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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Leviticus 11

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

spake. See note on Leviticus 5:14 .

Verse 2

children. Hebrew sons.

These. Hebrew this. Figure of speech Heterosis (of Number), singular for plural.

beasts = living creatures.

beasts = animals. Hebrew. behemah. The Hebrew division of animal kingdom was: (1) Land animals; (2) water animals; (3) birds of the air; (4) swarming animals. Deuteronomy 14:4 , Deuteronomy 14:5 enumerates ten clean animals.

Verse 3

parteth the hoof. Compare Deuteronomy 14:6 .

Verse 4

not eat. These laws are not arbitrary. Food plays a chief part in health and sickness. It is our wisdom to obey these laws now, as far as possible. All are based on the preservation and health of the race. Some for sanitary reasons. Some from peculiarities of climate. Some for separating from other peoples.

Verse 5

coney = the old English name for rabbit.

Verse 6

hare. Only here, and Deuteronomy 14:7 . Hebrew. 'arnebeth, not yet identified.

Verse 10

thing = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

Verse 13

fowls = flying things; very difficult to identify the English names.

eagle: or vulture.

ossifrage. A rendering of the Hebrew "bone-breaker", from taking their prey up in the air and dropping it on a rock to break it.

ospray: or sea eagle.

Verse 14

vulture: or kite.

kite = falcon.

Verse 15

raven, or black birds of all kinds.

Verse 16

ouckow. Probably = sea-gull.

Verse 17

little owl, or simply "owl". Only here, Deuteronomy 14:16 , and Psalms 102:6 .

cormorant: or the "darter".

great owl = Hebrew "night-bird".

Verse 18

swan, not our swan: it is variously rendered "ibis", "bat", "heron", and "pelican".

pelican: or vomiting pelican.

gier eagle: or little vulture. Hebrew "the merciful".

Verse 19

stork. Hebrew. chasidah, "the pious": rendered "stork" in Job 39:13 (margin) Psalms 104:17 . Jeremiah 8:7 . Zechariah 5:9 .

heron. Hebrew. 'anaphah, "the cruel".

lapwing. Better, the hoopoe, a dirty bird.

bat. A vile creature and symbol of evil (Isaiah 2:20 ): comes last as a link between two classes, quadrupeds and birds.

Verse 22

these: being all "after his kind", are probably four different species of the same, viz.:

locust = swarming locust.

bald locust = devouring locust.

beetle = chargol (or wingless) locust. grasshopper = chargab locust, Numbers 13:33 . 2 Chronicles 7:13 .Ecclesiastes 12:5 .Isaiah 40:22 .

Verse 27

beasts = living creatures. See note on Leviticus 11:2 .

Verse 29

weasel. Hebrew. choled = the glider or slipper, Occurs only here.

mouse. Hebrew. 'akbar = the corn destroyer. 1 Samuel 6:4 , 1 Samuel 6:5 , 1 Samuel 6:11 , 1 Samuel 6:18 . Isaiah 66:17 .

tortoise. Hebrew. zab = the inflated, Numbers 5:27 ; probably = toad.

Verse 30

ferret = hedgehog. Hebrew. 'anakah, only here.

lizard: or wall-lizard.

snail. Hebrew. chomet, Psalms 58:8 = shabbel.

Verse 31

unclean. Better, "most unclean"; so in Leviticus 11:29 .

when they be dead. Compare Leviticus 11:24 .

Verse 34

meat = food. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), one kind put for all kinds of food. App-6 .

Verse 36

plenty. Hebrew = "a gathering together".

that which = he who.

Verse 40

he that eateth: i.e. ignorantly: otherwise, wilfully, it was the death penalty. Numbers 15:30 . Deuteronomy 14:21 .

Verse 42

more = many.

Verse 43

your selves = your souls. Hebrew, plural of nephesh. App-13 .

abominable. Only here and Leviticus 7:21 ; Leviticus 11:10-3.11.13 , Leviticus 11:20 , Leviticus 11:23 , Leviticus 11:41 , Leviticus 11:42 , and Isaiah 66:17 . Ezekiel 8:10 . The phrase occurs only once more, in Ch. Leviticus 20:25 , where it is used of souls.

Verse 44

yourselves = your souls. Hebrew, plural of nephesh. App-13 .

for I am holy. Compare 1 Peter 1:15 , 1 Peter 1:16 ; and see ch. Leviticus 20:7 , Leviticus 20:8 .

Verse 45

that bringeth you up, &c. This wondrous redemption is repeatedly appealed to, to magnify Jehovah's grace and Israel's ingratitude. Compare Deuteronomy 8:14 ; Deuteronomy 13:10 ; Deuteronomy 20:1 .Joshua 24:17 . Judges 2:12 , &c.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5 .

Verse 46

This is the law of the beasts, &c. A recapitulation of the four classes. See structure of verses 1-23 in the Leviticus book comments. There it was land, water, flying, and swarming. Here it is land animals, flying, water animals, and swarming. Compare the summary of the sacrificial law, Leviticus 7:37 , Leviticus 7:38 .

beasts. Hebrew, plural of behemah. See note on Leviticus 11:27 .

creature = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

Verse 47

make a difference: or, put, &c. Same word as in Leviticus 10:10 .

may not be eaten. See Leviticus 20:26 , and compare Acts 10:11-44.10.16 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Leviticus 11". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/leviticus-11.html. 1909-1922.