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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Leviticus 11

Introduction

Overview

Leviticus 11:1, What beasts may; Leviticus 11:4, and what may not be eaten; Leviticus 11:9, What fishes; Leviticus 11:13, What fowls; Leviticus 11:29, The creeping things which are unclean.

Verse 1

Reciprocal: Genesis 7:2 - every clean Genesis 8:20 - clean beast Genesis 9:3 - Every Leviticus 15:1 - Aaron Leviticus 20:25 - put difference Acts 10:14 - for Hebrews 13:9 - not with

Verse 2

Deuteronomy 14:3-8, Ezekiel 4:14, Daniel 1:8, Matthew 15:11, Mark 7:15-19, Acts 10:12, Acts 10:14, Romans 14:2, Romans 14:3, Romans 14:14, Romans 14:15, 1 Timothy 4:4-6, Hebrews 9:10, Hebrews 13:9, Of the laws relative to clean and unclean beasts, which are recorded in this chapter and Deut. 14 the following may be found a useful abstract.

1. In regard to quadrupeds, all beasts that have their feet completely cloven, above as well as below, and at the same time chew the cud, are clean. Those which have neither, or indeed want one of these distinguishing marks, are unclean. This is a systematic division of quadrupeds so excellent, as never yet, after all the improvements in natural history, to have become obsolete, but, on the contrary, to be still considered as useful by the greatest masters of the science.

2. With regard to fishes, Moses has in like manner, made a very simple systematic distinction. All that have scales and fins are clean; all others unclean.

3. Of birds, he merely specifies certain sorts as forbidden, thereby permitting all others to be eaten.

4. Insects, serpents, worms, etc., are prohibited; but with regard, however to those winged insects, which besides four walking legs, also have two longer springing legs (Pedes saltatorii), Moses makes an exception, and under the denomination of locusts, declares them clean in all four stages of their existence.

In Palestine, Arabia, and the adjoining countries, locusts are one of the most common articles of food, and people would be very ill of if they durst not eat them: For, when a swarm of them desolates the fields, they prove in some measure themselves an antidote to the famine which they occasion. They are not only eaten fresh, immediately on their appearance, but the people collect them, and know a method of preserving them for a long time for food, after they have dried them in an oven. - Niebuhr's Description of Arabia, pp. 170-175.

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:46 - This Deuteronomy 14:4 - General Isaiah 66:17 - behind one tree in the midst Colossians 2:16 - in meat

Verse 3

parteth: Psalms 1:1, Proverbs 9:6, 2 Corinthians 6:17

cheweth: Deuteronomy 6:6, Deuteronomy 6:7, Deuteronomy 16:3-8, Psalms 1:2, Proverbs 2:1, Proverbs 2:2, Proverbs 2:10, Acts 17:11, 1 Timothy 4:15

Reciprocal: Ezekiel 1:7 - like the sole

Verse 4

unclean unto you: Genesis 7:1, Genesis 7:2, Deuteronomy 14:1-29, Isaiah 52:11, 1 Corinthians 8:13, 1 Thessalonians 5:22, 1 John 3:4

Verse 5

the coney: Shaphan, most probably an animal resembling the rabbit, called by Dr. Shaw, daman (probably for ganam) Israel, "Israel's lamb," and by Bruce, ashkoko, which name he imagines is "derived from the singularity of these long herenacious hairs, which, like small thorns, grow about his back, and which an Amhara are called ashok." This curious animal abounds in Judea, Palestine, Arabia, and Ethiopia; and is described as being about seventeen inches when sitting. It has no tail; and at first sight gives the idea of a rat. Its colour is grey, mixed with reddish brown; the belly white, the body covered with strong polished hairs, for the most part about two inches in length; the ears round, and not pointed; the feet round, of a soft, pulpy, tender substance; the toes projecting beyond the nails, which are rather broad than sharp; the upper jaw is longer than the other; it lives upon grain, fruit, and roots, and certainly chews the cud; and it does not burrow like the hare and rabbit, but lives in clefts of the rocks. Psalms 104:18, Proverbs 30:26

but divideth: Job 36:14, Matthew 7:26, Romans 2:18-24, Philippians 3:18, Philippians 3:19, 2 Timothy 3:5, Titus 1:16

Verse 6

the hare: Deuteronomy 14:7

Verse 7

swine: Deuteronomy 14:8, Isaiah 65:4, Isaiah 66:3, Isaiah 66:17, Matthew 7:6, Luke 8:33, Luke 15:15, 2 Peter 2:18-22

