 18:1, Isaiah 53:6, Isaiah 53:11, Isaiah 53:12, Ezekiel 4:4-Joshua :, John 1:29, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 9:28, 1 Peter 2:24, 1 Peter 3:18

accepted: Leviticus 1:4, Leviticus 22:27, Leviticus 23:11, Isaiah 56:7, Isaiah 60:7, Ephesians 1:6, 1 Peter 2:5

Verse 39

embroider: Exodus 28:4

the girdle: Exodus 28:8

needlework: Psalms 45:14

Reciprocal: Exodus 27:16 - needlework Exodus 39:27 - coats Exodus 39:28 - a mitre Exodus 39:29 - a girdle Leviticus 6:10 - linen garment Leviticus 16:4 - holy linen coat Ezekiel 44:17 - they shall

Verse 40

Aaron's: Exodus 28:4, Exodus 39:27, Exodus 39:29, Exodus 39:41, Leviticus 8:13, Ezekiel 44:17, Ezekiel 44:18

bonnets: Exodus 29:9

glory: Exodus 28:2, 1 Timothy 2:9, 1 Timothy 2:10, 1 Timothy 6:9-1 Kings :, Titus 2:7, Titus 2:10, 1 Peter 3:3, 1 Peter 3:4, 1 Peter 5:5

Reciprocal: Exodus 29:8 - General Leviticus 8:2 - garments 1 Samuel 22:18 - a linen ephod Ezra 3:10 - they set Ezekiel 42:14 - they not go

Verse 41

anoint them: Exodus 29:7, Exodus 30:23-Amos :, Exodus 40:15, Leviticus 10:7, Isaiah 10:27, Isaiah 61:1, John 3:34, 2 Corinthians 1:21, 2 Corinthians 1:22, 1 John 2:20, 1 John 2:27

and consecrate them: Heb. fill their hand, Exodus 29:9, Exodus 29:24, Exodus 29:35, Leviticus 8:1-Zephaniah :, Numbers 3:3, Ezekiel 43:26, Hebrews 5:4, Hebrews 7:28

minister: Exodus 28:1, Exodus 28:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 29:1 - hallow them Exodus 29:27 - the ram of the consecration Exodus 40:13 - anoint him Leviticus 8:12 - General Leviticus 8:13 - Moses Leviticus 21:8 - sanctify 1 Kings 13:33 - consecrated him Ezekiel 44:18 - bonnets Luke 1:8 - he

Verse 42

breeches: Exodus 20:26, Exodus 39:28, Leviticus 6:10, Leviticus 16:4, Ezekiel 44:18, Revelation 3:18

their nakedness: Heb. flesh of their nakedness

reach: Heb. be.

Verse 43

unto the altar: Exodus 20:26

bear not iniquity: Leviticus 5:1, Leviticus 5:17, Leviticus 20:19, Leviticus 20:20, Leviticus 22:9, Numbers 9:13, Numbers 18:22, Matthew 22:12, Matthew 22:13

a statute: Exodus 27:21, Leviticus 17:7

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:38 - bear the iniquity Exodus 30:21 - a statute Leviticus 10:17 - to bear Numbers 16:5 - will cause 1 Samuel 2:30 - I said Ezekiel 44:17 - they shall Ezekiel 44:18 - linen breeches

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 28". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/exodus-28.html.