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Bible Commentaries
Hosea 12

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-6

Hos 12:1-6

LOVE REBUKING

REQUITING—EPHRAIM HAS PROVOKED

TEXT: Hosea 12:1-6

Israel and Judah’s sin brings the just punishment of the faithful God upon this generation of covenant people. The example of their forefather, Jacob, should have led them to lives of faith and righteousness.

Hosea 12:1 EphraimH669 feedethH7462 on wind,H7307 and followeth afterH7291 the east wind:H6921 he dailyH3605 H3117 increasethH7235 liesH3577 and desolation;H7701 and they do makeH3772 a covenantH1285 withH5973 the Assyrians,H804 and oilH8081 is carriedH2986 into Egypt.H4714

Hosea 12:1 EPHRAIM FEEDETH ON WIND . . . MULTIPLIETH LIES . . . MAKE A COVENANT WITH ASSYRIA The double indictment of God continues from the last verse of the preceding chapter (Hosea 11:12). The prophet continues his pronouncement of judgment upon both Israel and Judah.

Zerr: Hosea 12:1, Ephraim (Israel) feedeth on wind denotes that he is interested in that which is without substance. East-wind is an allusion to the wind that blows off of the desert of Arabia called a simoon. Webster defines this word, “A hot, dry, violent wind laden with dust, that blows occasionally In Arabia, Syria, etc," This wind would hence be of no value, but would be injurious. It is used figuratively, to denote the evil nature of the manner of life that the people of God were following. The literal instance of this sinful conduct was the traffic which was carried on by Israel with Assyria and Egypt.

The word “feedeth” is literally, “pastures” or “shepherds.” Israel strives eagerly after, or pursues, what is empty or vain. The east wind in Palestine is a fierce, hot wind blowing in off the Arabian desert which dries up everything in its path and makes desolate. Israel pursues that which will bring about its own destruction. Israel is fattening itself for slaughter by living on deceit and lies. During the reign of Hoshea (731–722 B.C.) Israel attempted to liberate itself from the oppression of Assyria by means of a treaty with Egypt (2 Kings 17:4). Hoshea sent splendid presents (perhaps olive oil) to the king of Egypt, to bring him over to his side, and induce him to send him assistance against the king of Assyria, although Hoshea had bound himself by a sacred treaty to submit to the sovereignty of the latter, Undoubtedly there were lies and deceitful arrangements made on both sides, for in order to keep up appearances of alliance with both sides (each bitter rivals for world supremacy), Israel would have to resort to deception, falsehood and intrigue. Such a policy could only end in self destruction and desolation, Such duplicity not only aroused the wrath of their allies, but it was also open rebellion toward God who had demonstrated over and over again His faithfulness in giving them victory, protecting and sustaining them. Furthermore God had commanded that they make no such alliances.

Hosea 12:2 The LORDH3068 hath also a controversyH7379 withH5973 Judah,H3063 and will punishH6485 H5921 JacobH3290 according to his ways;H1870 according to his doingsH4611 will he recompenseH7725 him.

Hosea 12:2 JEHOVAH HATH ALSO A CONTROVERSY WITH JUDAH . . . Judah too is condemned, Hosea was a contemporary of Isaiah and during both their lives the good king Uzziah king of Judah, had died to be succeeded by Jotham and then Ahaz, both faithless and unrighteous men who led the people of Judah into the same kind of sin as Israel had been led into. Judah will know God’s holy justice. She will get what she deserves. Whatever Judah has sown, so shall she reap.

Zerr: Hosea 12:2. It has been stated that most of this book is about the affairs of the 10-tribe kingdom (Israeli, but some verses are written concerning Judah, the 2-tribe kingdom. So here it is stated that the Lord had a controversy (accusation) with Judah. Jacob is a more general term and applies to the descendants of that patriarch. In spite of the advantage of observation on the conduct of Israel, these descendants of Jacob who formed the 2-tribe kingdom of Judah finally were wrong also.