Reciprocal: Matthew 8:30 - an Mark 5:11 - herd Luke 8:32 - there an

Verse 8

they are unclean: Leviticus 5:2, Isaiah 52:11, Hosea 9:3, Matthew 15:11, Matthew 15:20, Mark 7:2, Mark 7:15, Mark 7:18, Acts 10:10-15, Acts 10:28, Acts 15:29, Romans 14:14-17, Romans 14:21, 1 Corinthians 8:8, 2 Corinthians 6:17, Ephesians 5:7, Ephesians 5:11, Colossians 2:16, Colossians 2:21-23, Hebrews 9:10

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:24 - General Leviticus 11:31 - General Mark 5:11 - herd

Verse 9

Deuteronomy 14:9, Deuteronomy 14:10, Acts 20:21, Galatians 5:6, James 2:18, 1 John 5:2-5

Verse 10

they shall be: Leviticus 7:18, Deuteronomy 14:3, Psalms 139:21, Psalms 139:22, Proverbs 13:20, Proverbs 29:27, Revelation 21:8

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:21 - abominable Ezekiel 8:10 - every

Verse 11

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:18 - an abomination

Verse 12

Reciprocal: Exodus 8:6 - and the frogs Numbers 19:11 - toucheth the dead

Verse 13

the eagle: In Hebrew, nesher, Chaldee, neshar, Syriac, neshro, and Arabic, nishr, the eagle, one of the largest, strongest, swiftest, fiercest, and most rapacious of the feathered race. His eye is large, dark, and piercing; his beak powerful and hooked; his legs strong and feathered; his feet yellow and armed with four very long and terrific claws; his wings very large and powerful; his body compact and robust; his bones hard; his flesh firm; his feathers coarse; his attitude fierce and erect; his motions lively; his flight extremely rapid and towering; and his cry the terror of every wing. Deuteronomy 14:12-20, Job 28:7, Job 38:41, Job 39:27-30, Jeremiah 4:13, Jeremiah 4:22, Jeremiah 48:40, Lamentations 4:19, Hosea 8:1, Habakkuk 1:8, Matthew 24:28, Romans 1:28-32, Romans 3:13-17, Titus 3:3

the ossifrage: Peres, from paras to break, probably the species of eagle anciently called ossifraga or bone-breaker (from os, a bone, and frango, to break), because it not only strips off the flesh, but breaks the bone, in order to extract the marrow.

the ospray: Hebrew ozniyah, Arabic azan, and Chaldee azyah, (from azaz, to be strong), a species of eagle, probably the black eagle, so remarkable for its strength.

Reciprocal: Revelation 18:2 - become

Verse 14

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:28 - shall wash Deuteronomy 14:13 - the glede

Verse 15

Genesis 8:7, 1 Kings 17:4, 1 Kings 17:6, Proverbs 30:17, Luke 12:24

Verse 16

Deuteronomy 14:15-18, Psalms 102:6, Isaiah 13:21, Isaiah 13:22, Isaiah 34:11-15, John 3:19-21, Ephesians 2:2, Ephesians 2:3, Ephesians 4:18, Ephesians 4:19, Ephesians 5:7-11, Philippians 3:18, Philippians 3:19, 1 Thessalonians 5:5-7, Revelation 18:2

Verse 19

bat: Isaiah 2:20, Isaiah 66:17

Reciprocal: Job 39:13 - wings and feathers unto the Psalms 104:17 - as for

Verse 20

Leviticus 11:23, Leviticus 11:27, Deuteronomy 14:19, 2 Kings 17:28-41, Psalms 17:14, Matthew 6:24, Philippians 3:18, Philippians 3:19, 2 Timothy 4:10, 1 John 2:15-17, Jude 1:10, Jude 1:19

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:21 - abominable Leviticus 11:29 - creeping things that creep Leviticus 11:41 - General

Verse 21

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:29 - creeping things that creep

Verse 22

Exodus 10:4, Exodus 10:5, Isaiah 35:3, Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6, Romans 14:1, Romans 15:1, Hebrews 5:11, Hebrews 12:12, Hebrews 12:13

Verse 23

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:20 - General Leviticus 11:27 - General Leviticus 11:41 - General

Verse 24

Leviticus 11:8, Leviticus 11:27, Leviticus 11:28, Leviticus 11:31, Leviticus 11:38-40, Leviticus 17:15, Leviticus 17:16, Isaiah 22:14, 1 Corinthians 15:33, 2 Corinthians 6:17, Ephesians 2:1-3, Ephesians 5:11, Colossians 2:16, Colossians 2:17, Colossians 2:20, Hebrews 9:26, 1 John 1:7

