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Bible Commentaries
Luke 1

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1



The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke, who also is known as "the beloved physician," a companion of Paul in much of his mission ministry, and also writer of the Book of Acts, Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1; Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 1:24.


Luke wrote both this Gospel and the Book of Acts a person named "Theophilus," a name that means "friend" or "lover," of God. An examination of the book of Ac seems clearly to indicate Luke to be its author, and that he was a Gentile, apparently the only Gentile Gospel writer. In Acts 1:19 he used "in their proper tongue," to refer to Gentiles; Had he been Jewish he would have said "in our tongue;" As a companion of Paul he includes himself under terms "we" and "us," Acts 16:10-17; Acts 20:5-28; Acts 20:31. Luke is also likely that brother "whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches," described 2 Corinthians 8:18.


1) First, Luke wrote to establish factual certainties of the person and ministry of Jesus Christ in the mind and heart of Theophilus, to sustain him defensively against all doubts and skepticism regarding the Divine identity and Deity of Jesus Christ.

2) Second, he wrote to set forth Jesus as the Ideal man, The Son of man, as the perfect man, Luke 19:10, much as Matthew presented Him as King, Mark as the Ideal Servant, and John as the Son of God, of Eternal existence.

3) Third, as a medical physician he was interested in and gave definitive detail in recounting the miraculous births of both John the Baptist and Jesus, inclusive of angelic appearances and announcements to Zacharias and Mary, Luke 1:5-38; the visit of Mary to Elizabeth during the latter’s expectancy period, the birth and circumstances surrounding both that. of John and Jesus, Luke 1:57 to Luke 2:39. Only Luke recounts the dialogue of Jesus with the elders in Jerusalem, when He was twelve years of age. His interest in Jesus as a man is summarized, "and Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man," Luke 2:52.

4) Fourth, only Luke, as a learned man, recounted the five poems of Praise, by the five following persons:

a) The Song of Elizabeth, Luke 1:39-45.

b) The Song of Mary’s Response, The Magnificat, Luke 1:46-55.

c) The Song of Zacharias, The Benedictus, Luke 1:67-79.

d) The Song (Poem) of Angels, Gloria in Excelsis, Luke 2:13-14.

e) The Song (Praise) of Simeon, Nunc Dimittis, Luke 2:28-32.

5) Fifth, Luke stresses people, characters, as no other Gospel writer. These names and persons were not mentioned by other Gospel writers: Zacharias, Elizabeth, Simeon, Anna, Zacchaeus, and Cleopas. Only Luke related the rich character stories of: 1) The Good Samaritan, Luke 10:30-37; Luke 2) The Prodigal son, Luke 15:11-32; Luke , 3) The Proud Pharisee and the skid-row publican sinner, Luke 18:9-14.

6) Sixth, Luke, as a physician, gave special attention to women, referring to them 43 times, so that the charge of male chauvinism may not justifiably be leveled against him. In addition to the prominence he gave to Mary and Elizabeth, revolving around the birth of Jesus and John the Baptist, Luke recounts:

a) The healing of Peter’s mother-in-law, Luke 4:38-39.

b) The raising of the widow’s son at Nain, Luke 7:11-18.

c) The forgiveness of the sinful woman at His feet, Luke 7:36-50.

d) The names of those who financially helped both Jesus and the apostles, Luke 8:1-3.

e) The healing of the woman with an issue of blood, and the raising of the daughter of Jairus, Luke 8:40-56.

f) The hospitality of Mary and Martha, Luke 10:38-42.

g) The healing of a crippled woman, Luke 13:10-13.

h) The search of the woman for a lost coin, Luke 15:8-10.

i) The warning of Lot’s wife, Luke 17:32.

j) The widow’s two mites, Luke 21:1-4.

k) The lament of the daughters of Jerusalem on the way to Calvary, Luke 23:27-31.

I) The presence of the women at the cross and at His burial later, Luke 23:49; Luke 23:55-56.

m) The resurrection reports to the women, Luke 24:1-12.

7) Seventh, Luke emphasized the prayer-life of Jesus as the Ideal Son of man, doing His Father’s will as:

a) He was baptized, Luke 3:21.

b) After preaching He went into solitary places to pray, Luke 5:16.

c) Before He selected the twelve He prayed all night, Luke 6:12-13.

d) Before asking the disciples His identity, Luke 9:18.

e) His transfiguration occurred as He prayed, Luke 9:29.

f) When the seventy returned, He prayed, Luke 10:21.

g) Moved by His prayers, His disciples asked Him to teach them to pray, Luke 11:1-4.

h) He taught them importunity in prayer, Luke 11:5-13.

i) He instructed them to pray always, Luke 18:1-8.

j) He prayed three times in Gethsemane, Luke 22:39-46.

k) Twice on the cross He prayed to the Father.

8) Eighth, Luke recounts twenty two parables, seventeen of which were recounted by no other Gospel writer. These very human, touching parables, were to clarify Divine lessons, as recognized by Luke.

9) Ninth, Luke also certifies his faith in the miracle ministry of Jesus by recounting twenty miracles that Jesus performed to attest His Deity, the following six of which were not related by any other Gospel writer:

a) The catch of fish, Luke 5:1-11.

b) The raising of the widow’s son of Nain, Luke 7:11-18.

c) The healing of an 18 year incurable infirm woman, Luke 13:10-17.

d) The dropsy man healed, Luke 14:1-6.

e) The ten lepers cleansed, Luke 17:11-19.

f) The healing of Malchus’ ear, Luke 22:50-51.


Luke was written about A.D. 56-60, perhaps. before Paul’s first Roman Imprisonment.


Luke apparently felt competent as a writer, and inspired of the Lord, and by the testimony of eyewitnesses of the life and ministries of John the Baptist and of Jesus, to write this Gospel, as he personally affirmed, and as may be inferred from his association with Mark and Paul, Colossians 4:10; Colossians 4:14; Acts 1:1.

That Luke had "perfect or mature understanding of all things from the first," or from primary sources and revelation, Luke 1:3, seems to be a primary claim for the writing of this dissertation to Theophilus, "a lover of God," and perhaps to all true "lovers of God," those who believe that God was revealed as, and in, the Ideal Son of man, Luke 19:10; Hebrews 1:1-3.

LUKE THE SON OF MAN REVEALED (His First 30 Years)--Chapter 1:1 to 4:13.

1. His Forerunner--John the Baptist, Luke 1:1-80; Luke 3:1-20.

2. His Birth and Early Life, Luke 2:1-52.

3. His Baptism, Genealogy, and Temptation, Luke 3:21 to Luke 4:13.


1. Preparation for Him—Luke 1:1 to Luke 2:52.

2. Introduction—Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:13.

3. His Ministry—Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50.

4. His Journey Into Jerusalem—Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:28.

5. His Presentation As King—Luke 19:29-48.

6. His Rejection by His Own—Luke 20:1 to Luke 21:4.

7. His Prophecies—Luke 21:5-38.

8. His Passion Experiences—Luke 22:1 to Luke 23:56.

9. His Resurrection Triumph—Luke 24:1-53.

Chart of the Book of Luke

I. Preparation of the Ideal Man, Luke 1:5 to Luke 2:52.

1) John’s birth announced, Luke 1:5-25.

2) Jesus’ birth announced, Luke 1:26-38.

3) Mary visits Elizabeth, Luke 1:39-45.

4) The Song of Mary, Luke 1:46-56.

5) Birth of John the Baptist, Luke 1:57-80.

6) Birth of Jesus, Luke 2:1-7.

7) Worship of the Shepherds, Luke 2:8-20.

8) Jesus circumcised, Luke 2:21-24.

9) The praise of Simeon,Luke 2:25-35.

10) The thanksgiving of Anna, Luke 2:36-38.

11) The early life of Jesus, Luke 2:39-52.

II. Introduction of the Ideal Man, Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:13.

1) His forerunner’s testimony,Luke 3:1-20.

2) His baptism,Luke 3:21-22.

3) His genealogy back to Adam, Luke 3:23-38.

4) His temptation on the mount, Luke 4:1-13.

III. Ministry of the Ideal Man, Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50.

1) His teaching in Nazareth, Luke 4:14-30.

2) Demons cast out, Luke 4:31-37.

3) Peter’s mother-in-law healed,Luke 4:38-44.

4) Miraculous catch of fish, Luke 5:1-11.

5) A leper cleansed, Luke 5:12-16.

6) A palsied healed, Luke 5:17-26.

7) Matthew enlisted, Luke 5:27-29.

8) Jesus defended His priority concern for sinners, Luke 5:30-39.

9) Jesus defended His church disciples, Luke 6:1-5.

10) The withered hand restored, Luke 6:6-11.

11) The twelve apostles of the church chosen, Luke 6:12-19.

12) The Beatitudes taught to them, Luke 6:20-49.

13) The Centurion’s servant healed, Luke 7:1-10.

14) The widow’s son of Nain raised,Luke 7:11-18.

15) Removing the doubt of John the Baptist, Luke 7:19-29.

16) The Pharisees criticized, Luke 7:30-35.

17) The washing of Jesus’ feet, Luke 7:36-40.

18) The parable of two debtors, Luke 7:41-50.

19) The sower parable, Luke 8:1-15.

20) The candle parable, Luke 8:16-18.

21) The storm calmed,Luke 8:19-25.

22) The demons of Gadara cast out, Luke 8:26-39.

23) Jairus’ daughter raised, Luke 8:40-56.

24) The Apostles sent forth, Luke 9:1-17.

25) Peter’s confession, Luke 9:18-22.

26) Discipleship explained to His church disciples, Luke 9:23-26.

27) Transfiguration of Jesus, Luke 9:27-36.

28) A possessed child set free, Luke 9:37; Luke 9:43.

29) Jesus predicts His death, Luke 9:44-45.

30) Humility explained to His church disciples, Luke 9:46-50.

IV. Journey of the Ideal Man to Jerusalem, Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:28.

A. (His challenge to His Church Disciples) Luke 9:51 to Luke 13:21.

1) Rejected by the Samaritans, Luke 9:51-56.

2) Tests of discipleship, Luke 9:57-62.

3) The mission of the Seventy, Luke 10:1-24.

4) The good Samaritan parable, Luke 10:25-37.

5) Martha and Mary conflict, Luke 10:38-42.

6) The Model prayer, Luke 11:1-4.

7) The persistent friend at night, Luke 11:5-13.

8) Blasphemy of the Pharisees, Luke 11:14-32.

9) Parable of the candle, Luke 11:33-36.

10) Woes upon bad leaders, Luke 11:37-54.

11) Leaven of Pharisees-warnings, Luke 12:1-15.

12) The rich fool parable, Luke 12:16-34.

13) Watchful servant parable, Luke 12:35-41.

14) Unprepared servant parable, Luke 12:42-48.

15) Family divisions over Jesus, Luke 12:49-59.

16) Jesus on repentance, Luke 13:1-5.

17) The barren fig tree parable, Luke 13:10-17.

18) The infirm woman healed, Luke 13:10-17.

19) Kingdom of God (or heaven, church) parable, Luke 13:18-21.

B. (Conflict and Confrontation With Religious Leaders) Luke 13:22 to Luke 16:31.

1) His teaching on salvation, Luke 13:22-33.

2) Unbelief of Jerusalem lament, Luke 13:34-35.

3) Man with dropsy healed, Luke 14:1-6.

4) Parable of chief seat clamoring, Luke 14:7-15.

5) The supper and excuse parable, Luke 14:16-24.

6) Discipleship test, Luke 14:25-35.

7) The lost sheep parable, Luke 15:1-7.

8) The lost coin parable, Luke 15:8-10.

9) The prodigal (lost) son parable, Luke 15:11-32:

10) The wise (clever) steward parable, Luke 16:1-13.

11) The rich man and Lazarus story, Luke 16:14-31.

C. (instruction of and-to His new Covenant church Disciples), Luke 17:1 to Luke 19:28.

1) The importance of forgiveness, Luke 17:1-6.

2) The unprofitable servants parable, Luke 17:7-10.

3) The ten lepers cleansed, Luke 17:11-19.

4) Prediction of the second coming, Luke 17:20-37.

5) The judge and the widow parable, Luke 18:1-8.

6) Parable of the Pharisees and the Publican, Luke 18:9-14.

7) Concern for children, Luke 18:15-17.

8) The rich young ruler challenge, Luke 18:18-20.

9) His coming death retold, Luke 19:1-10.

10) The blind man healed, Luke 18:35-43.

11) Zacchaeus story, Luke 19:1-10.

12) Parable of the pounds,Luke 19:11-28.

V. Presentation of the Ideal Man, Luke 19:29-48.

1) His triumphal entry, Luke 19:29-40.

2) His weeping over Jerusalem, Luke 19:41-44.

3) His cleansing of the Temple, Luke 19:45-48.

VI. Rejection of the Ideal Man, Luke 20:1 to Luke 21:4.

1) His authority questioned, Luke 20:1-8.

2) The vineyard parable told,Luke 20:9-18.

3) Astute answer to the tax question, Luke 20:19-26.

4) Resurrection skepticism answered, Luke 20:27-38.

5) His deity defended, Luke 20:39-47.

6) Widow’s giving of two mites commended, Luke 21:1-4.

VII.Prophecies of the Ideal Man, Luke 21:5-38.

1) On the destruction of the Temple, Luke 21:5-6.

2) Signs of His coming given, Luke 21:7-19.

3) Destruction of the Temple foretold,Luke 21:20-24.

4) His second coming (return) described, Luke 21:25-28.

5) The fig tree parable related, Luke 21:29-33.

6) Warnings sounded out, given, Luke 21:34-38.

VIII.Passion Experiences of the Ideal Man, Luke 22:1-13; Luke 22:56.

1) Judas betrays Jesus,Luke 22:1-6.

2) Observing the Passover, Luke 22:7-20.

3) Announcements of His own betrayal,Luke 22:21-23.

4) Spiritual greatness explained, Luke 22:24-30.

5) Peter’s denial predicted by Jesus, Luke 22:31-38.

6) Praying in Gethsemane, Luke 22:39-46.

7) Arrest of Jesus in the Garden, Luke 22:47-53.

8) Peter’s denial of Jesus, Luke 22:54-62.

9) Jesus’ trial before the council, Luke 22:63-71.

10) His trial before Pilate,Luke 23:1-5.

11) His trial before Herod, Luke 23:6-12.

12) His second trial before Pilate, Luke 23:13-26.

13) His crucifixion, Luke 23:27-49.

14) Burial of His body, Luke 23:50-56.

IX. Resurrection of the Ideal Man, Luke 24:1-53.

1) Announced by angels to the women, Luke 24:1-12.

2) His appearance to two Emmaus travelers, Luke 24:13-35.

3) His appearance to the ten, Luke 24:36-45.

4) Great commission given, Luk 24-46-48.

5) Ascension of Jesus Christ, the Ideal Man.


Chapter l .

1. The Introduction, v. 1-4

2. Birth of John the Baptist Foretold, v. 5-25

3. Annunciation to Mary, v. 26-38

4. Mary’s Visit to Elisabeth, v: 39-45

5. Mary’s Rejoicing, v. 46-56

6. Birth of John the Baptist, v. 57-80

Chapter ll

1. The Birth of Jesus, v.1-20 .

2. Circumcision of Jesus, v. 21-24.

3. Praise and Prophecy of Simeon, v. 25-35

4. Anna’s Praise of Jesus, v. 36-38..

5. Jesus’ Return to Nazareth, Silent Years, v. 39-40

6. Jesus, Lost From Parents In Jerusalem, v. 41-52

Chapter III

1. Ministry of John the Baptist, v.1-20.

2. The Baptism of Jesus, v. 21, 22

3. Genealogy of Mary, Mother of Jesus, v. 23-38

Chapter IV

1. The Temptation of Christ, v. 1-13.

2. Jesus’ Return to Nazareth, Enters the Synagogue, Is Rejected, v.14-30

3. Jesus In Capernaum, Casts Out Demons, v. 30-37

4. Jesus Heals Peter’s Wife’s Mother and Many Others, v. 38-44

Chapter V

1. The Miracle of the Catch of Fish, v. 1-11

2. A Leper Healed, v. 12-16

3. A Paralytic Healed, v.17-26

4. The Call of Matthew, v. 27-29

5. The Murmuring Scribes and Pharisees Answered, v. 30-35

6. The Garment and Bottles Parable, v. 36-39

Chapter VI

1. Jesus and the Sabbath, v.1-5.

2. Healing of the Withered Hand, v. 6-11

3. The Twelve Chosen, v.12-46

4. The Beatitudes Explained, v. 20-46

5. Building On the Rock or Sand, v. 47-49

Chapter VII

1. Servant of the Centurion Healed, v.1-10.

2. Widow’s Son of Nain Raised, v.11-18

3. John’s Disciples Sent to Question Jesus, v.19-23

4. Testimony of Jesus Sent To John the Baptist, v. 24-29

5. Jesus Exposes Dullness of Unbelievers, v. 30-35.

6. Jesus in the Pharisee’s House, v. 36-40

7. The Creditor and Two Debtors, v. 41-50

Chapter VIll

1. Jesus Preached Throughout Galilee, v.1-3

2. Parable of Jesus As the Sower, v. 4-15

3. Parable of the Lighted Candle, v.16-18

4. New Relationship Thru Christ, v.19-21

5. Jesus Stills the Waves, v. 22-25

6. Demoniac of Gadara Healed, v. 26-39

7. A Woman Healed and Jairus’ Daughter Raised, v. 40-56.

Chapter IX

1. The Twelve Sent Forth to Preach, v. 1-9.

2. The Apostles Return--The 5,000 Fed, v. 10-17

3. Peter’s Confession of Christ, v. 18-21

4. Jesus Foretold His Own Death and Resurrection, v. 22 .

5. The Test of Discipleship, v. 23-26

6. The Transfiguration, v. 27-36

7. Powerless Disciples, Demon Cast From Child, v. 37-43 .

8. Jesus Again Foretold His Death, v. 44, 45

9. The Attitude Of A Child, v. 46-48

10. Rebuke of Religious Prejudice, v. 49, 50

11. New Attitude of Grace, Final Leave of Galilee, v. 51-56

12. A Further Test Of Discipleship, v. 57-62

Chapter X

1. The Seventy Sent Two By Two Before Jesus, v. 1-12

2. Woe Pronounced On Three Cities of Galilee, v. 13-24

3. A Lawyer Inquires of Eternal Life, v. 25-29

4. The Good Samaritan Parable, v. 30-37

5. Contrast Between Martha and Mary, v. 38-42

Chapter XI

1. The Teaching Of Prayer, v.1-4

2. The Importuning Friend Parable, v. 5-10

3. The Fatherhood Parable, v.11-13

4. Jesus Accused of Casting Out Demons by Beelzebub, v. 14-23

5. Vanity of Self-Reformation, v. 24-28

6. The Sign of Jonas, v. 29-32

7. The Lighted Candle Parable, v. 33-38

8. Jesus Pronounced Woes Upon Certain Pharisees, v. 39-44

9. Jesus Pronounced Woes Upon Certain Lawyers, v. 45-54

Chapter XI I

1. Jesus Warned About Leaven of the Pharisees, v.1-15

2. The Rich Fool Parable, v.16-34

3. Parable Regarding the Second Coming, vs. 35-41

4. Parable of the Steward and His Servants, v. 42-28

5. Christ A Divider of Men, v. 49-59

Chapter XIII

1. Men to Repent, Not Judge, v. 1-5

2. Barren Fig Tree Parable, v. 6-9

3. Woman an 18 Year Cripple Healed, v. 10-19

4. Parable of the Leaven, v. 20, 21

5. Teaching, Going Up to Jerusalem, v. 22-33

6. Lament Over Jerusalem, v. 34, 35

Chapter XIV

1. Sabbath Healing of a Dropsy, v.1-6

2. The Ambitious Guest Parable, v. 7-15

3. The Great Supper Parable, v.16-24

4. Test of Discipleship, v. 25-27

5. Parable of the Tower-Building, v. 28-30

6. Parable of King Preparing for War, v. 31-33

Chapter XV

1. The Murmuring Pharisees, v. 1, 2

2. The Lost Sheep Parable, v. 3-7

3. The Lost Coin Parable, v. 8-10

4. The Lost Son Parable, v.11-16

5. His Repentance, v.17-19

6. The Return to the Father, v. 20-22

7. The Rejoicing, v. 23, 24

8. The Pharisee-Like Son, v. 25-31

Chapter XVI

1. The Unjust Steward Parable, v.1-13

2. Jesus Answered the Pharisees, v. 14-17

3. Jesus, Regarding Divorce, v.18

4. The Rich Man and Lazarus, v. 19-31

Chapter XVll

1. Instruction in Forgiveness, v.1-6

2. Parable of Service, v. 7-10

3. The Ten Lepers Healed, v.11-19

4. The Kingdom of God (of Heaven) Already Here, v. 20, 21

5. The Second Coming Foretold to the Church, v. 22-38

Chapter XVIIII

1. The Unjust Judge, v.1-8

2. The Pharisee and The Publican, v. 9-14

3. Jesus Blessed Little Children, v.15-17

4. The Rich Young Ruler, v. 18-30

5. Jesus Again Foretells His Death and Resurrection, v. 31-34

Chapter XIX

1. The Conversion of Zacchaeus, v. 9-10

2. Parable of Ten Pounds, the Delayed Kingdom, v.11-27

3. The Triumphal Entry, v. 28-40

4. Jesus Wept Over Jerusalem, v. 41-44

5. Second Purification of the Temple, v. 45-48.

Chapter XX

1. The Authority of Jesus Questioned, v.1-8

2. Parable of the Vineyard, v. 9-18

3. Jesus Questioned Regarding Tribute, v.19-26

4. Jesus Answers Sadducees About the Resurrection, v. 27-38.

5. Jesus Questions the Scribes, v. 39-47

Chapter XXI

1. The Widow’s Mite, v.1-4

2. The Olivet Address, v. 5, 6

3. The Disciples Inquiry of Signs of the Times, v. 7

4. The Course or Direction of This Age, v. 8-19

5. Destruction of Jerusalem, Dispersion of the Jews, v. 20-24

6. The Coming of the Lord in the Air, v. 25-28.

7. The Fig-Tree Parable, v. 29-33

8. Direct Warning to His church, v. 34-38

Chapter XXll

1. Judas Bargains to Betray Jesus, v. 1-6

2. Preparations of the Last Passover, v. 7-13

3. Partaking of the Last Passover, v.14-18

4. The Beginning (Institution) of the Lord’s Supper, v. 19, 20

5. Jesus Explains the Betrayal Is at Hand, vs. 21-23

6. Apostles Strife of the Greatest, v. 24-27

7. The Apostle’s Position in the Millennial, v. 28-30

8. Peter’s Denial of Jesus, v. 31-34

9. Jesus Warned the Disciples of Pending Conflicts, v. 35-38

10. Jesus in Gethsemane, v. 39-46

11. Betrayal by Judas, Malchus’s Ear Healed, v. 47-53

12. Jesus Arrested, Peter’s Denial of Him, v. 54-62

13. Jesus Smitten, v. 63-65

14. Jesus Led into the Sanhedrin Council, v. 66-71

Chapter XL

1. Jesus Led up to Pilate, v.1-5.

2. Jesus Sent to Herod by Pilate, v. 6-12

3. Returned to Pilate; Barabbas Released, Jesus Condemned, v.13-26

4. The Crucifixion Procedure, v. 27-38

5. The Repentant Thief, v. 39-45

6. Jesus Releases His Own Spirit, v. 46-49

7. Jesus Entombed by Joseph of Arimathaea, v. 50-56


1. The Resurrection News About Jesus, v.1-12

2. Jesus Ministers to Emmaus Road Disciples, v.13-35

3. Jesus Appears to the Apostles and Others, v. 36-45

4. The Commission to Go to All Nations, v. 46-48

5. The Ascension of Jesus in the Presence of His Church, v. 49-53.


1) "Forasmuch as many have taken in hand," (epeideper polloi epecheiresan) "Since many took or have already taken in hand;" These "many" were likely honest, but perhaps lacking in authority, ability, and inspiration.

2) "To set forth in order a declaration," (anataksasthai diegesin) "To draw up a narrative," indicating that the facts to be set out are well known at the time, but Luke purposed to set out in some chronological sequence certain narrations.

3) "Of those things," (peri ton pragmaton) "Concerning the practical or pragmatic things," relating to the person and ministry of John the Baptist and of Jesus.

4) "Which are most surely believed among us." (peplerophoremenon en hemin) "Which have been fully carried out, occurred, done, or fulfilled among us," or are generally well known among us, even including the resurrection of the Lord, 1 Corinthians 15:6-7; John 15:27.

Verse 2

1) "Even as they delivered them unto us," (kathos paredosan hemin) "Just as they were delivered to us," by competent witnesses.

2) "Which from the beginning were eyewitnesses," (hoi ap’ arches autoptai) "Who were eyewitnesses from the beginning," as the twelve apostles, and other members of the Church company of the Lord had been, John 15:27, 2 Peter 1:16; 1 John 1:1.

3) "And ministers of the word;" (kai huperetai genomenoi tou logou) "And attendants of the word," who were having become attendants, as ministers of the Word to others, Hebrews 2:3; Romans 15:16; Ephesians 3:7-8.

Verse 3

1) "It seemed good to me also," (edokse kamoi) "it also seemed ideal to me."

2) "Having had perfect understanding," (parekolouthekoti akribos) "Having investigated thoroughly or accurately," having traced down, or investigated reports, separating fact and fiction, especially regarding the matters of fact set forth in the first two chapters of Luke relating to John the Baptist and Jesus Christ in their official capacities.

3) "Of all things from the very first," (anothen pasin) "All things from their source," classifying persons and events, from the beginning of the ministries of the two great prophets: 1) John the Baptist, and 2) Jesus, about whom, he purposes to write this Gospel narrative, Matthew 11:11; Deuteronomy 18:15-18.

4) "To write unto thee in order," (kathekses soi grapsai) "To write to you in order," not with chronological accuracy but in classifying events and factual reports of what Jesus did and taught, without mixing up one story with another.

5) "Most excellent Theophilus," (kratiste theophile) "Most excellent (respected) Theophilus," meaning friend or lover of God, perhaps a most illustrious Christian, though unknown beyond this personal address and that of Acts 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:26. It is believed Theophilus may have been paid to help in the writing.

Verse 4

1) "That thou mightest know the certainty," (hina epignos ton asphalsian) "In order that you might know the reliability," the trustworthiness. For His "Word is true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160; and His own are to do whatsoever He (Jesus) has commanded them, John 14:15; John 15:14. This Gospel is therefore designed to give them strength and harmony to the unity of the Scriptures regarding Jesus Christ, John 5:39.

2) "Of those things," (peri logon) "Concerning those words," or things reported, in which matters of council and direction, Acts 1:1-2. While Matthew, Mark, and John were good historians, Luke was the better editor in grouping and classifying so many personal deeds and events of the Life of the Master. -

3) "Wherewith thou hast been instructed." (hon katechethes) "In which you were and - have been instructed," or catechized, regarding character and conduct matters, and deeds of service and worship to God, before your fellowman.

Luke appealed to the Greek, the cultured of the day. In a thoughtful, cultured, philosophic Greek mind, he gave a complete, orderly, and classical story depicting the glorious beauty and perfection of Jesus, the Ideal, universal man, as the Son of man.

Verse 5

ANNOUNCEMENT TO ZACHARIAS V. 5-25 (Birth, John the Baptist Foretold)

1) "There was in the days of Herod," (egeneto en tais hemerais Herodou) "There existed or lived in the days of Herod;" Herod the Great, Matthew 2:1, during the reign of Herod, who ruled over Galilee, Samaria, and most of Peraea.

2) "The king of Judea," (basileos tes loudaias) "Who was king of Judea," at that time. He was the first king of Judah who was not of Jewish extraction or race. Therefore with him the sceptre had departed from Judah, for "Shiloh", the peace giving one had come, Genesis 49:10.

3) "A certain priest named Zacharias," (hiereus tis onomati Zacharias) "A particular (certain special) priest known by name as. Zacharias," which means "whom Jehovah remembers," and He did.

4) "Of the course of Able:" (eks ephemerias Abia) "Out of or from the course, order, or lineage of Abia," a course of daily service for a week; Abia also known as Abijah was eighth of the twenty-four classes of priests instituted by David, 1 Chronicles 24:10.

5) "And his wife was of the daughters of Aaron,"(kai gune auto ek ton thugateron Aaron) "And his wife was out of the line of the daughters of Aaron," also a priestly lineage, as well as Zacharias.

6) "And her name was Elizabeth." (kai to onoma autes Elisabet) "And the name of her was Elizabeth," which means "worshipper of God."

Verse 6

1) "And they were both righteous before God," (esan de dikaioi amphoteroi enantion tou theou) "And they both were (existed) righteous before the face of God," approved by God, not merely virtuous before men, 1 Corinthians 1:30; Philippians 3:9; See also Simeon the aged, Luke 2:25.

2) "Walking in all the commandments," (poreuomenoi in pasais tais entolais) "Going on or about in all the commandments," moral precepts in harmony with the Law of Moses, as their fathers had pledged to do before them, Exodus 19:8. The walked morally and ethically upright. Theirs was an habitual walk, as denoted, Psalms 1:1.

3) "And ordinances of the Lord," (kai dikaiomasin tou kuriou) "And in all the ordinances of the Lord," observing the ceremonial rites, as types, shadows, and object lessons faithfully, because of their faith in the coming Messiah, not with view to secure salvation from hell to heaven.

4) "Blameless." (amemptoi) "As blameless," irreproachable, or without indictable blame, esteemed by men. It was a similar outward walk to that of Saul of Tarsus before he was saved, except Saul erred by trusting he would acquire salvation through his outward deportment, while Zacharias and Elizabeth did not, Philippians 3:6-9.

Verse 7

1) "And they had no child," (kai ouk en autois teknon) "And did not have a child," none born to them, a hindrance to their happiness. To be childless was often spoken of as punishment in Old Testament times, as a reproach, though at times it was for the glory of God, Luke 1:25; Genesis 30:23; 1 Samuel 1:6.

2) "Because that Elizabeth was barren," (kathoi en he Elisabet steira) "Because Elizabeth was sterile or barren," unproductive, could not conceive; To be childless was considered to be a family calamity from the Jewish point of view, hard for these two to reconcile, since God promised prosperity and children to the upright, Psalms 128:1-6.

3) "And they both were well stricken in years." (kai amphoteroi probebekotes en tais hemerais auton esan) "And they were both well advanced in years." growing to be elderly in age, with no longer any hope of having children, by virtue of the two facts: 1) That she was barren, and 2) That both were aged, beyond normal years of child-bearing. This family’s seeming hopelessness for a family-name son was much like: a) Abraham and Sarah, to whom Isaac was given. b) Elkanah and Hannah, to whom Samuel was given. c) Manoah and his wife before Samson was given.

In each instance God intervened, by sovereign will, that the purpose of His will might be fulfilled.

Verse 8

1) "And it came to pass," (egeneto de) "Then it occurred," as he deported himself as a good man and priest among many degenerate priests of the time.

2) "That while he executed the priests office before God," (en to hierateuein auton) "That while he served as priest," while burning incense in the holy place, on a certain day.

3) "In order of his course" (en te taksei tes eoemerias autou) "in the order of his proper course," fulfilling his priestly week of duty, a special occasion in a priest’s life, as it might never come to him again in his life, at a time when there were said to be near 20,000 priests among the Jews in Israel.

4) "Before God," (enanti tou theou) "In the presence of God," or with God looking on, as he ministered in the temple of God in Jerusalem. The Holy place and the office belonged to God until it was abolished by Jesus Christ, "The Great High-Priest of our profession," Heb 31; John 2:16-17.

Verse 9

1) "According to the custom of the priest’s office," (kata to ethos tes hierateias) "in harmony with the custom or ethical practice of the priesthood," on one day of his weekly ministration of priestly service. The custom was to burn a morning and evening sacrifice upon the altar of sacrifice, Exodus 30:7-8.

2) "His lot was to burn incense," (elache tou thumasai) "His lot or turn was to burn incense;" The part of priest was assigned by lot. Three were employed at the altar for the offering of incense, to make intercession for the people. This was the most distinguished part of the services.

3) "When he went into the temple of the Lord." (eiselthon eis ton naon tou kuriou) "Upon entering into the shrine or temple proper, of the Lord." Each of these three priests performed four duties in connection with the incense offering service:

a) They removed the ashes of the former service.

b) They brought a pan of hot, burning coals in from the altar of burnt offering to place on the golden altar of incense.

c) They sprinkled the incense upon the hot coals.

d) While the incense smoke arose they interceded to God for the people of Israel, Revelation 8:3-4.

Zacharias was thus engaged when an angel of God appeared to him, Luke 1:11.

Verse 10

1) "And the whole multitude of people," (kai pan to plethos tou laou) "And all the crowd (multitude) of the people," gathered for the solemn occasion, perhaps for the Sabbath day, Leviticus 16:12-13; Psalms 141:2.

2) "Were praying without at the time of incense." (proseuchomenon ekso te hira tou thumiamatos) "Were continually praying outside the temple proper, at the hour of the incense offering," perhaps at the morning offering, or burning. While God’s people today pray "without", Jesus Himself, as High Priest, prays within the veil, heaven itself, making intercession for His children on earth, Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 9:24.

Verse 11

1) "And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord," (ophthe de autou angelos kuriou) "Then there appeared to him an angel of the Lord," as he burned incense upon the golden altar and offered prayers for the people, Revelation 8:3-4. This informing angel is later called Gabriel, Luke 1:19.

2) "Standing on the right side of the altar of incense." (hestos ek deksion tou thusiasteriou tou thumiamatos) "Standing out at the right side of the altar of incense," the place of honor and authority, at the south side of the altar, 2 Kings 2:19; Psalms 110:1; Mark 16:5; John 21:6. Luke emphasized the ministry of angels in both this Gospel and in Acts, a ministry also confirmed by Paul, Hebrews 1:14. Prayers ascended from the lips of the priest, as incense fell as prayers upon the burning coals from the altar, man’s sins were purged, thus one was cleansed for Divine service, Isaiah 6:6-7.

Verse 12

1) "And when Zacharias saw him," (kai Zacharias idon) "And Zacharias seeing," perceiving, beholding him; He saw the angel Gabriel standing in an attitude of service on the right side (south side) of the altar, between the golden altar of incense and the candlestick, while Zacharias stood on the north side of the altar offering incense and prayers.

2) "He was troubled," (etarachthe) "He (came to be) troubled," discomposed, caused to tremble, not knowing whether the angel came in wrath or mercy. Zacharias was startled as Daniel was, Daniel 10:7-8; Daniel 10:17; and as John was on Patmos, Revelation 1:17.

3) "And fear fell upon him." (kai phobos epepesen epi’ auton) "And fear fell (came over) him," overwhelmed him, as he stood there alone, astonished at the sudden appearance of one of God’s servants who had come to bring him good news, Hebrews 1:14. This fear of the divine, reverential fear, is a state of piety taught in the Old Testament, that men should "fear God and keep (guard) his commandments," Deuteronomy 6:2; Deuteronomy 10:12; Psalms 19:9; Proverbs 12:13.

Verse 13

1) "But the angel said unto him," (eipen de, pros autou ho angelos) "Then the angel said directly to him," words of comfort, such as the angel spoke to Mary and our Lord spoke later to His church, Luke 2:10; Luke 12:32. It was the first New Testament communication from heaven, the first direct Divine message for four hundred years, since Malachi.

2) "Fear not Zacharias," (me ptrobou zacharia) "Zacharias do not fear," La 3:57, be afraid, disturbed, come apart, or come unglued. Zacharias, he knows you! With these two golden words, "fear not," by this angelic servant, Gabriel, four centuries of Divine silence was broken, Luke 1:19.

3) "For thy prayer is heard;" (dioti eisekousthe he deesis sou) "Because your special request was heard," in glory, by the Lord of glory, like that of Isaac for Rebekah, and like Hannah prayed for a son, 1 Samuel 1:20.

4) "And thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son," (kai he gune sou Elisabet gennesei huion soi) "And your wife Elizabeth will bear a son to or for you." His official prayer was that the Messiah should come, but his prayer-longing continued, was also for a son. This was a positive answer.

5) "And thou shalt call his name John," (kai kaleseis to onoma autou Icannen) "And you shall call his name John." The name John was given by the angel, perhaps to inspire confidence and strengthen the faith of Zacharias, just as the name Jesus was later given to Joseph for his son, the Redeemer, Matthew 1:21. The name John means "Jehovah is gracious," and is derived from Johanan. 2 Kings 25:23.

Verse 14

1) "And thou shalt have joy and gladness;" (kai estai chara soi kai agalliasis) "And you shall have joy and gladness," occasion for exultation, exceeding joy, joy in the highest degree, spiritual joy, because through John’s ministry many should be "turned to the Lord," by him, Luke 1:16.

2) "And many shall rejoice at his birth." (kai polloi epi te genesei autou charesontai) "And many people will rejoice over his birth," at the time of birth itself, but especially at his life of service that followed the prophesied will of God, Luke 1:58; Isaiah 40:1-3; Matthew 3:1-3. There was therefore not only joy to the parents but also to those many whom his preaching later blessed, Philippians 4:4.

Verse 15

1) "For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord," (estai ger megas enopion kuriou) "For he will be great in the eyes of the Lord," not only for his character, but also for his moral, ethical, and religious devotion. He was to be great in holiness and usefulness, as certified by our Lord personally, Luke 7:28.

2) "And shall drink neither wine nor strong drink;" (kai oinon kai sikera ou me pie) "And he may by no means &ink wine and strong drink." Strong drink was abstracted from most any fruit but grapes, but never from grapes. He was to be a Nazarite, one committed to abstinence from both wine and strong drink, Numbers 6:1-5.

3) "And he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost," (kai pseumatos hagiou plesthesetai) "And he will be filled with or controlled of the Holy Spirit," in contrast with ones being "filled with" or "controlled by" wine, as described Ephesians 5:18; A man wholly under the will of God.

4) "Even from his mother’s womb." (eti ek koilias metros autou) "Even from the womb of his mother, "or from birth. No razor was to come upon him, as a mark of one dedicated wholly to God, as Samson was, Judges 13:7, and as Samuel was, 1 Samuel 1:11. As the leper was a living symbol of uncleanness. No strong drink was to touch his lips and no razor was to come upon his head. He was to be "holy to the Lord all the days of his separation," which might be voluntary or temporary, only three were separated for life, Samson; Samuel, and John.

Verse 16

1) "And many of the children of Israel," (kai pollous ten huion Israel) "And many of the sons or heirs of Israel," not all, but many, for multitudes followed him as a prophet, Matthew 14:5.

2) "Shall he turn to the Lord their God." (epistrepsei epi kurion ton theon auton) "He will turn to the Lord their God," from ceremonialism and ritualism to genuine repentance and faith in the coming Messiah. Repentance or conversion of life and soul was his watchword as he prepared a people for the Lord, Matthew 3:5-8; Luke 3:3-4; Luke 3:7-8; Acts 19:4.

Verse 17

1) "And he shall go before him," (kai autos proeleusetai enopion autou) "And he will go before him," as prophesied, Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 4:5; Matthew 3:3, as an herald to announce, and as a pioneer to prepare, the way for Jesus. One difference between John and Elias is that John did no miracles. John 20:4.

2) "In the spirit and power of Elias," (en pneumati kai dunamei Eliou) "In spirit and power of Elias," of the source and kind of, spirit dynamics that Elias had, as expressed 1 Kings 21:20; 2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4; as a rugged individualist he went forth among the common people, Malachi 4:6.

3) "To turn the hearts of the fathers to the children," (epi strepsai kardias pateron epi tekna) "To turn the hearts or affections of fathers to or toward children," toward their duties to teach their children of their need of a redeemer and that the long awaited one was at hand.

4) "And the disobedient to the wisdom of the just;" (kai apeitheis en phronesei dikaion) "And disobedient ones (of Israel) to the understanding of the just," to justice and righteousness in deed, not merely as a formality. To turn them back to God in spirit, not merely in form, 1 Kings 18:36-37.

5) "To make ready a people prepared for the Lord." (epoi masai kurio laon kateskeuasmenon) "To prepare a people completely prepared for the Lord," upon His coming; that is, a people prepared to welcome and receive Him, as a people for His name’s sake, the Church, Acts 15:14; John 16:1 to John 17:26.

Verse 18

1) "And Zacharias said unto the angel," (kai eipen Zacharuas pros ton angelon) "And Zacharias said directly to the angel," as a matter of inquiry, and a sign; For the Jews "require a sign", 1 Corinthians 1:22. It seemed to him too good to be true.

2) "Whereby shall I know this?" (kai ti gnosomai touto) "By what means shall I know this?" Zacharias expressed doubt or distrust in the message of Gabriel, God’s chief informing angel, v. 19. Yet a similar promise had been made to Abraham, "who staggered or wavered not at the promise of God," as well as Sarah, Romans 4:20; Hebrews 11:11.

3) "For I am an old man," (ego gar eimi persbutes) "For I am already aged," old or elderly, by normal and natural limitations of life; Yet, he did not consider that God was the source of all life and its continuance, Acts 17:28.

4) "And my wife well stricken in years." (kai he gune mou probebekuia en tais hemerais autes) "And my wife has already advanced in years," beyond expectancy of bearing a child; In Zacharias’ doubting and vacillating at God’s message and messenger, God was dishonored. The angel itself was a sign, and it appears that Zacharias in his perturbation forgot that nothing is "too hard for God," Genesis 18:14; Romans 4:17-18.

Verse 19

1) "And the angel answering said unto him," (kai’ apokritheis ho angelos eipen auto) "And the angel replying said to him," personally and directly, from heaven, and beside the golden altar of incense, Luke 1:11.

2) "I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God;" (ego eimi Gabriel ho parestekos enopion tou theou) "I am the Gabriel, continually standing before God," available for His service, to do His bidding, to bear His message. The name Gabriel means "man of God" and he was, as an attendant servant of God, as in 1 Kings 17:1.

3) "And am sent to speak unto thee," (kai apestalen lalesai pros se) "And I was sent to speak to you," was sent on this mission, to inform and advise you, as he had been sent to Daniel at the same time of incense, Daniel 9:21; And to Mary, Luke 1:26. This was an "high commission" mission for Gabriel.

4) "And to shew thee these glad tidings." (kai euangelisasthai lalesai soi tauta) "And to announce these things to you," to disclose these good tidings to you, of the birth of John and Jesus, which you should receive with faith and joy, just recounted, Luke 1:16-17. The naming of angels came to be prominent in the latter days of Judaism, a thing that was not done in her early days, Daniel 8:16; Daniel 10:21, etc.

Verse 20

1) "And, behold thou shalt be dumb," (kai idou ese siopon) "And take note, you will be continuously dumb," or silent, one sign "whereby you may know this." You shall have a temporary, yet total dumbness. It was heaven’s seal of chastening silence, till God’s chastening purpose was fulfilled, Luke 1:62-64.

2) "And not able to speak," (kai me dunamenos lalesai) "And not be able to speak," with a state of speech paralysis, another sign whereby you may know the truth of God’s message you have doubted, Luke 1:18.

3) "Until the day that these things shall be performed," (achri hes hemeras genetai tauta) "Until the day when these things occur," and the third visible evidence, tangible evidence, is that both your dumbness and paralysis of speech will continue until every word (I, Gabriel) have spoken has come to pass.

4) "Because thou believest not my words," (ant[Y hon ouk episteusas tois logois mou) "Because you did not believe my words," my message, you doubted God’s message that I, His attendant brought you, though it was good news for you, Israel, and the whole world. It seemed too great to be believed.

5) "Which shall be fulfilled in their season." (oitines plerothesontai eis ton kairon auton) "Which will be fulfilled in their season," when the time of John’s coming has come and gone, as he should decrease and Jesus increase, John 3:27-30.

Verse 21

1) "And the people waited for Zacharias," (kai en ho laos prosdokon ton Zacharian) "And the people were expecting Zacharias," waiting expectantly without the temple; As Zacharias was delaying and doubting beside the altar of incense; Even righteous men may waver, 1 Corinthians 15:58.

2) "And they marvelled," (kai ethaumazon) "And they marvelled," wondered among themselves, as they waited for him to come forth for a benediction upon them, in the normal manner, as expressed in the Aaronic benediction, Numbers 6:23-27.

3) "That he tarried so long in the temple," (en to chronizein en to nao auton) "When he stayed for so long a time in the temple proper," much longer than the normal half hour, in performing his offering of incense and prayer, at the golden altar, in their behalf. It was not a custom for the priest to tarry long, lest the people should be in fear that he was stricken of God in vengeance for something that was wrong in Israel. They stood at a distance for fear, while we are now bid to "draw nigh" to the Lord, and fellowship in His. church worship, Hebrews 10:21-25.

Verse 22

1) "And when he came out," (ekselthon de) "Then upon going outside," or when he came outside of the temple, in view of the waiting people.

2) "He could not speak unto them," (ouk edunato lalesai autois) "He was unable to speak to them," because of a paralysis or dumbness of speech, as a direct judgment from God because of his unbelief, Luke 1:20.

3) "And they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple:" (kai epegnosen hoti opasin heoraken en to nao) "And they realized that he had seen a vision while he was in the temple," by some motion of the hands of expression of his countenance, which was all he could do. He could not bless them, or explain his extended absence, Luke 24:23; 2 Corinthians 12:1.

4) "For he beckoned unto them," (kai autos en dianeuon autois) "And he was continually motioning to them," talking or communicating with them with physical gestures, with his hands and expressions of his eyes, by which he signified what had happened.

5) "And remained speechless." (kai dieminen kophos) "And he ’remained dumb," or paralyzed in speech, could not talk or apparently hear either, Luke 1:62. As Zacharias became dumb, so Saul became blind for a temporary time, till the will of God, by chastisement, was fulfilled in the life of both, Acts 9:8; Acts 9:12; Acts 9:17-19.

Verse 23

1) "And it came to pass that," (kai egeneto) "And it came to be," to exist, or to occur.

2) "As soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished," (hos eplesthesan hai hemerai tes leitourgeias autou) "When the days of his turn of service in the temple proper were fulfilled," at the close of that week of his officiating. The term "service" here used refers to "priestly service", or elsewhere, to refer to service rendered as a citizen at his own expense, or at times to any service.

3) "He departed to his own house." (apelthen eis ton oikon autou) "He went directly to his home or residence," where Elizabeth was and waited for him to come home, there to meditate on what he had seen and heard, until the birth of his son, John the Baptist.

Verse 24

1) "And after those days," (meta de tautas tas hermeras) "Then after these days," that the angel Gabriel had come to him in the temple, and Joseph had returned to his home.

2) "His wife Elizabeth conceived," (suelaben Elisabet he gune autou) "His wife Elizabeth came to conceive," as the angel Gabriel had told Zacharias that she would.

3) "And hid herself five months, saying," (kai periekruben heauten menas pente legousa) "And she hid herself for a period of five months repeatedly saying," without, or before, revealing what had and was happening to her.

Verse 25

1) "Thus hath the Lord dealt with me," (hoti houtos moi pepoieken kurios) "That this the Lord has done to me," directly touched me, to beget a son, as He has told my husband Zacharias.

2) "In the days wherein he looked on me," (en hemerais hais epeiden) "in days in which he looked upon and perceived me," and sent Gabriel with the good news that I would soon be with child, Luke 1:13.

3) "To take away my reproach among men." (aphelein oneidos mou an anthropois) "To bear away or remove my reproach among men," that I should no longer be a childless or barren woman, a reproach to, the name of my husband and his people, even my people, Israel, Genesis 30:23; 1 Samuel 1:6; Barrenness was also considered to be a result of sin.

Verse 26


1) "And in the sixth month," (en de to meni to hekto) "Then in the sixth month," of her conception, or after her pregnancy, after she came to be with child, and had hid herself for five months, Luke 1:24; Luke 1:36.

2) "The angel Gabriel was sent from God," (apestale ho angelos Gabriel apo tou theou) "The angel Gabriel was sent or mandated from God," on another high mission, just as he had been sent to Zacharias in Jerusalem of Judaea, Luke 1:5-9.

3)"Unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth," (eis polin tes Galilaias he onoma Nazareth) "Into a city of Galilee which was named Nazareth," though it was a city held in derision by most Jews who said, "can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" John 1:46. It was the original home of Joseph and Mary, where she was conceived of the Holy Spirit, and where they returned after their sojourn in Egypt, Matthew 2:15; Matthew 2:23.

Verse 27

1) "To a virgin espoused to a man," (pros parthenon emnesteumenen andri) "To a virgin betrothed, engaged, or espoused to a man," as predicted Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18, to a virgin, young woman who had never lain with a man, who had become engaged to be married, but who "knew not a man," in carnal relations, Luke 1:34.

2) "Whose name was Joseph," (ho onoma loseph) "Whose name was (existed as) Joseph," whose name means "he will add." He was a carpenter of Nazareth, Matthew 1:16; Matthew 1:18-25; Matthew 2:13-15; Matthew 13:55; Luke 2:4-5; Luke 2:16; Luke 2:33.

3) "Of the house of David;" (eks oikou David) "Out of or who was descending from the house (lineage) or family line of David," Matthew 1:16-17; Psalms 89:35-36. He was still alive when Jesus was twelve years of age, Luke 2:41-51, and believed to be dead before Jesus began His ministry.

4) "And the virgin’s name was Mary." (kai to onoma tes parthenou mariam) "And the name of the virgin was Mary," that virgin foretold Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18; Matthew 1:23. The name Mary was equivalent to Miriam in the Old Testament and means, "rebellion." Mary also was descended from David, Luke 1:32.

Verse 28

1) "And the angel came unto her, and said, Hall," (kai eiselthon peos auten eipen chaire) "And as he entered into her presence and while approaching her, he said, Hail," or greetings from on high, from heaven.

2) "Thou that art highly favored," (kecharitomene) "You are an highly favored one," graciously accepted, or much covered ’with grace; The Greek term is rendered "made accepted," Ephesians 1:6. She was much graced or much favored, Acts 7:46; Genesis 6:8; Genesis 39:4.

3) "The Lord is with thee:" (ho kurios meta sou) "The Lord be with. you," or exist with you, because you have found favor with God, Luke 1:30.

4) "Blessed art thou among women." Though left out of some Greek texts at this point it is in the original in Luke 1:42. It means "most blessed of women," for she was to become the mother of our Lord, who was to be "The seed of a woman, made of a woman," Genesis 3:15; Galatians 4:4-5.

Verse 29

1) "And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying," (he de epi to logo dietarachthe) "Then she was greatly disturbed at the saying, word, or statement," of the angel Gabriel, Luke 1:26-27.

2) "And cast in her mind," (kai dielogizeto) "And considered or pondered in her mind," with much uncertainty, in the presence of God’s messenger Gabriel.

3) "What manner of salutation this should be." (potapos eie ho aspasmos houtos) "Of what sort of greeting this might be," or just what was the meaning of it all.

Verse 30

1) "And the angel said unto her," (kai eipen ho angelos aute) "And the angel said directly to her," to comfort and console her fears.

2) "Fear not, Mary:" (me phobou mariam) "Do not fear, Mary," do not be afraid. Note, God’s angels know God’s children by name; Daniel and Zacharias had learned this lesson, that was now taught to Mary; See Hebrews 1:14; Psalms 34:7.

3) " For thou hast found favor with God." (heures gar charin para to theo) "For you have found favor with God," found the gracious good will of and with God; For she had now been Divinely approved to become the mother of heaven’s choice, Luke 1:39-45. What favor toward a poor virgin in an obscure town.

Verse 31

1) "And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb," (kai idou sullempse en gastri) "And behold or note this, you will conceive in (your) womb," as a normal woman conceives, except for the source of begettal, Genesis 3:15; Galatians 4:4; It was a mystery of godliness, 1 Timothy 3:16.

2) "And bring forth a son," (kai tekse huion) "And you will bear a son," give birth to a son, an heir, an heir-son, not a daughter, Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:6; Micah 5:2.

3) "And shalt call his name JESUS." (kai kaleseis to onoma autou lesoun) "And you shall call his name Jesus," meaning Savior or deliverer, as also later told by the angel to Joseph, Matthew 1:21; It was to be an "He", a "Son", that was virgin born, and it was, Matthew 1:22-25. A wicked angel came to Eve to separate her and her offspring from God. This good angel Gabriel came to Mary to tell her how that man might be united with God, through His Son, and her son, Jesus, Matthew 1:21.

Verse 32

1) "He shall be great," (houtos estai megas) "This one shall be great," shall exist as a great one, as formerly described prophetically, Isaiah 9:6; 1 Timothy 6:15; Philippians 2:10. This was also said of John, his forerunner, Luke 1:15; Matthew 12:42. He was great in nature, offices, words, deeds, life, death, and in history.

2) "And shall be called the Son of the Highest:" (kai huios hupsistou klethesetai) "And he will be called Son or heir of the most High," the Son or heir of God; Even the angels ascribed this to Him, when they met the shepherds on the night of His birth of Judaea, Luke 2:13-14; Psalms 2:7.

3) "And the Lord God shall give unto him," (kai dosei auto kurios ho theos) "And the Lord God will give or dole out to him," commit to him the administration of, Psalms 132:11.

4) "The throne of his father David:" (ton thronon Daid tou patros autou) "The throne of his lineage-father David," 2 Samuel 7:12; Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 16:5; Jeremiah 23:5. Our Lord shall literally, physically, fulfill, in the Golden Millennial kingdom era, that promise made to Abraham and confirmed in David to reign in peace over all the ancient land-grant-promise made to Israel. That David was his lineage father is certified, Matthew 1:1; Luke 3:23; Luke 3:31. Jesus will restore that kingdom, according to God’s promise, as expressed through the prophets, and the angel Gabriel.

Verse 33

1) "And he shall reign over the house of Jacob," (kai basileusei epi ton oikon lakob) "And he will reign over the house of David," also known as the house of Jacob, from whom the twelve tribes sprang, Genesis 49:1-33; Luke 21:20-23; Romans 11:26.

2) "For ever;" (eis tou aionas) "Forever," or into the ages, without end or termination, with the first one thousand years to be definitively over the promised land, when He shall rule from Mount Zion over the twelve tribes of Israel, as the twelve apostles shall sit on twelve thrones, serving Him, Luke 22:28-30.

3) "And of his kingdom there shall be no end." (kai tes basileias autou ouk estai telos) "And of his kingdom-administration there will be no end, cessation, or termination," 1 Corinthians 15:24; Daniel 2:44; Daniel 7:13-14; Daniel 7:27; Micah 4:7. It is to be universal, both literal and spiritual, as well as eternal in duration.

Verse 34

1) "Then said Mary unto the angel," (eipen de mariam pros ton angelon) "Then Mary said (replied) to the angel," in a direct inquiry, to the knowledgeable, informing, angel-servant Gabriel, who had disclosed the imminent event to her, Luke 1:31-33; as soon as she had recovered from her fear, yet full of wonder.

2) "How shall this be," (pos estai touto) "How will this be," or come to exist. The question was asked, not out of doubt or unbelief, such as Zacharias had done when told of the coming birth of John the Baptist, but for clarifying life purposes, for the mind of Mary. The "How question" was a biological one, and surely the giver and sustainer of life provided the answer to Gabriel.

3) "Seeing I know not a man?" (epei andra ou ginosko) "Since I know not a man;" Mary first affirmed her virginity to the angel Gabriel, who recognized the factual honesty of her testimony, though engaged or espoused to Joseph, she had remained a virgin, to fulfill prophecy, Isaiah 7:14.

The biological question receives a biological explanation, based on the movement of the Holy Spirit, the giver of life, upon and within her, as follows and certified, John 6:63; 2 Corinthians 3:6, which reads, "The spirit giveth life."

She was a virgin before she conceived, after she conceived, and after she brought forth Jesus, till she and Joseph "came together," Matthew 1:25; This fulfilled the sign-promise of Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:22-23. In normalcy of conception, virginity is broken in conception, and no young woman is a virgin after conception, or after giving birth to a child, but Mary was.

Verse 35

1) "And the angel answered and said unto her," (kai apokritheis ho angelos eipen aute) "And replying, the angel said to her," to her earnest and honest inquiry, not only for her benefit but also for that of all men for all times to follow, to explain how Jesus could be born free from sin, Hebrews 7:26.