Hosea 12:3 He took his brother by the heelH6117 (H853) H251 in the womb,H990 and by his strengthH202 he had powerH8280 withH854 God:H430

Hosea 12:4 Yea, he had powerH8280 overH413 the angel,H4397 and prevailed:H3201 he wept,H1058 and made supplicationH2603 unto him: he foundH4672 him in Bethel,H1008 and thereH8033 he spakeH1696 withH5973 us;

Hosea 12:5 Even the LORDH3068 GodH430 of hosts;H6635 the LORDH3068 is his memorial.H2143

Hosea 12:3-5 IN THE WOMB HE TOOK HIS BROTHER BY THE HEEL . . . HAD POWER . . . PREVAILED . . . FOUND HIM AT BETH-EL . . . THERE HE SPAKE WITH US, EVEN JEHOVAH . . . “Jacob,” evidently referring to all the covenant people (both Israel and Judah), deserves God’s justice. But, “Jacob” (both nations of covenant people) may have God’s mercy if they would exercise the same zealous faith to obtain it that their progenitor, Jacob, exercised in obtaining the birthright and the subsequent covenant blessings from Jehovah. Jacob’s conduct in obtaining the birthright is definitely held up here as a lesson of earnest striving for the spiritual treasures God has to offer the faithful and diligent. Not only his diligence in obtaining the birthright (whereas Esau, to whom it could have belonged, despised it and preferred physical food), but his persistence and endurance when he was tested by God obtained for him a covenant blessing from God. The test mentioned is apparently the “wrestling with God” (Genesis 32:22 ff). It was here Jacob made supplication with loud crying and tears and was heard for his godly fear (cf. Hebrews 5:7-8 where the true Jacob wrestled and prevailed). Thus humbly, but persistently, Jacob “wrestled” with God in prayer (probably wrestling more with “self” than with God) and won the victory. As proof of Jacob’s victory, Hosea cites Jacob’s experience recorded in Genesis 35:9 ff where, in Bethel, Jacob not only had his own name Israel confirmed, but the promise made to his forefather, Abraham, was given to him and he was declared to be the chosen of God.

Zerr: Hosea 12:3. This verse specifies some of the indications of Jacob’s special favors. The action of the infant while in the mother’s womb was necessarily a miraculous one, and was caused by the Lord, in keeping with His prediction in Genesis 25:23. The assertion is made that it was by the power of God, and that power will be further explained in the next verse. Hosea 12:4. The power referred to in the preceding verse is recorded in Genesis 32:25. As long as the angel conducted his wrestling as ‘‘a man,” he was unable to prevail against Jacob: and only when he employed his supernatural talent as an angel, did he succeed in the contest. The events of this verse are not chronological, for the wrestling with the angel took place many years after the night at Bethel. At that time the people of Judah were In existence only in the loins of Jacob, but the things said and done were regarded as pertaining to the interests of said people, hence the word us with which the verse closes. Hosea 12:5. Hosts means an army, especially the army of heaven, Lord is his memorial denotes that the holy name is that by which He is to be remembered.

What God said to Jacob there at Bethel, God meant to be applied to all of Jacob’s posterity, the spiritual seed of Abraham. This means, of course, all Jews descended from Jacob until the time of Christ and all Christians afterward who would walk in the same steps of faith as Jacob (and Abraham) walked (cf. Romans 4:11-17, etc.). All such faithful are members of the kingdom of God and recipients of the covenant promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (which promises find their reality, full-blossomed perfection, in Christ and His church).

The phrase “. . . God of hosts” is intended to portray the God of Israel as sovereign of the universe. He commands the forces of the whole universe, whether visible or invisible. He is omnipotent! This is the God with whom Israel has to do! (cf. 1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 17:45; 2 Kings 6:16; 2 Chronicles 32:7; Romans 8:31-39). We take this opportunity to quote at length from Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary, by Merrill C. Tenney, on the article entitled “JEHOVAH:”

“JEHOVAH . . . the English rendering of the Hebrew tetragram YHWH, one of the names of God (Exodus 17:15). Its original pronunciation is unknown. The Jews took seriously the third commandment . . . (Exodus 20:7) and so, to keep from speaking the holy name carelessly, around 300 B.C. they decided not to pronounce it at all; but whenever in reading they came to it they spoke the word adhonai which means ‘Lord.’ This usage was carried into the LXX where the sacred name is rendered ‘Kurios,’ i.e. Lord. Consequently in the KJV, Lord occurs instead of Jehovah, whereas ASV renders the name ‘Jehovah.’ When the vowel points were added to the Hebrew consonantal text, the Massoretes (Jewish scribes) inserted into the Hebrew consonantal text the vowels for adhonia. The sacred name is derived from the verb ‘to be,’ and so implies that God is eternal (‘Before Abraham was, I AM) and that he is the Absolute, i.e. the Uncaused One. The name ‘Jehovah’ belongs especially to Him when He is dealing with His own, while ‘God’ is used more when dealing with Gentiles. See for instance 2 Chronicles 18:31 . . .

“There are ten combinations of the word ‘Jehovah’ in the O.T. . . . Jehovah-ropheka, ‘Jehovah that healeth thee (Exodus 15:26); Jehovah-meqaddeshkem, ‘Jehovah who sanctifieth you’ (Exodus 31:13); Jehovah-tsabaoth, ‘Jehovah of hosts’ (1 Samuel 1:3); Jehovah-elyon, ‘Jehovah Most High (Psalms 7:17’); Jehovah-roi, ‘Jehovah, my Shepherd’ (Psalms 23:1); Jehovab-jireh, ‘Jehovah will provide’ (Genesis 22:14); Jehovah-nissi, ‘Jehovah is my banner’ (Exodus 17:15); Jehovah-shalom, ‘Jehovah is peace’ (Judges 6:24); Jehovah-shammah, ‘Jehovah is there’ (Ezekiel 48:35 m); and Jehovah-tsidkenu, ‘Jehovah is our righteousness’ (Jeremiah 33:6; Jeremiah 33:16).”

Jehovah gave His name as a memorial (cf. Exodus 3:15; Psalms 102:12; Psalms 135:13). This means, of course, that Jehovah was the name by which Israel was to remember God. The name, “I AM THAT I AM,” was to cause Israel to recognize and remember that their God was Self-existent, Eternal, Unchangeable and Immutable. He is from “everlasting to everlasting” (cf. Genesis 21:33; Deuteronomy 33:27; Isaiah 9:6; Isaiah 26:4; Isaiah 40:28; Isaiah 63:16; Jeremiah 10:10; Psalms 90:2; Psalms 93:2; Micah 5:2). Such a God would never let one of His promises go unfulfilled! His word is inviolate! His name memorialized in the minds of the faithful all the past historical demonstrations of His unchangeableness and fulfilled promises.

Hosea 12:6 Therefore turnH7725 thouH859 to thy God:H430 keepH8104 mercyH2617 and judgment,H4941 and waitH6960 onH413 thy GodH430 continually.H8548

Hosea 12:6 THEREFORE TURN THOU TO THY GOD: KEEP KINDNESS AND JUSTICE . . . The “therefore” refers back to the immediately preceding verses. These six verses form a very concise homily in logical sequence. First, the sins of the covenant people and the warning of judgment; second, the example of Jacob’s faithfulness and God’s blessing of Jacob; third, the nature of God; finally, the conclusion, an exhortation to repent based on the three reasons above. The main reason for repentance is to be found in God’s nature, for each of the above points have their bases in the nature of God’s unchangeableness. This is the leading idea of all the prophetic literature, indeed of the entire Bible—THE FAITHFULNESS OF GOD IN KEEPING HIS WORD!! On the basis of that faithfulness man may respond toward the will of such a God in full trust and faith and enjoy complete peace and harmony in fellowship with the Unchangeable God! In a world of dissolution, disappointment, inconstancy, temporalness, what a blessed peace comes to the soul who trusts in a God who has historically demonstrated His Immutability, His eternal love! The fruits of such trust are kindness and justice.

Zerr: Hosea 12:6. The exhortation given had special application to the leaders or princes of the nation who were cruel to the common people, and who denied them their just rights in matters of controversy.

Questions

1. How did Ephraim “feed” on wind?

2. What connection did Israel’s alliances with Assyria and Egypt have with the “multiplication of lies and desolation?”

3. Why was Judah to be punished?

4. How does Jacob’s diligence to obtain the birthright become an example to Israel?

5. What does the name “Jehovah” mean?

6. Upon what basis does Hosea call for the covenant people to turn to God?

7. What should be the fruits of their turning?

Verses 7-14

Hos 12:7-14

REQUITING—EPHRAIM HAS PROVOKED

TEXT: Hosea 12:7-14

Israel’s pride has caused her to delude herself. She has forgotten, deliberately, that Jehovah is the source of her very being and of her present wealth. God prepares to teach her again to trust in Him.