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:2 - touch Leviticus 7:19 - General Leviticus 7:21 - any unclean Leviticus 11:39 - General Leviticus 14:46 - shall be unclean Leviticus 22:5 - whosoever Leviticus 22:6 - General 1 Samuel 20:26 - he is not clean

Verse 25

and be unclean: Leviticus 11:28, Leviticus 11:40, Leviticus 14:8, Leviticus 15:5, Leviticus 15:7-11, Leviticus 15:13, Leviticus 16:28, Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:14, Numbers 19:8, Numbers 19:10, Numbers 19:19, Numbers 19:21, Numbers 19:22, Numbers 31:24, Psalms 51:2, Psalms 51:7, Zechariah 13:1, John 13:8, Acts 22:16, Hebrews 9:10, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:21, 1 John 1:7, Revelation 7:14

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:31 - General Leviticus 13:6 - wash Leviticus 14:46 - shall be unclean Leviticus 17:15 - both wash Leviticus 22:6 - General Numbers 19:7 - General Deuteronomy 23:11 - when evening

Verse 26

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 14:8 - touch Isaiah 52:11 - touch

Verse 27

Leviticus 11:20, Leviticus 11:23

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:24 - General Numbers 19:11 - toucheth the dead Deuteronomy 14:8 - touch Judges 13:4 - eat not 1 Samuel 20:26 - he is not clean Isaiah 52:11 - touch

Verse 28

beareth: Leviticus 11:24, Leviticus 11:25

shall wash: Leviticus 11:14

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:2 - touch Leviticus 11:39 - General Leviticus 11:40 - shall wash Leviticus 13:6 - wash Leviticus 14:46 - shall be unclean Leviticus 15:5 - General

Verse 29

creeping things that creep: Leviticus 11:20, Leviticus 11:21, Leviticus 11:41, Leviticus 11:42, Psalms 10:3, Psalms 17:13, Psalms 17:14, Haggai 2:6, Luke 12:15, Luke 16:14, John 6:26, John 6:66, Ephesians 4:14, Philippians 3:19, Colossians 3:5, 2 Timothy 3:2-5, Hebrews 13:5

Reciprocal: Ezekiel 8:10 - every

Verse 31

Leviticus 11:8, Leviticus 11:24, Leviticus 11:25

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:2 - touch Leviticus 11:39 - General Numbers 19:11 - toucheth the dead 1 Samuel 20:26 - he is not clean

Verse 32

it must be put into water: Leviticus 6:28, Leviticus 15:12, Titus 2:14, Titus 3:5

Reciprocal: Leviticus 6:27 - wash Leviticus 15:5 - General Numbers 19:15 - General Numbers 31:23 - ye shall make

Verse 33

ye shall break it: Leviticus 11:35, Leviticus 14:45, Jeremiah 48:38, 2 Corinthians 5:1-8, Philippians 3:21

Reciprocal: Leviticus 6:28 - General Leviticus 13:52 - burn Leviticus 15:12 - vessel

Verse 34

Proverbs 15:8, Proverbs 21:4, Proverbs 21:27, Proverbs 28:8, Titus 1:15

Verse 35

they shall be: Leviticus 11:33, Leviticus 6:28, Leviticus 15:12, 2 Corinthians 5:1-7

Reciprocal: Leviticus 13:52 - burn

Verse 36

a fountain: Zechariah 13:1, John 4:14

wherein there is plenty of water: Heb. a gathering together of waters

Verse 37

sowing seed: 1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Peter 1:23, 1 John 3:9, 1 John 5:18

Verse 38

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:24 - General

Verse 39

Leviticus 11:24, Leviticus 11:28, Leviticus 11:31, Leviticus 11:40, Leviticus 15:5, Leviticus 15:7, Numbers 19:11, Numbers 19:16

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:2 - touch Ezekiel 4:14 - have I

Verse 40

eateth: Leviticus 11:25, Leviticus 17:15, Leviticus 17:16, Leviticus 22:8, Exodus 22:31, Deuteronomy 14:21, Isaiah 1:16, Ezekiel 4:14, Ezekiel 36:25, Ezekiel 44:31, Zechariah 13:1, 1 Corinthians 6:11, 1 Corinthians 10:21, 1 John 1:7

shall wash: Leviticus 11:28, Leviticus 14:8, Leviticus 14:9, Leviticus 15:5-10, Leviticus 15:27, Leviticus 16:26, Leviticus 16:28, Numbers 19:7, Numbers 19:8, Numbers 19:19