2) "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee," (pneuma hagion epeleusetai epi se) "The Holy Spirit will come upon you," brood over you, as He did to bring form, order, and life to the present creation, Genesis 1:2-3; Job 26:13; Job 33:4; Psalms 104:30.

3) "And the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee," (kai dunamis hupsostou episkaisei sli) "And the dynamic power of the most High will overshadow you," the energy power of the Godhead (the Holy Spirit) who is active in all creation and giving and sustaining of life, will gently come over you like a cloud.

4) "Therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee:" (dio ksi to gennomenon hagion) "Wherefore, or as a result also, the Holy one being born "to you," under these Spirit controlled and veiled conditions, Matthew 1:18-25.

5) "Shall be called the Son of God." (klethesetai huios theos) "Will be called the Son of God," Miraculously born, Matthew 4:3; Mark 1:11; Romans 1:4, for He was and is," John 3:16; For this is the "how" that God’s Son was "made of woman," the "seed of woman," for redemptive purposes, Genesis 3:15; Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Timothy 3:16. The birth of the second Adam need not seem strange any more than the creation of the first Adam.

Verse 36

1) "And behold thy cousin Elizabeth," (kai idou Elisabet he sungenis sou) "And behold (take note of this) Elizabeth, your relative," or kinsman, called her cousin. Though Elizabeth was of the tribe of Levi, and Mary of the tribe of Judah, their people did intermarry tribally, and apparently it was in such a setting that they were relative-cousins.

2) "She hath also conceived a son in her old age:" (kai aute suneilephen huion en gerei autes) "She has also already conceived a son in her old age," elderly or advanced years, as Gabriel had told Zacharias she would, Luke 1:13.

3) "And this is the sixth month with her," (kai houtos men hektos estin aute) "And this is (the) sixth month with her conception," since she has conceived, as I (Gabriel) advised Zacharias she would.

4) "Who was called barren." (te kaloumene steira) "Who was being called (or referred to as) sterile or barren," unable to bear a child, a woman of reproach among the Jewish people, especially since she had an husband who was a priest, Luke 1:25; Isaiah 4:1.

Verse 37

1) "For with God," (hoti para tou theou) "Because with (in association with, alongside of) God," in harmony with God, Matthew 19:26. For God is omnipotent, Genesis 18:14. No word of God is void of power.

2) "Nothing shall be impossible." (ouk adunatesei) "Not a thing will be impossible," a faith expressed by Abraham, Romans 4:19-21; Hebrews 11:17-19. The tense expresses the idea that nothing ever has been or ever will be impossible with God. It should seem no more strange that Mary, the virgin, should conceive, without "knowing a man," than that Elizabeth should, so aged, though she knew a man.

Verse 38

1) "And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord;" (eipen de Mariam idou he doule kuriou) "Then Mary responded, behold the hand maid of the Lord," I am at your disposal. To face the world’s ridicule and Joseph’s suspicions. What faith! She was already espoused or engaged to a person named Joseph, of the royal house-lineage of David, of the tribe of Judah, and this message falls, Matthew 1:18.

2) "Be it unto me according to thy word." (genoito moi kata to hrema sou) "May it come to be to me according to your word," as it is from God who sent you to inform me, 0 Gabriel. Her spirit, or attitude was one of total surrender, whatever the cost, to do the will of her God, as she understood it, John 7:17; Ephesians 5:17.

3) "And the angel departed from her." (kai apelthen ap’ autes to angelos) "And the angel went away from her, of his own accord," his mission having been performed, as he had come with a message for Mary, as God’s servant, and as her servant, Hebrews 1:14. He left her as a surrendered vessel for bearing the treasure of the Son of God.

Verse 39


1) "And Mary arose in those days," (anastasa de Mariam en tais hemerais tautais) "Then Mary arose in those days," of her early conception or pregnancy. She arose from Nazareth where the angel Gabriel had appeared to her, Luke 1:26-27.

2) "And went into the hill country in haste," (eporeuthe eis ten oreinen meta spoudes) "And went into the mountain country with haste," to the higher mountains, to the south of Galilee, into Judaea, where her cousin Elizabeth and her husband Zacharias lived, Luke 1:5; Luke 1:23; Luke 1:56-57.

3) "Into a city of Jude;" (eis palin louda) "Into a city of Juda," or Judaea, apparently in the Jerusalem area where Zacharias served as a priest on occasion in the temple, v. 8-11, 23. Some, however, believe the city to have been Hebron, or in the Hebron area, Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:11.

Verse 40

1) "And entered into the house of Zacharias," (kai eiselthen eis ton oikon Zachariou) "And entered into the residence or home of Zacharias," where he went to Elizabeth as soon as the course of his temple ministration was finished, Luke 1:23-25.

2) "And saluted Elizabeth." (kai espasato ten Elisabet) "And she greeted Elizabeth," who was by now six months with child, Luke 1:26. She had now come out of a five Month period of seclusion, Luke 1:24, and was happy about her coming motherhood and new son.

Verse 41

1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it occurred," or happened.

2) "That when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary," (hos ekousen ton aspasmon tes Marias he Elisabet) "That when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary," the account of the angel Gabriel’s announcement to Mary of the coming birth of the Son of God, the Messiah to her.

3) "The babe leaped in her womb;" (eskiptesen to brephos en te koilia autes) "The babe leaped in her womb," like it had never leaped before, with elation, or joy and gladness, Luke 1:44. This was something like Elizabeth had never experienced before.

4) "And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost:" (kai eplesthe pneumatos hagiou he Elisabet) "And Elizabeth was filled with (controlled by) the Holy Spirit." It appears that she felt her babe, John the Baptist, had empathized with her elation when he heard of the coming birth of the Son of God, of whom he was to be a forerunner, Acts 6:3; Ephesians 5:18. It was by this Holy Spirit that she gave the grand salutation that follows.

Verse 42

1) "And she spake out," (kai anephonesen) "And she called out," with elation, with an excited burst of joy, but not one word about herself or her own condition.

2) "With a loud voice," (krauge megale) "With a great cry," an expanded release of inner joy and gladness, in a mega-phone-like-voice. It was a contrast to the low and sad tone or pitch in which Orientals normally speak.

3) "And said," (kai eipen) "And said," very clearly to Mary.

4) "Blessed art thou among women," (eulogemene su en gunaiksin) "Blessed are you among women," or you are the most blessed woman among all women, now about to bear the Son of God, the promised redeemer, Genesis 3:15. Not above, but among, all women.

5) "And blessed is the fruit of thy womb." (kai eulogemenos ho karpos tes koilias sou) "And let be continuously blessed the fruit of your womb," which shall come to be born, as surely as that one of my womb. This blessed benediction of Elizabeth, the aged expectant mother of John the Baptist, upon Mary, the expectant mother of our Lord, was a sustained Holy Spirit dominated or controlled testimony of faith in God and faith in the testimony of His informing angel Gabriel, now known to both Elizabeth the aged and Mary the young expectant virgin mother; It is much as the Aaronic benediction, Numbers 6:23-27.


The beautiful Gate of the Jewish Temple opened into the "Court of the Women", so named from the fact that they were not allowed any nearer approach towards the Holy Place. And as we open the gate of the third Gospel we enter the Court of the Women; for more than any other Evangelist, St. Luke records their loving and varied ministries. But ever first and foremost among the women of the Gospels, we must place the Virgin Mother, whose character and position in the Gospel story we are to consider.

-Exp. Bib.

Verse 43

1) "And whence is this to me," (kai pothen moi touto) "And whence is (exists) this to me," is this happening to me. The answer is, the will of the Lord for both of them in their physical cares, 2 Corinthians 1:3-4.

2) "That the mother of my Lord should come to me?" (hina elthe he meter tou kuriou mou pros eme) "That the mother of my Lord should come of her own will, accord, or choice to me?" to visit me, 1 Corinthians 12:3; For Jesus was the Lord and Master of both Elizabeth and Mary, John 13:3. Elizabeth could have known this, only by the Holy Spirit.


A farmer went with his son into a wheat field to see if it was ready for the harvest. "See, father," exclaimed the boy, "how straight these stems hold up their heads! They must be the best ones. Those that hang their heads down, I am sure, cannot be good for much." The farmer picked a stalk of each kind, and said, "See here, foolish child!" This stalk that stood so straight is light-headed, and almost good for nothing, while this that hung its head so modestly is full of the most beautiful grain."

Verse 44


1) "For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded," (idou gar hos egeneto he phone tou aspas mou sou) "For behold (take note of this) when the voice of your greeting came," to be recognized.

2) "In mine ears," (eis ta oto mou) "Into my ears," so that I comprehended what you said.

3) "The babe leaped in my womb for joy." (eskiptesen en agalliasei to brephos en te kolia mou) "The babe leaped with gladness in my womb," Luke 1:41. Note, Elizabeth had no jealousy over Mary’s greater blessing to come, when she was to give birth to the Savior, than her giving birth to John the Baptist, His forerunner, for she was righteous in her character and conduct, allowing no camping ground for selfishness in her soul, Luke 1:6.

Verse 45

1) "And blessed is she that believed:" (kai makaria he pisteusasa) "And blessed is she (the one) believing," referring to Mary who believed what Gabriel had told her, Luke 1:38. This was in contrast to the doubt of Zacharias, Luke 1:18.

2) "For there shall be a performance," (hoi estai teleiosis) "Because there shall come to be a completion," a fulfillment, as surely as there was of the Divine promise to Abraham and to Hannah, Genesis 17:16; 1 Samuel 1:20. Not one promise to believers, has ever, will ever, or can ever fail.

3) "Of those things which were told her from the Lord." (tois lelalemeois aute para kuriou) "To the things (that) have been spoken to her from the Lord." Note, Elizabeth accepted the testimony of the word of her husband, and of Mary, that the angel Gabriel was a servant-angel, a messenger bearing truth from God for her benefit, Hebrews 1:14, and she rejoiced in it.

Verse 46


1) "And Mary said," (kai eipen Mariam) "And Mary responded," to Elizabeth’s blessing.

2) "My soul doth magnify the Lord." (megalunei he psuche mou ton kurion) "My soul continually magnifies the Lord," or my whole inner being, much as Hannah did when she presented Samuel to Eli, 1 Samuel 2:1-10; Psalms 34:2-3. When God’s children are specially blessed they should extol, praise, or magnify Him mightily, Psalms 35:9; Habakkuk 3:18.

Verse 47

1) "And my spirit hath rejoiced," (kai egalliasen to pneuma mou) "And my spirit has rejoiced," with expanded gladness, or all that is within me, my whole being has rejoiced.

2) "In God my Saviour." (epi to theo to soteri mou) "Upon the (testimony of) the God who is my savior," my deliverer, and His Son that I am to deliver, who will also be my Deliverer; Mary was saved through or in "child-bearing," by the very child she bare, by Jesus Christ, 1 Timothy 2:15.

Verse 48

1) "For he hath regarded the low estate," (hoti epeblepsen epi ten tapeinosin) "Because he looked upon the state of humiliation," for the family of David was of a low or near impoverished condition at this time, as foretold Isaiah 11:1; Psalms 136:23.

2) "Of his handmaiden" (tes doules autou) "Of the handmaid (virgin helper) of him," of his virgin servant." The "low-estate" also alluded to her personal poverty condition of the past, 1 Samuel 1:11; Psalms 138:6.

3) "For, behold, from henceforth," (idou gar apo tou nun) "For behold (take note) from now," and hereafter, forever, Luke 11:27-28; John 5:24.

4) "All generations shall call me blessed." generations shall call me blessed," for having brought forth the Redeemer or Deliverer of Israel, Malachi 3:12; Luke 11:27. All nations would think of her with respectful affections, Genesis 17:7.

Verse 49

1) "For he that is mighty hath done to me great things;" (hoti epoiesen moi megala ho dunatos) "Because the mighty (dynamic) one has done great things to me," the mighty one, the one true God has done great things to me already, in giving me conception, 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 3:20; Isaiah 7:14.

2) "And holy is his name." (kai hagion to onoma autou) "And his name is holy," Psalms 111:1; Psalms 111:9; For even angels rest not, night and day, saying repeatedly, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come," Revelation 4:8. He is holy, perfect, and pure, Psalms 111:9. For He did honor her among women!

Verse 50

1) "And his mercy," (kai to eleos autou) "And his mercy," as reflected in His actions, Genesis 17:7-8; La 3:22, 23; because of which men are "not consumed every day."

2) "Is on them that fear him," (tois phoboumenois auton) "Continues to those continually fearing him," or respecting Him, giving Him reverence, Exodus 20:6; Psalms 85:9; Psalms 118:4; Psalms 145:19; Psalms 147:11.

3) "From generation to generation." (eis geneas kai geneas) "Into generations and generations," as He promised it would be, Genesis 17:7-8; Exodus 20:6; Psalms 103:17, even today, to reward such as receive, honor, and serve Him, Malachi 3:16-17; Revelation 19:5-9.

Verse 51

1) "He hath shewed strength with his arm;" (epoiesen kratos en brachioni autou) "He did might (demonstrated strength) with his arm," that is with his strength, in all time regarding our people and His care for them, Psalms 98:1-2; Psalms 118:14-17.

2) "He hath scattered the proud," (dieskorpisen huperephanous) "He scattered or dispersed those who were haughty," Psalms 33:10; 1 Peter 5:5, even of our own people, those who were vain and proud in their disobedience to His laws, Proverbs 6:16; Proverbs 16:5; Proverbs 21:4.

3) "In the imagination of their hearts," (disnoia kardias auton) "In the understanding of their heart," Proverbs 6:17; For man’s heart of nature imagines evil continually, Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21; Deuteronomy 29:19; Jeremiah 23:17.

Verse 52

1) "He hath put down the mighty from their seats,

(katheilen dunastas apo thronon) "He has pulled down potentates from thrones," on which they thought themselves secure, whom He wills, as sovereign over His universe, 1 Samuel 2:6-10; Psalms 113:5-9; He put down Pharaoh, Belshazzar, Nebuchadnezzar, and fed Herod to the worms, putting down "whom He would," Daniel 5:18-30; Acts 12:20-23.

2) "And exalted them of low degree." (kai hupsosan tapeinous) "And he has exalted humble ones," reversing the world’s decisions. As Joseph from the pit to Pharaoh’s right hand; As Moses from the bulrushes to law-giver and prophet over Israel; As David from sheep herding to the throne over Israel; As He exalted the apostles, Peter, James, and John from a commercial fishing business to apostles and writers of parts of the New Testament, Psalms 75:7; Job 5:11.

Verse 53

1) "He hath filled the hungry with good things;" (peinontas eneplesen agathon) "He has abundantly filled those continually hungry with genuinely good things," even those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, Matthew 5:6. As He fed Israel quail and manna in the desert, and His Son later fed the hungry with five loaves and two little fishes, Psalms 24:10; Psalms 78:23-29; John 5:9-14.

2) "And the rich he hath sent empty away." (kai ploutountas eksapesteilen kenous) "And he has sent away rich ones (plutocrats) empty, the self-righteous and self-satisfied, as the rich barn builder, and the rich man who once lived in robes of royalty, but without gratitude toward God, Luke 12:16-21; Luke 16:19-31. Like an ox in a stall or a fat hog in a pen, is a rich man without God, Psalms 49:20.

Verse 54

1) "He hath holpen his servant Israel," (antelabeto Israel paidos autou) "He helped his servant Israel," laid hold with a view to help, sustained, aided, succoured her (Israel) even in choosing Mary of "low-estate," to be the mother (virgin mother) of the Redeemer, who might redeem all Israel, even his own mother, Mary, who was His servant and His hand maid, Luke 1:38; 1 Timothy 2:15.

2) "In remembrance of his mercy;" (mnesthenai eleous) "To remember mercy to her, continually," in faithful remembrance of His covenant of mercy, Genesis 17:7-8; Psalms 98:3; Jeremiah 31:3; Jeremiah 31:20; Psalms 103:11; Psalms 145:8.

Verse 55

1) "As he spake to our fathers," (kathos elalesen pros tous pateras hemon) "Just as he spoke to our fathers," to our Hebrew patriarch’s of faith, who were:

2) "To Abraham, and to his seed for ever." (to Abraam kai to spermati autou eis ton aiona) "To Abraham and to his seed forever," without end, cessation, or termination, Genesis 17:19; Galatians 3:16; Micah 7:20. The promise of Divine faithfulness had been holding for more than 2,000 years, Luke 1:70-73, and is on hold still.

Verse 56

1) "And Mary abode with her about three months," (emeinen de Mariam sus aute hos menas treis) "And, Mary remained with her (with Elizabeth) about three months," until there was visible evidence that she was herself with child, and that the promise regarding her was to be literally fulfilled, Luke 1:30-33. Her three months of cheerful presence and helpful service to the aged, expectant Elizabeth was of great help.

2) "And returned to her own house." (kai hupestrepsen eis ton oikon autes) "And (then) she returned to her residence," in Nazareth of Galilee, from the city of Judea where she had been visiting Elizabeth.

She had not yet been taken home from her residence to that of her espoused husband Joseph, but it was now about to happen, at first after much hesitancy on the part of Joseph, as recounted by Matthew only, Matthew 1:18-25.

Whether or not Mary remained with Elizabeth, until after the birth of John the Baptist, is not known, but it was about the sixth month of Elizabeth’s expectancy that Mary left Nazareth to visit her, Luke 1:36. And they remained together under one blessed roof, in one home, for three months as preparation and waiting occurred for two of the world’s wonders John and Jesus to meet for the establishment of the New Testament church order of worship and service age.

Verse 57


1) "Now Elisabeth’s full time came," (te de Elisabet eplesthe ho chromos tou) "Then the time of Elizabeth was fulfilled," had come, for birth or delivery of the child of promise, in her old age, or advanced years, Luke 1:19.

2) "That she should be delivered;" (tekein auten) "That she should give birth," or deliver the child in and from her womb, and her deliverance from former shame and barrenness, Luke 1:19; Luke 1:25.

3) "And she brought forth a son." (kai egennesen huion) "And she delivered or gave birth (to) a son," as it was a son that had been promised, Luke 1:13; Luke 1:17. It was John the Baptist, Luke 1:60; Luke 1:63.

Verse 58

1) "And her neighbours and her cousins heard," (kai ekousan hoi perioikoi kai hoi sungeneis autes) "And her relatives or kinsfolk and neighbors heard."

2) "How the Lord had shewed great mercy on her;" (hoti emegalumen kurios to eleos autou met’ autes) "That the Lord had magnified his mercy with her," or upon her, removing sterility, Luke 1:25, that popular fallacy, associated with sin only, Exodus 20:5; John 9:1-3.

3) "And they rejoiced with her." (kai sunechairon aute) "And they rejoiced in harmony with her," or in company and colleague with her, in harmony with the Divine will and word of God, to "rejoice with them that rejoice," Romans 12:15; Philippians 3:1; Philippians 4:4.

Verse 59

1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it occurred," came to be after the Son (John) was born.

2) "That on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child;" (en te hemera te ogdoe elthon peritemein to paidion) "That on the eighth day they came (of their own choice) to circumcise the child," in compliance with the Mosaic Law, Genesis 17:12; Genesis 21:4; Leviticus 12:3; Acts 7:8; Philippians 3:5. The Law of circumcision was so meticulously observed by the Jews that they broke the sabbath to observe it, John 7:22-23.

3) "And they called him Zacharias," (kai ekaloun auto Zacharion) "And they began calling him Zacharias," the "they" were those who were involved in the function, or were already calling him Zacharias. The naming of children at circumcision had its origin from the changing of Sara! and Abram’s names, at the origin of circumcision, as recounted, Genesis 17:5; Genesis 17:15; Genesis 21:3-4; Luke 2:21.

4) "After the name of his father." (epi to onomati tou patros autou) "By reason of the name of his father," to honor the continuity of his father’s name, but it was a wishful desire that was frustrated.

Verse 60

1) "And his mother answered and said," (kai apokritheisa he meter autou eipen) "And his mother responding said," regarding the proposed name, Zacharias, because the father could not talk.

2) "Not so; but he shall be called John." (ouchi alla klethesetai loannes) "Not at all; But he shall be called John." She perhaps had learned this from Zacharias who was yet dumb, for he was able to write on a tablet, while dumb, Luke 1:63.

Verse 61

1) "And they said unto her," (kai eipan pros auten) "And they said (in relief) to her," the friends and relatives responded with surprise.

2) "There is none of thy kindred," (hoti oudeis estin ek tes sungeneias sou) "That there is (exists) not a single one of your kindred or relatives," those near you in your family lineage.

3) "That is called by this name." (hos kaleitai to onomati touto) "Who is called by this name," the, name John. The (Gk. sungeneias) is used to mean "kinsmanship," as in Acts 7:3; Acts 7:14.

Verse 62

1) "And they made signs to his father," (enenuon de to patri autou) "Then they nodded (made signs) to his father," to Zacharias who was dumb or had speech paralysis and who was the proper one to name the child.

2) "How he would have him called." (to ti an theloi kaleisthai auto) "What he might wish (as first choice) that he might be called," for a goodly name is 6f desirable choice, Proverbs 22:1; Ecclesiastes 7:1.

Verse 63

1)"And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying," (kai aitesas pinakidion egrapsen legon) "And upon asking for a tablet he wrote saying," the table was likely a wax board on which one could write with a stylus, efface or spread the wax and write again.

2) "His name is John." (loannes estin onoma auto)­"His name is (exists as) John," as directed by the angel Gabriel in the temple vision, before the conception had occurred, Luke 1:13. The name John means "Jehovah is gracious."

3) "And they marvelled all." (kai ethaumasan pantes) "And they all marvelled," were astounded, all who saw it, not knowing of the vision, and because the father had written the same name that the mother, Elizabeth, had given for the son, v. Luke 1:60. They marvelled because of: 1) The child of aged parents, 2) The name John, given, and 3) The immediate recovery of the speech of Zacharias, Luke 1:64.

Verse 64

1) "And his mouth was opened immediately," (aneochthe de to stoma autou parachrema) "And his mouth was opened instantly," from his dumbness of speech, when the chastening had accomplished fruit in Zacharias, the former doubting priest of the temple, Luke 1:18; Luke 1:20; Hebrews 12:11.

2) "And his tongue loosed," (kai he glossa autou) "And his tongue released from his extended speech paralysis," as he obeyed, by faith, the injunction of the angel Gabriel, Luke 1:13; Luke 1:20.

3) "And he spake, and praised God." (kai elalei eulogon ton theon) "And he spoke, repeatedly praising God," for recovery of his speech and for his new-born, now circumcised and Divinely named son, of whom none was greater among prophets, Isaiah 40:3; Matthew 11:11.