Hosea 12:7 He is a merchant,H3667 the balancesH3976 of deceitH4820 are in his hand:H3027 he lovethH157 to oppress.H6231

Hosea 12:8 And EphraimH669 said,H559 YetH389 I am become rich,H6238 I have found me outH4672 substance:H202 in allH3605 my laboursH3018 they shall findH4672 noneH3808 iniquityH5771 in me thatH834 were sin.H2399

Hosea 12:7-8 HE IS A TRAFFICKER . . . AND . . . SAID, SURELY I AM BECOME RICH . . . FIND IN ME NO . . . SIN . . . The ASV has in the margin of Hosea 12:7, “As for Canaan . . .” and also in the margin, “a Canaanite . . .” The word translated trafficker is literally, merchant, which is the common, or appellative signification of the Hebrew word in the text here, Israel, far from being like the spiritually-minded Jacob, is like the crafty, cheating Canaanite (Phoenician) merchant or trader. The picture we get of Israel here and throughout the history of the northern kingdom is that her driving ambition was to become wealthy and powerful and she was not concerned with the ethics she used in attaining her goal. In fact, Hosea 12:8 represents Israel as an ethical relativist. She believes that the end justifies the means. She thinks she is rich and powerful, and this, after all, is what counts. So who would believe she has committed any wrong that could be called a sin. All’s fair in love and war and making money—according to Israel; but not according to God’s commandments given to Israel. Cheating and robbery were strictly forbidden (cf. Leviticus 19:36; Deuteronomy 25:13-16; Leviticus 6:2-4; Deuteronomy 24:14).

Zerr: Hosea 12:7. Merchant is from KENAAN and Strong defines it, "Kenaan, a son of Ham; also the country inhabited by him.” The thought of the verse is an accusation that the people of the land had become deceitful, especially their leaders. Hosea 12:8. Ephraim (Israel) had become prosperous, and it caused him to be vain and rebellious. (See Deuteronomy 32:15.) It was bad enough for Israel to become disobedient in his prosperity, but he even used his condition as a basis for denying that he had any guilt.

Ethical relativism (sometimes known as “Pragmatism”) is the philosophy which says, “Whatever works is true and right.” Since one thing or one action may work profitably one day and not the next, truth and right can never be absolute. Truth may change at any moment. It becomes relative to every situation. Of course, if there is no absolute standard of right and wrong then each individual becomes the arbitrary judge of what is right and wrong for what may work for one person does not necessarily work for another. Furthermore, who makes the decision as to what “works?” In other words, is material prosperity the highest “what works” to aim for? This is what Israel had decided. What else can man conclude when he will not accept the divine revelation from God that there are spiritual things much more important? Actually, as Paul says in 1 Corinthians 15, if Christ is not raised—if the apostolic message is not divinely authoritative, therefore false—man is silly to practice any religion or any code of ethics except hedonism (self-indulgence, self-interest). But, on the other hand, if the apostolic message (and we should include the entire Bible) is an authoritatively revealed will of an Omnipotent God, there are values much higher than “things.”

Israel’s problem is well summed up in the problem the church of Laodicea. Cf. Revelation 3:14 ff: “. . . Because thou sayest, I am rich, and have gotten riches, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art the wretched one and miserable and poor and blind and naked: I counsel thee to buy of me gold refined by fire, that thou mayest become rich; and white garments, that thou mayest clothe thyself, and that the shame of thy nakedness be not made manifest; and eyesalve to anoint thine eyes, that thou mayest see.”

Hosea 12:9 And IH595 that am the LORDH3068 thy GodH430 from the landH4480 H776 of EgyptH4714 will yetH5750 make thee to dwellH3427 in tabernacles,H168 as in the daysH3117 of the solemn feast.H4150

Hosea 12:10 I have also spokenH1696 byH5921 the prophets,H5030 and IH595 have multipliedH7235 visions,H2377 and used similitudes,H1819 by the ministryH3027 of the prophets.H5030

