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Then drew near = Then were drawing near.
all . Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for a large number.
publicans = tax-gatherers.
for to hear = to hear.
Pharisees. See App-120 . This settles the scope of all that follows.
murmured = were muttering. The word implies subdued threatening. Occurs only here and Luke 19:7 .
sinners . See on Matthew 9:10 .
this parable. It had already been uttered in Matthew 18:12-14 with another object (Luke 15:11 ), and with a different application (Luke 15:14 ). It is now repeated, later, under different circumstances (Luke 15:1 , Luke 15:2 ), in combination with two other similar parables, with quite another application (verses: 6, 7; 9, 10; 23, 24). Hence the change of certain words.
unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .
them. This determines the scope of the three parables.
man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 . Here representing Christ.
of = from among. Greek. ek. App-104 .
if he lose = having lost.
not . Greek. ou. App-105 .
in . Greek. en. App-104 .
wilderness . A place of wild fertility. Compare Luke 2:8 . after. Greek. epi. App-104 .
until he find it? Note the importance of this expression.
when he hath found it = having found it. In Matt., "If so be that he find it. "For the reason, see note on Luke 15:3 .
on. Greek. epi. App-104 .
his shoulders = his own shoulders; not those of another.
when he cometh = having come.
home = into (Greek. eis. App-104 .) the house.
with me ; not with the sheep (because of the scope of the parable). See note on Luke 15:3 . The joy is in heaven (Luke 15:7 ).
I : i.e. I who know. John 1:51 .
you . Murmuring Pharisees. This is the point of the parable.
heaven. Singular. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .
over . Greek. epi. App-104 .
that repenteth = repenting. App-111 .
just persons: i.e. the Pharisees. Compare Luke 15:2 ; Luke 16:15 ; Luke 18:9 . Greek. ou. App-105 .
repentance. App-111 . Compare Matthew 3:2 .
Either . This parable is recorded only in Luke.
woman. Here representing the Holy Spirit.
ten . See the Structures of Luke 15:2 in the Luke book comments.
pieces of silver. Greek drachmas. Occurs only here, and in Luke 15:9 . See App-51 .
if she lose. An uncertain contingency. App-118 .
not . Greek. ouchi. App-105 .
candle = lamp. App-130 .
diligently . A medical word. Used only here.
till . Same as "until" in Luke 15:4 .
friends . Female friends (feminine)
the piece. Not "my", as in Luke 15:6 .
I had lost = I lost. Compare "was lost" in Luke 15:6 .
is = becomes, or takes place, or results. Same as "arose" in Luke 15:14 .
in the presence of = before. It does not say that the angels rejoice; but it is the divine joy in their presence.
God . App-98 .
And He said . This parable is peculiar to this gospel. Seenote on Luke 15:8 .
man (as in Luke 15:4 ). Here representing the Father (God).
two sons . See the Structure (V3, above).
give me . Contrast "make me" (Luke 15:19 ).
the portion. According to Jewish law, in the case of two sons the elder took two-thirds, and the younger one-third of movable property, at the father's death.
goods = movable property. Greek. ousia. Only here and Luke 15:13 .
falleth to me. This is the technical term in the Papyri, in such cases. See Deissmann's Light, &c., p. 152, and Bib. Stud., p. 230.
them . Including the elder, who did not ask it.
living. Greek. bios, life. App-170 . Put by Figure of speech Metonomy (of Effect), App-6 , for his means or property which supported his life.
after . Greek meta. App-104 . Referring to the rapidity of the fall of Israel.
took his journey = went abroad.
into . Greek. eis. App-104 .
far country. Compare Acts 2:39 . Ephesians 2:17 .
substance = property. Same word as "goods" in Luke 15:12 .
with riotous living = living ruinously. Greek. asotos. Occurs only here. The kindred noun (asotia) occurs only in Ephesians 5:18 . Titus 1:6 . 1 Peter 4:4 .
when he had spent = having spent. Greek. dapanao. Elsewhere only Mark 5:26 . Acts 21:24 . 2 Corinthians 12:15 .James 4:3 .
in = throughout. Greek. kata. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 15:4 , Luke 15:7 , Luke 15:25 .
began to be in want . Contrast "began to be merry" (Luke 15:24 ).
joined himself to = cleaved to (Greek. Pass. of kollao glue together); i.e. he forced himself.
a citizen = one of the citizens. Contrast Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:20 .
would fain have filled = was longing to fill.
with = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .
husks = pods of the carob tree. Only here in N.T.
did eat = were eating.
and. Note the emphasis of the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), here.
no man. Greek. oudeis, compound of ou . App-105 .
came to himself . Compare "came to his father" (Luke 15:20 ).
to. Greek. eis. App-104 .
have bread enough and to spare , or abound in food.