Verse 65

1) “And fear came on all," (kai egeneto epi pantas phobos) "And fear came upon all," fear, not terror, but reverential awe, at the supernatural events and Divine hand that had intervened in the lives of this aged couple, much as in Luke 5:26; Luke 7:16.

2) "That dwelt round about them:" (tous perioikountas autous) "Those who were residing near them," and who had witnessed circumstances revolving around the birth of John.

3) "And all these sayings," (kai panta ta hemata tauta) "And all these factual (reports)," of the birth of John the Baptist, of the name, and of the restoration of the speech of Zacharias.

4) "Were noised abroad," (dielaleita) "Were talked over or discussed," reported, going out like the ripple of spreading waves from an object thrown into the water of the pond, causing excitement.

5) "Throughout all the hill country of Judaea." (en hole te oreine tes loudias) "In all the mountain country of Judaea," where Zacharias and Elizabeth were known, in the Judean, Jerusalem, and Hebron areas especially, Luke 1:25; Luke 1:39-40.

Verse 66

1) "And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts," (kai ethento pantes hois akousantes te kardia auton) "And all those who heard these factual reports placed them (laid them up) in their hearts," remembered them with serious report.

2) "Saying, What manner of child shall this be!" (legontes ti ara to paidion touto estai) "Repeatedly saying what kind of child will this one come to be?" They regarded his unusual circumstance of birth as prophetic of future greatness awaiting him, Luke 1:15-17.

3) "And the hand of the Lord was with him," (kai gar cheir kuriou en met’autou) "For surely the hand of the Lord was with him," marking him out as one destined to a great work, to guide him through youth, and prepare him for future service, 1 Kings 18:46; 2 Kings 3:15; Acts 11:21.

Verse 67

1) "And his father Zacharias," (kai Zacharias ho pater autou) "And Zacharias his father," who had just received his restored speech, Luke 1:64.

2) "Was filled with the Holy Ghost," (eplesthe pneumatos hagiou) "Was filled with or controlled by the Holy Spirit," as all children of God should desire and yield themselves to be, Ephesians 5:17-18.

3) "And prophesied, saying," (kai epropheteusen legon) "And he prophesied, repeatedly, saying," or testifying about both John and Jesus, in harmony with the word and will of God, Acts 1:8; as the redeemed of the Lord "say so" letting their light shine, Psalms 107:2; Matthew 5:15-16.

Verse 68

1) "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel;" (eulogetos kurios ho theos tou Israel) "Blessed be (exists) the Lord God of Israel," the Jehovah of Israel, the one who was to come, Psalms 106:48. No word of praise is to himself, Elizabeth, or the child, but to Jesus Christ who was to come. He praises the covenant God for visualized fulfillment of His ancient promise, Genesis 17:7.

2) "For he hath visited and redeemed his people," (hot! epeskepsato kai epoiesen lutrosin to lao autou) "Because he has visited and brought redemption to his people." He has graciously visited Israel, His chosen people, in fulfillment of His promises, Genesis 49:10; Isaiah 53:1-12. It was so real to Zacharias that, like Isaiah, he spoke in past tense, as if it had already come to pass, Galatians 4:4-5.

Verse 69

1) "And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us," (kai egiren keras soterias emin) "And has raised an horn of salvation or deliverance for us," a horn refers to strength and power, as an horned animal, (Daniel 7:7-8; Daniel 7:20. A mighty salvation worthy of praise, meaning the Savior Himself, as referred to by the aged Simeon as "Thy Salvation," Luke 2:30.

2) "In the house of his servant David;" (en oiko David paidos autou) "In the house-lineage of David his child-servant," indicating that Mary was of the royal lineage of David, independent of Joseph, Luke 3:23; 2 Samuel 11-16.

Verse 70

1) "As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets," (kathos elalesen dia stomatos ton hagion propheton autou) "Just as he spoke through the mouth of the holy prophets," his mouth of Divine service, Jeremiah 23:5-6; Daniel 9:24.

2) "Which have been seen since the world began" (ap’ aionos) "Who have existed (and spoken) from the beginning of the world," or from the earliest period, of all the prophets, Genesis 3:15; Genesis 49:10; Acts 10:43; Deuteronomy 18:15-18; Isaiah 9:6-7; John 1:45; Revelation 19:10.

Verse 71

1) "That we should be saved from our enemies," (soterian eks echtron hemon) "Promising salvation out of and away from our enemies," from our spiritual enemies, demon spirits, sin, and death, Psalms 34:7; Luke 1:74.

2) "And from the hand of all who hate us;" (kai ek cheiros panton ton misounton hemas) "And out of the hands of those continually hating us," of the present world order, through Jesus Christ and His Lordship care for us, John 15:19-20; Psalms 136:24.

Verse 72

1) "To perform the mercy promised to our fathers," (poiesai eleos meta ton pateron hemon) "To show mercy with our fathers," or to do, to perform that promised to and through our fathers, Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 30:10-11; Daniel 9:24.

2) "And to remember his holy covenant;" (kai mnesthenai diathekes hagias autou) "And to remember (to fulfill) his holy covenant (testament, or pledge)," Leviticus 26:42; Psalms 105:8; Psalms 105:10; Ezekiel 16:60; Acts 3:21; Romans 1:2.

Verse 73

1) "The oath which he sware," (horkon hon omosen) "The oath which he swore," or pledge of assurance," which He made, based on the integrity of His character, when He swore by Himself, Genesis 22; Genesis 16-18; Hebrews 6:13-14.

2) "To our father Abraham," (pros Abraam ton patera hemon tou) "Directly to Abraham our father," as "the hope set before us," Genesis 12:3; Leviticus 26:42; Psalms 98:3; Acts 3:25; Hebrews 6:15-20. All promised in the covenant is centered in Jesus and His work, John 1:14-17; Luke 1:30-34.

Verse 74

1) "That he would grant unto us," (dounai hemin) "To grant (that he would deliver) to us," the privilege of serving Him as free, voluntary servants, Luke 9:23.

2) "That we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies," (ek cheiros echthron hrusthentas) "That we having been delivered out of the hands of our enemies," having been liberated or set free from the world, the flesh, and the devil’s final doom, Hebrews 2:15; Luke 4:18; John 8:32; John 8:36; Because we have spiritual emancipation, are "free indeed," we are to serve out of love’s gratitude, Galatians 5:13.

3) "Might serve him," (latreuein auto) "Are to serve him," in a devout, religious way, as the Thessalonian brethren did, 1 Thessalonians 1:9; Romans 7:6; Revelation 22:3.

4) "Without fear," (aphobos) "Without, apart from, or void of fear," In contrast with the former "spirit of bondage and fear," Romans 6:22; Romans 8:15.

Verse 75

1) "In holiness and righteousness before him," (en hosisteti kai dikaiosune enopoi autou) "in both holiness of being and righteousness in deeds before his face," or with him looking on; Such should be the character of our Divine service to Him, Titus 2:11-12; 1 Peter 1:14-15; Ephesians 4:24.

2) "All the days of our life?" (pasais tais hemerais hemon) "All our days," or for all our lives, secured, guarded, and sustained by His faithfulness, Revelation 2:10; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Corinthians 10:3.

Nature of the Messiah’s Work, redemptive, 1) "That we should serve Him," purpose, Luke 1:71; Hebrews 13:10; Hebrews 13:15.

2) Nature of service, in holiness,3) In freedom, Luke 1:74.

4) In fearlessness. 5) The duration, Luke 1:75.

Verse 76

1) "And thou, child," (kai su de paidion) "And you also young child ... .. little child," addressed to John the Baptist, his blessed son to whom He now directly spoke.

2) "Shalt be called the prophet of the Highest:" (prophetes hupsistou klethese) "Will be called a prophet of the most High ... .. over all, God blessed for ever," Romans 9:5, of the true God, a preacher, an herald, or a proclaimer of Him, Matthew 11:9-11.

3) "For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord," (proporeuse gar enopion kuriou) "For you will go around before the Lord," as an herald, an advance courier, a crier, Matthew 11:10.

4) "To prepare his ways;" (hetoimasai hodous autou) "To prepare or make ready his ways," by calling men to repentance, belief, and baptism, in preparing them to receive Jesus Christ as Savior, and follow Him as founder of a new-covenant company of church worship, Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 3:1; Luke 3:4-5; Acts 19:4.

Verse 77

1) "To give knowledge of salvation," (tou dounai gnosin solterias) "To give a knowledge (information) of salvation," to sound the cry of a needed and provided salvation for the remission of their sins, even now at their door, Matthew 3:1-11.

2) "Unto his people," (to lao autou) "Directly to his people," to the Jewish people, to Israel, to the chosen race of Israel, the racial family of both John and Jesus.

3) "By the remission of their sins." (en aphesei hamartion auton) "In forgiveness or pardon of their sins," in securing remittance of their sins, release from dominion and consequence of sin, Matthew 3:2; Matthew 3:8; Acts 5:31.

Verse 78

1) "Through the tender mercy of our God;" (dia splagchna eleous theou hemon) "Through and because of the mercy of our God," "the bowels of mercy," through the vital, emotional center of our trinitarian God, our Elohim God.

2) "Whereby the day-spring from on high hath visited us," (en ois episkepsetai hemas anatole eks hupsous) "By which a sun rising from out of the heights will visit us," look upon us, Isaiah 60:3; Malachi 4:2, even the Sun of Righteousness from heaven shall come down on us, 2 Corinthians 8:9; John 6:38; John 17:4-5; Ephesians 4:9-10. As the branch of Jesse, he will or did come, Isaiah 11:1; Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12.

Verse 79

1) "To give light to them," (epiphanai tois) "To shine upon those," light of truth, light of joy, light of hope, and light of righteousness, to enlighten them, Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 49:9.

2) "That sit in darkness and in the shadow of death," (en skotes kai skia tanatou kathemenois) "Who are continually sitting in darkness and in a death shadow," Isaiah 42:6-7, steeped in ceremonialism and ritualism, and subjects of the Gentile Roman Government, so deeply that they rejected Him, Matthew 5:20; John 1:11-12; Mark 7:3-13.

3) "To guide our feet into the way of peace," (tou kateuthunai tous podas hemon eis hodon eirenes) "To guide our feet into a pathway of peace," Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 4:13-17; Isaiah 60:1-3; John 8:12. The light is for guiding, as well as for revealing and reviving, and Jesus was all this, as the "light" of the world, John 1:4; John 1:9.

Verse 80

1) "And the child grew," (to de paidion euksanen) "Then the child (John the Baptist) grew," in stature and strength to manhood, or kept growing and developing.

2) "And waxed strong in spirit," (kai ekrataiouto pneumati) "And came to be strong in spirit," or increased in spirit power, yielded to the spirit, Ephesians 5:17-18. In his mind, purpose, and understanding of his Divine mission.

3) "And was in the deserts," (kai en tais eremois) "And he has (existed) in the deserts," in the uninhabited areas in the wild areas of Judaea, near his home, as a Nazarite, Luke 1:15, as a rugged man of the woods and fields, as expressed, Matthew 3:1; Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6.

4) "Till the day of his shewing unto Israel." (eos hemeras anadeikseos autou pros ton Israel) "Until the days of his showing (or his appearance) directly to Israel," to preach to Israel of the manifestation of Christ, which event was at hand, Luke 1:17; Malachi 4:5; Matthew 3:1-11.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 1". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/luke-1.html. 1985.
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