Hosea 12:9-10 . . . I WILL YET AGAIN MAKE THEE TO DWELL IN TENTS . . . The people have deluded themselves into believing they are responsible for their own prosperity. God reminds them, in the first phrase of this verse, that He has been Israel’s source of origin (when He formed them into a nation and rescued them from Egyptian slavery) and He has been the source of all their successes since that time until the present. Since they will not listen to mere words spoken by a prophet, God will cause them to experience once again a period of dislocation, wandering and testing through the captivity. This experience has as its goal calling Israel to penitent trust in Jehovah as they had in the wilderness under Moses, All their riches, power and even their land will be taken away. Perhaps then they will repent and turn to God in full trust—since they will have found there is no security in wealth or power. The “dwelling in tents” refers to the ceremonies connected with the Feast of Tabernacles (Numbers 14:33) which was to call to their remembrance the shielding and sheltering care and protection of God in their wandering through the great and terrible wilderness (cf. Leviticus 23:42-43).

Zerr: Hosea 12:9. From the land of Egypt. God has always existed, but Israel as a people first knew Him at the time they left Egypt. At the time they left that country they had to begin living in tents, and the fact was commemorated by a special feast designated by the name. Yet make thee to dwell in tabernacles is a prediction of the return from the captivity, at which time they were to resume their festivities of services towards the Lord. (See Nehemiah 8:17.) Hosea 12:10. These various methods of communicating with His people are referred to in Hebrews 1:1. The present purpose of mentioning this is for a reminder that the people of the land of Canaan were without excuse in their unlawful conduct. Also, when the calamity of exile comes against them, they will have no ground of complaint as if they had been taken unawares.

In Hosea 12:10 God reminds them of all the intermediaries He sent to lead them, admonish them, teach them and care for them like shepherds tenderly caring for a flock of helpless sheep. The prophets, from Moses to Malachi, were given and used every means at God’s command to turn the people of Israel in God’s direction. Visions, miracles, predictions of the future and expositions of the Law were multiplied. Vividly arresting figures of speech, symbols, parables, metaphors, allegories, types, object-lessons were all used. These people could never claim lack of quantity or quality of communication as an excuse before God’s judgment bar. And, as the writer of the Hebrew epistle puts it, “. . . if the message declared by angles was valid and every transgression or disobedience received a just retribution, how shall we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard him, while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his own will.”

Hosea 12:11 Is there iniquityH205 in Gilead?H1568 surelyH389 they areH1961 vanity:H7723 they sacrificeH2076 bullocksH7794 in Gilgal;H1537 yea,H1571 their altarsH4196 are as heapsH1530 inH5921 the furrowsH8525 of the fields.H7704

Hosea 12:11 IS GILEAD INIQUITY? . . . IN GILGAL THEY SACRIFICE BULLOCKS . . . Gilead and Gilgal represent the two halves of the kingdom of the ten tribes. Gilead represents the land to the east of the Jordan which belongs to Israel and Gilgal represents the land to the west of the Jordan. The word translated “iniquity” is literally worthlessness. The moral decay of the whole nation, brought on by idolatry, will lead to physical disruption and destruction. The predictive present is used in this verse. The prophet looks into the future and sees it as present—“their altars are as heaps in the furrows of the field.” This is what is to happen to their altars to idolatry.

Zerr: Hosea 12:11. This verse is a general statement of the national corruptions of the people of God. Gilead was a large area in the vicinity of Palestine that was supposed to produce healing articles; but it had become tinctured with the germs of a false religion. They are vanity means that all of the devotions to false gods would prove to be empty of any value. The emptiness of the idol worship is likened to the demolished condition of an altar whose stones have been scattered over the ground.

Hosea 12:12 And JacobH3290 fledH1272 into the countryH7704 of Syria,H758 and IsraelH3478 servedH5647 for a wife,H802 and for a wifeH802 he keptH8104 sheep.

Hosea 12:12 JACOB FLED INTO THE FIELD OF ARAM . . . Earlier Jacob was used as an example of the diligence for spiritual things which God expected Israel to imitate. Now Jacob’s long years as a fugitive, slaving away at such menial tasks as herding cattle, all the distress and affliction he suffered in those years, in made to contrast with the many years of prosperity, peace and security the nation of Israel has enjoyed under the protection of God. Jacob had endured his affliction and served the Lord faithfully and in gratitude. Israel, the nation, instead of thanking the Lord for their comfort and prosperity by lave and faithful devotedness to Him, spurned His love, and went after other gods.

