men. Hebrew, plural of ish, or "enosh. App-14.
cup. Hebrew. gebi"a, out of which wine was poured: distinguishing from the smaller cups from which it was drunk. Jeremiah 35:5.
youngest. This was the fourth step to try them, and to prove whether they were the same brethren still, and would treat Benjamin as they had treated Joseph.
Wherefore. Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6. Septuagint and Syriac insert "Wherefore then have ye the silver cup? "
divineth. This was to confirm their belief that Joseph was an Egyptian. Emphasized by Figure of speech Polyptoton. Hebrew divining he divineth.
evil. Hebrew. R"a"a. See App-44.
God forbid. No word for "God" here. Hebrew = Far be it from thy servants.
let him die. This was the penalty in the Code of Khammurabi, with which they were acquainted in Canaan (6); death for stealing from a palace. Property more sacred than life.
What . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6).
God hath found out. This confession was what Joseph had been labouring to procure. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.
iniquity. Hebrew. "avon. See App-44.
Judah. He who proposed to sell Joseph and save his life (Genesis 37:26, Genesis 37:27), now proposes to remain a bondman for Benjamin. He had already become surety for his Safety (Genesis 43:8, Genesis 43:9).
I said. Here Joseph learned what happened after they had sold him; and how they had deceived their father (Genesis 37:31, Genesis 37:32).
my gray hairs. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6. = "me, in my old age".
the grave. Hebrew. Sheol. See note on Genesis 37:35, and App-35. The whole phrase is a Euphemism (App-6) for "ye will kill me"; so Genesis 44:31, "he will die".
life = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. See App-13.
with us. Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint, and Syriac have the words in the text.
see. Put by Metonymy (of Cause) for the feelings produced by seeing them. Note the Ellipsis "see [and grieve over] the evil, "&c.
come. Hebrew find. Evil is thus personified, by Figure of speech Prosopopoeia.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Genesis 44". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany