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Bible Commentaries
Luke 1

Bullinger's Companion Bible NotesBullinger's Companion Notes

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Verse 1

Forasmuch as = Since, as is well known indeed. Greek. epeideper. Occurs only here in N.T.

have in hand. Implying previous non = success (Acts 19:13 ). Elsewhere only in Acts 9:29 . A medical word. Compare Colossians 4:14 .

to set forth in order = to draw up.

a declaration = a narrative. Greek. diegesis. Occurs only here in N.T., used by Galen of a medical treatise.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:5 , Luke 1:27 , Luke 1:35 , Luk 5:61 .

things = matters, or facts.

which are most surely believed = which have been fully accomplished; i.e. in fulfilment of prophetic announcement. among. Greek. en. App-104 . As in verses: Luke 1:25 , Luke 1:28 , Luke 1:42

Verse 2

from . Greek apo. App-104 .

from the beginning . Greek. ap' arches; i.e. from the birth or ministry of the Lord. Compare John 15:27 . Acts 1:1 , Acts 1:21 , Acts 1:22 .

were = became.

eyewitnesses. Greek autoptai. Occurs only here. Not the same word as in 2 Peter 1:16 . A medical word (Colossians 4:14 ). Compare our autopsy.

ministers = attendants. A technical word, often translated "officer".

Verse 3

having had perfect understanding = having followed up accurately.

all. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version omitted this "all".

from the very first = from above. Greek. anothen. As in Matthew 27:51 (the top, Mark 15:38 ). John 3:3 , John 3:7 (again), John 3:31 (from above); Luke 19:11 , Luke 19:23 .James 1:17 ; James 3:1 , James 3:17 . It may mean from the beginning, as in Acts 26:5 , but there is no need to introduce that meaning here, as it is already in Luke 1:2 . Moreover, havingunderstood them "from above", he necessarily understood them from the very beginning, as well as perfectly, or accurately. The greater includes the less.

in order = with method. most excellent. A title of social degree, not of moral quality. See Acts 23:26 ; Acts 26:25 .

Theophilus. A common Roman name = beloved of God.

Verse 4

That = in order that.

mightest know = get to have full knowledge. Greek. epiginosko.) App-132 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:18 , Luke 1:34 .

things = words.

wherein = concerning (Greek. peri. App-104 .) which.

thou hast been instructed = thou wast [orally]

taught. Greek. katecheo. See Acts 18:25 . 1 Corinthians 14:19 . Galatians 1:6 , Galatians 1:6 .

Verse 5

There was = There came to be. A Hebraism, Compare Luke 1:8 , and see on Luke 2:1 .

in . Greek en. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:15 , Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:44-47 .

in the days . A Hebraism. See Matthew 2:1 . Compare Esther 1:1 .

Herod. See App-109 .

the king. This title had been conferred by the Roman Senate on the recommendation of Antony and Octavius.

of = out of. Greek. ek, App-104 .

Abia is named in 1 Chronicles 24:10 , and Nehemiah 12:17 . Out of the four who returned from Babylon twenty-four courses were formed (by lot) with the original names. See App-179 .

the daughters of Aaron . The female descendants of Aaron always married priests

Elisabeth. Aaron's wife, Elisheba (Exodus 6:23 )is spelled Elizabeth in the Septuagint.

Verse 6

before. The Texts read enantion, not enopion (= in the presence of, as Luke 1:19 ). Both are found in the Papyri in this sense.

God . App-98 .

ordinances = legal requirements. Greek. Plural of dlkaioma, which should always be so rendered in its other nine occurrences (Romans 1:32 ; Romans 2:26

; Luke 5:16 , Luke 5:18 ; Luke 8:4 ; Hebrews 9:1 , Hebrews 9:10 ; Revelation 15:4 ; Revelation 19:8 ). Compare Numbers 36:13 . Sometimes rendered "judgments" (Exodus 21:1 ; Exodus 24:3 ), where LXX has dikaioma.

the LORD. Must here and elsewhere be often rendered Jehovah. See App-98 . A. b.

Verse 7

no. Greek. ou. App-106 .

child. Greek. teknon. See App-108 .

because that = inasmuch as.

well stricken = advanced.

Verse 8

it came to pass. A Hebraism. See note on Luke 1:5 .

while he executed, &c. = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) executing. Greek. hierateuo, to act as a priest. Not peculiar to Biblical Greek, but found often in the Papyri.