Zerr: Hosea 12:12. We know that Jacob went into the country far beyond what is commonly understood as Syria. The subject will be clarified by a quotation, from a reference work as follows: ‘‘Aramaic Languages are so called from AHAM, a geographical term which In old Semitic usage designates nearly the same district as the Greek word, Syria. Aram, however, does not include Palestine, while it comprehends Mesopotamia (Hebrew, Aram of two rivers), a region which the Greeks frequently distinguish from Syria proper. Thus the Aramaic languages may he geographically defined as the Semitic dialects originally current in Mesopotamia and the regions extending S. W. from the Euphrates to Palestine,"—Britannica, Volume 2, page 307. He is called Israel at the time he was serving Laban, although that name was not given to him until he returned to his home land (Genesis 32:28); but it had become history at the time that Hosea wrote his book. The Significance of mentioning this was to remind the people of the humble estate of the man from whom they received their name.

Hosea 12:13 And by a prophetH5030 the LORDH3068 broughtH5927 (H853) IsraelH3478 out of Egypt,H4480 H4714 and by a prophetH5030 was he preserved.H8104

Hosea 12:13 . . . AND BY A PROPHET WAS HE PRESERVED . . . No such helpers were given to Jacob. God sent prophets to light the paths of Israel, the nation, by the proclamation of His Word. God demonstrated visibly, many times over, by miracles and predictions through the prophets, His power and His purposes. But it was not given to Jacob, to such an extent, to have the power and purpose of God demonstrated visibly. The nation had privileges and possibilities far beyond those of their “father” Jacob. God had every right to expect of the nation at least as much faithfulness as Jacob had manifested—even more. “To whom soever much is given, of him shall much be required.”

Zerr: Hosea 12:13. The dependence of the people upon the Lord is still the thought in the passage. The prophet referred to was Moses, who was given divine power in his leadership of the people, else they never could have escaped from the land of Egypt, and been preserved after escaping and going through the wilderness with all its perils.

Hosea 12:14 EphraimH669 provoked him to angerH3707 most bitterly:H8563 therefore shall he leaveH5203 his bloodH1818 uponH5921 him, and his reproachH2781 shall his LordH113 returnH7725 unto him.

Hosea 12:14 EPHRAIM HATH PROVOKED TO ANGER MOST BITTERLY . . . Israel’s indifference to God’s love gave provocation to God’s righteous indignation. Unrequited love justly deserves anger. The perfect love of God, when spurned and mocked, merits perfect justice and righteous retribution. If men are moral, if God is moral, if the universe is governed by moral principles, then to repudiate the loving, protecting, sustaining will of the omnipotent God is to morally and justly deserve and deliberately choose the only reasonable and logical alternative—the indignation and wrath of the One spurned. A deliberate, moral choice of wrong can only result in deliberate, moral rejection of good. The crucial question is: Has it been sufficiently demonstrated, historically and pragmatically, or empirically, that God exists, that the Bible is His inerrantly recorded Will for man, that Jesus Christ is His Son, and does the Bible claim to be the exclusive and ultimate “Good?” The answer is now, and was then, unequivocally, YES! Therefore, man, the moral creature, must make his own decision. He is “master of his fate.” If man decides against the empirically demonstrated and exclusively ultimate Good, “his blood shall be left upon him.” If man will not, by faith and obedience toward God, allow God to forgive his sins, then man must pay the penalty for his own sins. If man chooses evil and rebellion against God (which makes man to be in disharmony with his created purpose) then this is what God will permit man to have—for all eternity.

Zerr: Hosea 12:14. Ephraim (Israel) provoked him (the Lord) with his many acts of rebellion. Therefore shall he (the Lord) leave his (Ephraim’s) blood upon him, meaning that the people of Israel were to be chastised for their iniquity.

Questions

1. Why use the word “trafficker” in place of “Canaanite?” in Hosea 12:7.

2. What was Israel’s ethical philosophy?

3. What is “ethical relativism?” Do people practice this today?

4. Why is ethical relativism impractical?

5. How and why did God intend to “make them to dwell in tents” again?

6. How extensive were the opportunities for Israel to know the will of God?

7. Does the person who deliberately chooses evil deserve the wrath of God? Why?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Hosea 12". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/hosea-12.html.
 
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