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Bible Commentaries
Leviticus 16

Bullinger's Companion Bible NotesBullinger's Companion Notes

Verse 1

spake. See note on Leviticus 5:14 .

offered = brought near. Hebrew. karab . App-43 . Targum of Onkelos, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, add "strange fire", as in Leviticus 10:1 .

Verse 2

all times = any time: i.e. just at any time.

holy place = sanctuary or holy of holies. In this chapter "holy" is used for "holy of holies" without this adjunct. See verses: Leviticus 16:3 , Leviticus 16:16 , Leviticus 16:17 , Lev 3:20 , Lev 3:23 , Lev 3:27 . Compare note on Exodus 3:8 .

mercy seat. Figure of speech Antemereia (of Noun), App-6 , noun, "mercy", used as adjective. See note on Exodus 25:17 .

I will appear = I am wont to appear. See Exodus 25:22 .

Verse 3

Thus = with this.

sin. Hebrew. chat'a . App-44 .

Verse 4

wash = bathe. See note on Leviticus 14:9 .

Verse 5

children = sons.

kids. Hebrew shaggy he-goats.

Verse 6

offer = bring near. Hebrew. karab . App-43 .

make an atonement. See note on Exodus 29:33 .

Verse 7

door = entrance.

tabernacle of the congregation = tent ( 'ohel ) of meeting.

Verse 8

for the scapegoat. Hebrew for 'Azazel . This "for" looks like a personality answering to "for Jehovah". If it be the Evil one who is meant, then it is for his defiance. For in Leviticus 16:10 atonement is made for this goat, and he is to go free. Where there is atonement there must be forgiveness. See note on Leviticus 16:22 below.

Verse 9

fell. Hebrew "came up": i.e. out of the bag containing the Urim and Thummim. No other means of taking Jehovah ' s lot, or judgment. (See note on Exodus 28:30 .)

offer = "make him [sin]". (2 Corinthians 5:21 .)

Verse 10

to be the scapegoat. Hebrew "to be for 'Azazel " (see Leviticus 16:8 and Leviticus 16:22 ).

presented = made to stand.

with him. Hebrew "for him". See verses: Leviticus 16:16 , Leviticus 16:18 . The scapegoat was not used to make atonement, but atonement was made for it. Hence he was to be "let go" free. See Leviticus 16:22 .

wilderness: or desert, symbol of abode of all evil things (Isaiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 34:14 .Matthew 12:43 .Luke 8:27 ; Luke 11:24 .Revelation 18:2; Revelation 18:2 ). 'Azazel probably the personification of all that is "great and terrible" there (Deuteronomy 1:19 ; Deuteronomy 8:15 .Jeremiah 2:6; Jeremiah 2:6 ).

Verse 12

fire. Only fire from the brazen altar of burnt offering, where atonement had been made, could be used for kindling the incense on the golden altar in the holy place. See note on Leviticus 10:1 . All other fire was "strange fire". See note on Leviticus 10:1 , Leviticus 10:7 .

Verse 15

as = according as.

Verse 17

man = 'adam . App-14 . no human being. This effectually disposes of all priestly pretensions now, while the Antitype is "within the vail". See Hebrews 4:14 ; Hebrews 6:20 ; Hebrews 9:24 .

Verse 19

hallow. See note on Exodus 3:5 .

Verse 20

reconciling = making atonement. See note on Exodus 29:33 .

Verse 21

both his hands. This for solemnity; and only here, on this occasion.

live goat. The two goats complete the one type of Christ. One could not, for He was "put to death as to the flesh", but made alive [again] as to the spirit", i.e. in resurrection (1 Peter 3:17 . 1 Corinthians 15:45 ). He was " made sin" for us, that we might be come divinely righteous in Him" (2 Corinthians 5:21 ).

all. Note the four "alls" in verses: Leviticus 16:21 , Leviticus 16:22 . Figure of speech Repetitio ( App-6 ) to emphasize the completeness of our deliverance from sins, and their entire removal.

iniquities. Hebrew. 'avah. App-44 . t

ransgressions. Hebrew. pash'a. App-44 .

a fit man. The phrase occurs only here.

Verse 22

shall bear = shall bear away, as Isaiah 53:4 .

land not inhabited. Hebrew "a land cut off".

let go. This is the point of the type. The live goat was sent away, not in judgment or atonement, but in peace and at liberty. "All" had already been atoned for in the death of the other goat (Leviticus 16:10 ). Now he was free to go into the land of forgetfulness, where their "sins and iniquities are remembered no more" (Isaiah 43:25 .Jeremiah 31:34; Jeremiah 31:34 ). The scapegoat goes forth to 'Azazel, all enemies thus personified (Hebrews 2:14 ), proclaiming, "Who is he that condemneth? "(Romans 8:33 , Romans 8:34 ). Not in fear of death, but saying, "Who dares to kill me? "It is the lesson, over again, of the "two birds" in Ch. Leviticus 14:51-53 , applied to the whole nation. It is a type of those who are "risen with Christ" (Colossians 3:1 ), i.e. made alive again in His resurrection life. Tradition treats this second goat as loaded with sin and sent out to destruction; whereas "all" is "atoned" for and is therefore "forgiven" and liberty enjoyed before it was sent away.

Verse 25

burn = burn as incense. Hebrew. katar. App-43 . Compare Leviticus 16:27 .

Verse 26

he that let go = he that leadeth away the goat to, or for, ' Azazel , Leviticus 16:10 .

Verse 27

without the camp. Compare Leviticus 6:11 .Hebrews 13:11 .

burn. Hebrew. saraph. App-43 .

Verse 29

afflict = fast. See Isaiah 58:3 , Isaiah 58:5 , Isaiah 58:10 .

souls. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

do no work at all. Hebrew "no manner of work". This legal expression occurs five times ( App-10 ) in the Pentateuch, but is differently rendered. See Leviticus 23:3 , Leviticus 23:28 , Leviticus 23:31 .Numbers 29:7 . Work on the Sabbath day incurred stoning: on this day, excommunication.

Verse 31

sabbath of rest. Hebrew "sabbath of sabbatizing". See note on Exodus 16:23 . = "Most holy sabbath", Figure of speech Polyptoton or Enallage. App-6 .

Verse 32

consecrate. See note on Exodus 28:41 .Exodus 9:17 .

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5 .

Verse 34

as = according as.

Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Leviticus 16". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/leviticus-16.html. 1909-1922.
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