Verse 9

According to . Greek. kata. App-104 .

his lot was = it fell to him by lot.

to burn incense. Greek. thumiao. Occurs only here in N.T. incense. The first recorded use of incense by man began in disobedience (Numbers 16:6 ), and the last ended in unbelief (Luke 1:20 ),

when he went = going.

into. Greek eis. App-104 .

the Temple = The Naos, or Shrine; i.e. "the Holy Place". Not

hieron (the Temple courts). See note on Matthew 23:1 , Matthew 23:8 .

Verse 10

praying. See App-134 .

at the time = at the hour. This was the signal.

Verse 11

appeared. App-106 . an angel. For the frequent references to angels in Luke, see Luke 1:26 ; Luke 2:9 , Luke 2:13 , Luke 2:21 ; Luke 12:8 ; Luke 15:10 ; Luke 16:22 ; Luke 22:43 ; Luke 24:4 , Luke 24:23 . Also frequently in Acts.

on = at. Greek ek. App-104 .

the right side = the propitious side. Compare Matthew 25:33 .Mark 16:5 .John 21:6 .

the altar of incense . See Exodus 30:1-10 ; Exodus 37:25-28 . 1 Kings 7:48

Verse 12

saw. Greek. eidon. App-138 .

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 . As in Luke 1:35 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:58 .

Verse 13

unto = to. Greek. pros. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:26 .

not. Greek. me. App-105 . As in verses: Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:30 , not as in verses: Luke 1:20 , Luke 1:22 , Luke 1:34 .

for = because.

prayer = a definite petition.

is heard = was heard: i.e. not now, or recently. Evidently the prayer for offspring, which was now no longer offered.

bear thee = bring forth to thee.

John = Jehovah sheweth favour.

Verse 14

joy and gladness. Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ) = joy, yea exultant joy.

at = upon[the occasion of]. Greek. epi. App-104 ., as in Luke 1:29 .

birth = bringing forth. Greek gennao, used of the mother. See note on Matthew 1:2 .

Verse 15

in the sight of = before.

See note on "before", Luke 1:6 .

shall drink neither = shallin no wise (Greek. ou me. App-105 .) drink,

strong drink . Greek. sikera, any intoxicating drink not from grapes.

shall be filled. Verbs of filling take the Genitive of what the person or vessel is filled with. See App-101 . note. Here pneuma hagion is in the Genitive case.

the Holy Ghost = holy spirit. Greek pneuma hagion, or "power from on high". See App-101 .

from. Greek ek. App-104 . i.e. before birth. Compare Luke 1:44 .

Verse 16

children = sons. See App-108 .

to = towards. Greek. epi. App-104 .

Lord . Greek. kurios. App-98 .

Verse 17

go = goforth.

the spirit and power. Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ) = the

spirit = yea, the powerful spirit (Malachi 4:5 ).

Elias = Elijah.

to turn, &c. Reference to Malachi 3:1 with Malachi 4:5 , Malachi 4:6 .

See App-107 .

disobedient = unbelieving. to = in. Greek. en. App-104 .

wisdom . Greek. phronesis (not sophia) = understanding. Occurs only here, and Ephesians 1:8 = the product of Sophia. See notes on Job 28:28 ; Job 40:4 .

Verse 18

Whereby = According to (Greek. kata, as in Luke 1:9 ) what [sign].

know = get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-182 .

for I am an old man. To Zechariah the promise seemed to come too late; to Mary (Luke 1:34 )too early.

Verse 19

answering said. See note on Deuteronomy 1:41 .

Gabriel = the mighty man of God. The messanger of the restoration (Luke 1:26 ; Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ), as Michael is the messanger of Israel's delieverance from judgement (Daniel 10:13 , Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 .Jude 1:9 ; and Revelation 12:7 ). Probably two of the seven angels of Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 3:1 ; Revelation 4:5 ; Revelation 5:6 ; Revelation 8:2 , Revelation 8:6 ; Revelation 15:1 , Revelation 15:6 , Revelation 15:7 , Revelation 15:8 ; Revelation 16:1 ; Revelation 17:1 ; Revelation 21:9 .

in the presence. Same as "before", Luke 1:6 .

am = was

shew = announce.