Reciprocal: Leviticus 11:39 - General Leviticus 13:6 - wash Numbers 19:21 - General 1 Samuel 20:26 - he is not clean

Verse 41

Leviticus 11:20, Leviticus 11:23, Leviticus 11:29

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:18 - an abomination Leviticus 7:21 - abominable Leviticus 11:43 - Ye shall

Verse 42

goeth upon the belly: Genesis 3:14, Genesis 3:15, Isaiah 65:25, Micah 7:17, Matthew 3:7, Matthew 23:23, John 8:44, 2 Corinthians 11:3, 2 Corinthians 11:13, Titus 1:12

hath more feet: Heb. doth multiply feet

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:21 - abominable Leviticus 11:29 - creeping things that creep Leviticus 11:43 - Ye shall Ezekiel 8:10 - every Mark 7:15 - nothing

Verse 43

Ye shall: Leviticus 11:41, Leviticus 11:42, Leviticus 20:25

yourselves: Heb. your souls

Reciprocal: Leviticus 22:5 - whosoever Deuteronomy 14:3 - General

Verse 44

I am the: Exodus 20:2

ye shall: Leviticus 10:3, Leviticus 19:2, Leviticus 20:7, Leviticus 20:26, Exodus 19:6, Deuteronomy 14:2, 1 Samuel 6:20, Psalms 99:5, Psalms 99:9, Isaiah 6:3-5, Amos 3:3, Matthew 5:48, 1 Thessalonians 4:7, 1 Peter 1:15, 1 Peter 1:16, 1 Peter 2:9, Revelation 22:11

Reciprocal: Exodus 19:10 - sanctify Exodus 29:46 - I am Leviticus 11:45 - be holy Leviticus 18:2 - General Leviticus 21:8 - for I Leviticus 22:5 - whosoever Numbers 15:40 - be holy Ezekiel 20:7 - I am Hebrews 12:10 - partakers

Verse 45

that bringeth: Exodus 6:7, Psalms 105:43-45

be holy: Leviticus 11:44, Exodus 6:7, Exodus 20:2, Psalms 105:43-45, Hosea 11:1, 1 Thessalonians 4:7

Reciprocal: Exodus 19:6 - and an Exodus 19:10 - sanctify Exodus 22:31 - holy Leviticus 19:2 - Ye shall Leviticus 21:8 - for I Leviticus 22:33 - General Leviticus 25:38 - and to be Numbers 15:40 - be holy Deuteronomy 14:2 - General Psalms 114:2 - General Isaiah 52:11 - touch Daniel 1:8 - defile Ephesians 5:1 - followers Hebrews 12:10 - partakers

Verse 46

This: The distinction of clean and unclean animals - see note on Leviticus 11:2 existed even before the flood, though it probably then only related to sacrifices; but at this time we find there were very particular laws enacted respecting the diet of the people, and the ceremonial uncleanness contracted by touching the carcases of unclean animals. The reasons for the enactment of these laws seem to be:

1. As a test of obedience, and to teach the Israelites habits of self-denial, and the government of their appetites.

2. To keep them distinct from other nations, and consequently from their idolatrous usages, by throwing hindrances in the way of their social intercourse; for these distinctions were applicable both to persons and things. The Canaanites not only ate the animals prohibited by Moses, which we usually eat, but others also, among which dogs were one. Besides, many of those declared unclean were sacred among the heathen, and sacrificed to their gods.

3. Because those prohibited were innutritive and unwholesome; as the swine, the flesh of which being strong and difficult to digest, affords a very gross aliment, and produces, especially in hot climates, cutaneous, scrophulous, and scorbutic disorders, as the itch, leprosy, etc. Leviticus 7:37, Leviticus 14:54, Leviticus 15:32, Ezekiel 43:12

Reciprocal: Numbers 5:29 - the law Numbers 30:16 - General Numbers 36:13 - the commandments

Verse 47

Leviticus 10:10, Ezekiel 44:23, Malachi 3:18, Romans 14:2, Romans 14:3, Romans 14:13-23

Reciprocal: Leviticus 15:31 - Thus shall Numbers 30:16 - General Judges 13:4 - eat not Isaiah 52:11 - touch Ezekiel 1:7 - like the sole Ezekiel 22:26 - put no Acts 11:8 - unclean

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Leviticus 11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/leviticus-11.html.