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feedeth on wind. Compare Hosea 8:7 .
wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
followeth after = pursueth.
daily = all the day long
desolation = violence.
make a covenant, &c. Compare Hosea 5:13 ; Hosea 7:11 .
oil is carried, &c. As a present, to obtain favour and help. Compare Hosea 5:13 .Isaiah 30:2-7 ; Isaiah 57:9 . See 2 Kings 17:4 .
The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
punish = visit upon.
Jacob. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for Israel, especially the natural seed.
according. Some codices, with two early printed editions (one Rabbinic, margin), Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and according".
recompense = requite, or repay.
He took his brother. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 25:26 ).
took . . . by the heel. Hebrew. 'akab. Hence his name Jacob.
his brother = his very own brother (with ' eth) .
by his strength = in his manhood: i.e. another example, later in life, but of a similar nature.
had power with = contended with ( Oxford Gesenius, p. 40). Hebrew Sarah. (Hence his name Israel). The event is referred to only here, and Genesis 32:28 . See note there.
God. Hebrew. Elohim. (with ' eth) = God Himself. App-4 .
the Angel. Defined in Hosea 12:5 .
prevailed = He (the Angel) overcame him (Jacob). See notes on Genesis 32:28 . Hence the change of Jacob's name to "Israel" = God commands.
he wept: i.e. Jacob. This is the Figure of speech Hysteresis ( App-6 ), by which former histories are supplemented by later Divine inspiration.
He found him: i.e. God found Jacob in Beth-el. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:17 , Genesis 28:19 ). Note the implied contrast, Beth-el being now the seat of idolatry.
He spake = Jehovah spake. See next verse.
with us. Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Syriac read "with him".
Even, &c. Render: "and Jehovah [is] God ( Elohim ) of the Hosts; Jehovah [is] His memorial [Name]. "This is for strong confirmation.
memorial. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 3:15 ). App-92 .
Therefore, &c. Compare Hosea 14:1 .
mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.
wait on thy God = wait for thy God. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18 ). Compare Psalms 37:7 . Isaiah 25:9 ; Isaiah 26:8 ; Isaiah 33:2 .Mark 15:43 .Luke 2:25 ; Luke 23:51 .
He is a merchant. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ): [He, Ephraim, is] a merchant. This is the first of two provocations. See the Structure above; and Compare Hosea 12:14 .
the balances of deceit = unjust balances. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:36 ).
he loveth to oppress. Money was obtained by oppression. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 6:2 ; Leviticus 19:13 ). App-92 .
oppress = defraud.
labours = toils.
iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. 'avah . App-44 . Not the same word as in Hosea 12:11 .
that were = which [is].
And I, &c. These verses (9, 10) correspond with Hosea 12:14 , and give the cause of the provocation. There is an evident Ellipsis , which may be thus supplied: "And [thou forgettest that] I, Jehovah thy Elohim from the land of Egypt, [that I have promised that] I will yet make thee to dwell in tents as in the Feast of Tabernacles".
dwell in tabernacles. This is again promised in Zechariah 14:16 .
tabernacles. Since the days of Nehemiah 8:17 , the feast is called 'ohalim ( App-40 .), as here, instead of sukkoth, booths. Nehemiah's remark is superfluous unless the laws were ancient.
as in the days, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:42 , Leviticus 23:43 ). App-92 .
spoken by the prophets. Compare 2 Kings 17:13 . Heb 1:1 . 2 Peter 1:21 .
Is there iniquity = [Surely Gilead is] iniquity: supplying the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) from the next clause.
iniquity. Hebrew. 'avert. App-44 . Not the same word as Hosea 12:8 .
Gilead . . . Gilgal . . . heaps. Heap of testimony . . . heap of heaps . . . heaps. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. Gil'ad . . . Gilgal . . gallim.
fled . . . Syria. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:5 .Deuteronomy 26:5; Deuteronomy 26:5 ). App-92 .
Syria. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 26:5 ).
Israel served, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 29:18 ).
kept sheep. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 30:31 , the same Hebrew word, shamar) . We may supply the connecting thought: "[yet in after days] Israel was brought out of Egypt . . . and preserved [in the wilderness]".
by a prophet: i.e. Moses. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:50 , Exodus 12:51 ; Exodus 13:3 .Numbers 12:6-8 . App-92 . Compare Deuteronomy 18:15 ). preserved = kept, as in Hosea 12:12 .
Ephrairn. As represented by Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:25 , 1 Kings 13:5 ), and Hoshea (2 Kings 17:11-23 ).
He = God.
blood. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6 , for blood-guiltiness.
his reproach. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:37 ).
LORD. Hebrew. 'Adonim. App-4 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 12". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
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