Verse 20

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

thou shalt be dumb . The finite Verb and Participle denote continuous silence.

be performed = come to pass.

believest not = didst not believe. App-150 . Note the Negative.

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

which = which are of a kind which. Greek. hoitines, denoting a class, or kind of words.

in = up to. Greek eis. App-104 . Marking the process continuing up to the end.

Verse 21

waited for = were looking for. The finite Verb and Participle denoting protracted waiting.

marvelled . Because such waiting was usually short.

Verse 22

speak : i.e. pronounce the usual blessing (Numbers 6:24 ).

perceived = clearly perceived, or recognised. Greek. epiginosko. App-132 .

had seen. Greek. horao. App-133 .

beckoned = kept making signs.

Verse 23

days = week.

ministration = public service. Greek leitourgia. Hence Eng. "liturgy".

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

Verse 24

after . Greek. meta. App-104 .

conceived . Greek. sullambano. A medical word, used in this sense in Luke and in James 1:15 . See App-179 .

hid = completely secluded. Probably to avoid all possibility of uncleanness, as in Judges 13:4 , Judges 13:5 , Judges 13:7 , = Jdg 13:1214 . Occurs only here in N.T.

saying = saying that (Greek. hoti); giving the words.

Verse 25

looked on . Greek. epeidon. App-133 . Occurs only in Luke here, and Acts 4:29 .

to take away my reproach. Compare Genesis 30:23 . 1 Samuel 1:6-10 . Hosea 9:14 . Contrast Luke 23:29 .

Verse 26

the sixth month . After the vision of Zachariah.

This (Compare Luke 1:36 ) is the passage which gives John's age as six months older than the Lord's. See App-179 .

from . Greek. hupo. App-104 .

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 . Galilee. One of the four Roman divisions of Palestine, comprising Zebulun, Naphtali, and Asher. Compare Matthew 4:13 .

Nazareth. Now enNazirah.

Aram . See App-94 . See on Matthew 2:23 .

Verse 27

To . Greek. pros. App-104 .

virgin. This settles the meaning of the Hebrew `almah in Isaiah 7:14 . There is no question about the Greek parthenos.

espoused = betrothed. A year before marriage. See Matthew 1:18 .

man = husband. Greek. aner. App-123 .

Mary = the Hebrew Miriam. Exodus 15:20 . See App-100 .

Verse 28

Hail. See note on Matthew 26:49

thou that art highly favoured = [thou] having been graced [by God] = endued with grace. Occurs only here, and Ephesians 1:6 = accepted through grace. "Grace" does not occur in Matthew or Mark.

with = in association with. Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luk 30:37 , Luk 30:51 , Luk 30:56 .

blessed . . . women. Omitted by T [Tr. ] A WH R. Probably brought here from Luke 1:42 , where it is unquestioned.

Verse 29

when she saw him. Omitted by all

the texts. cast in her mind = beganto reason, or was reasoning. Imperfect Tense.

Verse 30

found. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , for "received".

favour = grace: which is favourthe unworthy, as patience is favour to the obstinate, as mercy is favour to the miserable, as pity is favour to the poor, &c.

with = from. Greek. para. App-104 .

Verse 31

thou shalt conceive : i.e. forthwith conceive. The Tense marks a future action, the beginning of which in relation to future time is past, but the consequences of which still continue.

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Luk 31:32 , emphasizing each detail. Note the four statements of the angel, combining the four key = texts of the four Gospels shown in the Inter-relation of the Four Gospels:

Thou shalt . . . bring forth a Son: "Behold the Man".

Thou shalt call His name Jesus: " Behold My Servant".

He shall be great . . . the Son of the Highest (Luke 1:32 )

: " Behold your God".

He shall reign, &c. (Luke 1:33 )

: " Behold thy King".

JESUS. See note on Matthew 1:21 and App-48 and App-98 . X.

Verse 32

He shall be great , &c. Marks the break in the Dispensations, verses: Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:33 being yet future.

the Highest = the Most High. Greek hupsiatos. Occurs seven times in Luke (Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:35 , Luke 1:76 ; Luke 2:14 (plural); Luke 6:35 ; Luke 8:28 ; Luke 19:38 (plural); and twice in Acts (Luke 7:48 ; Luke 16:17 ). Else. where, only four times (Matthew 21:9 (plural) Mark 5:7 ; Mark 11:10 (plural); and Hebrews 7:1 ).