I perish = I (emph.) am perishing.
with hunger = from the famine. The texts add hode = here.
to . Greek. pros. App-104 .
sinned . App-128 .
against . Greek. eis. App-104 .
heaven. Singular with Art. See notes on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 . "Heaven" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 , for God Himself.
before. Greek. enopion. Same word as in Luke 15:10 "in the presence of".
am no more worthy = I no longer deserve. make me. Contrast "give me " (Luke 15:12 ).
came to his father . Compare "came to himself" (Luke 15:17 ).
his = his own.
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ).
ran . Compare Isaiah 6:6 , "Then flew". See note on Luke 15:21 , and compare Isaiah 65:24 .
kissed = fervently kissed. Same word as in Matthew 26:49 .
I have sinned = I sinned. Confession of sin is the necessary condition for receiving the blessing. Compare 2 Samuel 12:13 .Psalms 32:5 .Isaiah 6:5 , Isaiah 6:6 . Isaiah 5:8 , &c. And so with Israel (Leviticus 26:40-42 .Isaiah 64:6 , Isaiah 64:7 . Hosea 5:15 ; Hosea 14:1 , Hosea 14:2 ).
in thy sight . Same Greek words as "before thee" in Luke 15:18 .
son. Note the Figure of speech Aposiopesis ( App-6 ), for he did not finish what he meant to have said.
servants = bond-servants.
Bring forth. L [Tr. ] A WH R add "quickly".
best = first. Either the first that comes to hand, or the former robe the son used to wear. See on Genesis 27:15 .
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), emphasizing each particular.
put it on him = clothe him with it.
ring = a signet-ring. Occurs only here. See James 2:2 , and compare Genesis 41:42 .
on = for (Greek. eis. App-104 .)
shoes = sandals. The ring and the sandals mark a free man. Servants went barefoot.
kill it = sacrifice it. It was a sacrificial feast.
was . Not the past tense of the verb "die", but of the verb "to be". He had been as a dead man (Greek. nekros. App-189 ) to his father.
is found = was; i.e. "when he came to himself" (Luke 15:17 ), which shows that that was the result of the father's seeking. began, &c. Contrast "began to be in want" (Luke 15:14 ).
his elder son . This is the point of the parable (Compare Luke 15:2 ). It was addressed "unto them" specially (v 3), as the correction of their murmuring.
musick and dancing. Greek. symphonies and chorus, i.e. a "choral dance". Both words Occurs only here.
called = called to him.,
servants = young men. Greek. pais . See App-108 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 15:17 , Luke 15:19 , Luke 15:22 .
asked = began to inquire. Imperf. tense.
meant = might be.
is come . . . safe and sound. Corresponding with the father's dead and lost . . . alive and found (Luke 15:24 ).
he was angry . Referring to the deep-seated feeling of the Pharisees against Messiah and those who followed Him. This increased steadily (and is seen to-day). Compare Acts 11:2 , Acts 11:3 , Acts 11:17 , Acts 11:18 ; Acts 13:45 , Acts 13:50 ; Acts 14:5 , Acts 14:19 ; Acts 17:5 , Acts 17:6 , Acts 17:13 ; Acts 18:12 , Acts 18:13 ; Acts 19:9 ; Acts 21:27-31 ; Acts 22:18-22 .Galatians 5:11 . 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 ,
would not go in = was not willing ( App-102 .) to go in.
intreated. Greek. parakaleo. App-134 .
Lo . Greek. idou. App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .
neither transgressed I , &c. This was the Pharisees' claim and boast. Compare Luke 18:11 , Luke 18:12 ; Luke 18:18-21 .
a kid. In contrast with "the fatted calf" (Luke 15:23 ). with. Greek. meta. App-104 .
friends. Contrast with harlots (Luke 15:30 .
thy son. Not "my brother". Contrast with "thy brother" (Luke 15:32 ).
was come = came as though a stranger. Not "returned".
devoured = eaten up. Contrast with Luke 15:23 .
thy. Malignant thought.
harlots. Contrast with "my friends" (Luke 15:29 ).
Son =. Child. Greek. teknon. Affectionately reminding him of his birth. App-108 .
ever = always. App-151 .
all that I have. See Romans 9:4 , Romans 9:5 , and compare Matthew 20:14 .
It was meet. Compare Acts 11:18 .
thy brother. Contrast with "thy son" (Luke 15:30 ).
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 15". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 11 / Ordinary 16