Verse 33

over. Greek. epi. App-104 .

Jacob. Put for all the natural seed of the twelve tribes.

for = unto. Greek eis. App-104 .

for ever = unto the ages. See App-151 . More Reading, see Psalms 45:6 . Daniel 7:13 , Daniel 7:14 , Daniel 7:27 . Mic 4:7 . 1 Corinthians 15:24-26 . Hebrews 1:8 . Revelation 11:16 .

Verse 34

seeing , &c. = since, &c. Mary's answer shows how she understood the angel's promise. She does not question the fact, as Zacharias did (Luke 1:18 ), but only inquires as to the mode. To Mary the promise seems too early, to Zacharias too late.

know = come to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .

Verse 35

shall overshadow. Compare Exodus 33:22 .Mark 9:7 .

therefore = wherefore.

that holy Thing. See Heb 7:26 . 1 Peter 2:22 , and note on Matthew 27:4 .

the Son of God = God's Son. App-98 .

Verse 36

cousin = kinswoman.

she hath also conceived = she also hath conceived.

Verse 37

nothing = not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) any word. Greek. rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .

Verse 38

Behold . Greek idou. App-133 .

handmaid = bondmaid.

word. See note on Luke 1:37 . Same word.

Verse 40

entered. A detail, to emphasize the fact, by which she recognized the truth of the sign of Luke 1:36 .

Verse 41

leaped. Greek. skirtao. Only used in N.T. here, Luke 1:44 , and Luke 6:23 . Compare Genesis 25:22 . Septuagint has the same word.

Verse 42

spake out = cried out. Greek. anaphoneo . Occurs only here. A medical word. See Colossians 4:14 .

Verse 43

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Verse 44

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

sounded in = came into.

for joy = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) exultation.

Verse 45

blessed = happy. Not the same word as in Luke 1:42 .

performance = fulfilment. from. Greek para. App-104 .

Verse 46

Mary. From a common practice of transcribers in replacing a pronoun by the corresponding proper noun, or name, some have thought that this hymn is a continuation of Elisabeth's words. And the Structure favours this idea. But there is no MS. evidence for it.

My soul = Imyself. For emphasis. See App-110 .

Verse 47

my spirit. See App-101 .

rejoiced = exulted.

in. Greek. epi. App-104 .

God my Saviour. Note the Article = the God [Who is] the Saviour [of me]. See Septuagint Deu 82:15 .Psalms 24:6; Psalms 24:6

; Luk 25:5 ; Luk 95:1 .

Verse 48

regarded = looked (Greek. epiblepo. App-133 .)

upon (Greek. epi. App-104 .) See James 2:3 , and compare 1 Samuel 1:11 .Psalms 33:14 ; Psalms 119:132 (Septuagint).

Verse 49

He That is mighty = the Mighty One.

His name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .

Verse 50

mercy = pity. Greek. eleos. See verses: Luke 1:54 , Luke 1:58 , Luke 1:72 , Luk 54:78 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:30 .

fear = reverence.

from generation, &c. = unto (Greek. eis. App-104 .) generations of generations.

Verse 51

with. Greek. en. App-104 .

His arm. Figure of speech Anthrapopatheia. App-6 . Compare Isaiah 52:10 ; Isaiah 59:1 , Isaiah 59:16 .

Verse 52

put down the mighty. Amaziah (2 Kings 14:10 ); Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:16 ); Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:20 ); Belshazzar (Daniel 5:23 ; Daniel 5:30 ).

seats = thrones.

them of low degree = the lowly.

Verse 54

holpen = laid hold of [for help], or taken by the hand. Compare Isaiah 41:8 , Isaiah 41:9 .

in remembrance = [in order] to remember.

Verse 55

As = according as.

our fathers. Compare Micah 7:20 . Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:16 . Acts 2:39 .

for ever = unto the age. See App-151 . a.

Verse 56

with = in fellowship with. Greek. sun. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:28 , Luke 1:30 , Luke 1:37 , Luk 28:39 , Luk 28:61 , Luk 28:66 .

returned = returned back. Greek hupostrepho. Almost peculiar to Luke. Oct:. only in Mark 14:40 . Galatians 1:1 , Galatians 1:17 . Hebrews 7:1 . outside Luke and Acts.

Verse 57

full time = fulfilled time.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) throughout the passage verses: Luke 1:57-67 , eighteen "ands".

brought forth. Greek gennao. Correctly rendered here, of the mother. Used of the father it = beget. See note on Matthew 1:2 .

Verse 58

shewed great mercy = magnified His mercy. A Hebraism. Compare Genesis 19:19 . 2 Samuel 22:51 , Septuagint.

upon = with. Greek meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 1:12 , Luke 1:35 .

Verse 59

on = in. Greek. en. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:65 .

on the eighth day. Genesis 17:12 .Leviticus 12:3 .Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:5 .

child . Greek. paidion. App-108 .

they called . Imperf. Tense = were for calling,

after . Greek. epi. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 1:24 .

Verse 60

Not so = No. Greek. ouchi. App-105 .

Verse 61

There is = That there is.

of = among. Greek en. App-104 .

that is = who is.

Verse 62

made signs. Imperf. Tense = were consulting him by signs; i.e. while the colloquy was going on,

would = wished to. Greek. thelo. App-102 .

Verse 63

writing table = writing tablet Table was used for tablet in 1611. Used by medical writers in Luke's day.

wrote, saying. A Hebraism. Compare 2 Kings 10:6 .

"John" = the grace of Jehovah, was thus the first written word of that dispensation.

Verse 64

immediately = at once. Greek parachrema. Occurs nineteen times. All in Luke or Acts, except Matthew 21:19 , Matthew 21:20 . A medical word (see Colossians 4:14 ), used thirteen times in connection with disease or healing. Rendered "straightway "in Luke 8:55 .Acts 5:10 .

spake = began to speak. Imperf. Tense.

Verse 65

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

sayings. Greek. Plural of rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .

were noised abroad = were talked of.

throughout all = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) the whole.

Verse 66

that heard. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "that had heard".

Verse 68

Blessed . Hence the name "Benedictus" given to Zacharias's prophecy.

God = the God.

visited = lookedon. Not the same word as in Luke 1:48 . See App-133 .

redeemed = wrought a ransom for. Compare Titus 2:14 .

Verse 69

an horn of salvation. A Hebraism. See Psalms 132:17 . 1 Samuel 2:1 , 1 Samuel 2:10 . Ezekiel 29:21 .

His servant David. See Psalms 132:10 .

Verse 70

by = through.

Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 1:1 .

since the world began = from [the] age i.e. of old. See App-151 .

Verse 72

to = with. Greek meta. App-104 .

Verse 73

The oath, &c. See Genesis 12:3 ; Genesis 17:4 ; Genesis 22:16 , Genesis 22:17 .

Verse 74

out of = from. Greek. ek. App-104 .

hand. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "hands". serve: or worship.

Verse 75

holiness. Toward God. righteousness. Toward men. Compare 1 Thessalonians 2:10 . Ephesians 4:24 .

Verse 76

before . Greek. pro. App-104 .

Verse 77

knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-132 .

by = for. Greek. en. App-104 .

Verse 78

Through = On account of. Greek dia. App-104 .Luke 1:2 .

tender mercy = bowels of compassion. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia ( App-6 ).

whereby = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) which.

dayspring . Greek. anatole. Hebrew. zemach = branch (see page 1304), is rendered anatole in Jeremiah 23:6 and Zechariah 3:8 , because of its springing up. Both meanings (branch and light) are here combined. Compare Ezekiel 16:7 ; Ezekiel 17:10 .

on high. Greek. hupsos. Occurs five more times: Luke 24:49 . Ephesians 3:18 ; Ephesians 4:8 . James 1:9 . Revelation 21:16 .

Verse 79

give light to = shine upon.

the shadow of death. A Hebraism. Zalmaveth. Job 10:21 ; Job 38:17 . Psalms 23:4 ; Psalms 107:10 . Isaiah 9:2 .Matthew 4:16 , &c.

guide = direct. Wycliffe has "dress", through the O. French dresser = to arrange, still preserved as an English military term.

Verse 80

waxed strong = grew and was strengthened. spirit. Greek. pneuma. See App-101 .

the deserts. The article. indicating a well-known part.

shewing = public or official inauguration. Greek. anadeixis. Only occurs here. The verb anadeiknumi occurs Luke 10:1 . See note there.

Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 1". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/luke-1.html. 1909-1922.
 
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