Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Luke 19

Verse 1

And, &c. Verses 1-10 are peculiar to Luke. entered, &c. = having entered. was passing through. After the healing of the blind man. Compare "come nigh" (Luke 18:35).

Jericho. Now Eriha. In mediaeval times Riha. The city of palm trees (Deuteronomy 34:3. Judges 1:16), about eighteen miles from Jerusalem, and six miles from the Jordan. Compare Joshua 6:26 with 1 Kings 16:34. It after-ward became a great and wealthy city with some 100,000 inhabitants (compare Josephus, Bell. Jud. iv. 8. Ecclus 24:14).

Verse 2

behold. App-133. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6. man. Greek. aner. App-123.

named = called by name. Zaccheaus. Aramaic, Zakkai = pure. Ezra 2:9. Nehemiah 7:14. App-94.

chief among the publicans = a chief tax-gatherer. Greek. architelones. Occurs only here. See notes on Luke 3:12 and Matthew 9:9.

Verse 3

sought = was (busy) seeking.

see. App-133.

Jesus. App-98.

who He was. Not what kind of a person, but which one of the crowd he was. not. Greek. ou. App-105.

for. Greek. apo. App-104.

press = crowd. because-seeing that. Not the same word as in verses: Luke 19:11-44.

little = small.

stature. Greek. helikia. See note on Luke 12:25.

Verse 4

he ran before, and = having run forward before, he.

into = on to. Greek. epi (App-104.)

sycomore. Occurs only here. Not the same word as "sycamine" in Luke 17:6, or with our "sycamore", but the Egyptian fig, as in John 1:49.

was to pass, &c. = was about to pass through by (or through. Greek dia. App-104. Luke 19:1) that [way].

Verse 5

to = up to. Greek. epi. App-104.

He looked up = Jesus looked up. Greek. anablepo. App-133.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104. Zaccheeus. Compare John 10:3.

I must abide. Adopting the royal mandate,

at = in. Greek. en. App-104. Not the same word as in verses: Luke 19:29, Luke 19:37.

Verse 7

murmured = began to murmur aloud.

to be guest = to lodge, or put up. Compare Luke 2:7. Mark 14:14.

with. Greek. para. App-104.

a man that is a sinner = a sinful man. sinner. Greek. hamartolos. Compare App-128.

Verse 8

And = But.

stood = took his stand. See note on Luke 18:11.

Lord. App-98.

I give: i.e. I now propose to give (present tense). Referring to a present vow, not to a past habit.

poor. App-127.

if, &c. Assuming the actual fact, no doubt being thrown on it. Not a mere possible case. App-118.

I have taken . . . by false accusation. Greek sukophanteo. Occurs only here and in Luke 3:14. It was said to mean informing of a breach of the law which forbade the exportation of figs (prohibited, in time of dearth, by an old Athenian law); but for this there is no authority. Whatever its origin, it came to mean a malicious accuser. Our Eng. word "sycophant "means a toady. The word sukophantes (silicon, a fig; phaino, to show) had something to do with figs, but nobody knows what.

fourfold. This was the restitution required of a sheep-stealer (Exodus 22:1).

Verse 9

This day = That this day, the Greek hoti placing what was said within quotation marks. Contrast Luke 23:43, where there is no "hoti".

come = come to pass,

house. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for the household.

a son. The 1611 edition of the Authorized Version reads "the son".

son. App-108. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), App-6, for a descendant.

Verse 10

the Son of man. See App-98.

is come = came.

Verse 11

added and spake = went on to speak.

because = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. Luke 19:2) [the fact] that. Not the same word as in Luke 19:44.

that. Greek. hoti, same as "because" in verses: Luke 19:3, Luke 19:17, Luke 19:21, Luke 3:31.

the kingdom of God. See App-114.

should = was about to.

immediately = at the very moment. See Luke 1:64. appear be manifested. App-106.

Verse 12

A certain nobleman. This parable is peculiar to Luke. The point of it was that Herod the Great and his son Archelaus (App-109) had actually gone from Jericho (where the parable was spoken; and where the latter had just rebuilt his palace. Josephus, Antiquities xvii. 13,1) to Rome to receive the sovereignty (see Josephus, Antiquities xiv. 14. 3,4; xvii 9 4). Herod Antipas (App-109) subsequently did the same thing (Josephus, Antiquities xviii. ).

nobleman = a man (App-123.) high born. Greek eugenes. Elsewhere only in Acts 17:11. 1 Corinthians 1:26.

into = unto. Greek. eis. App-104. As in verses: Luke 19:30, Luke 19:45; not in verses: Luke 19:4, Luke 19:23.

far = distant.

a kingdom = his sovereignty, or sovereign power.

Verse 13

his ten servants = ten servants of his.

servants = bond-servants.

pounds. Greek. mna. See App-51. Archelaus did thus actually leave money in trust with his servants, Philippus being in charge of his pecuniary affairs. Not the same parable as that of the Talents in Matthew 25:14-30, which was uttered later, on the second day before the last Passover. See App-156.

Occupy = Engage in business, or use (as a house where one"s business is done). From the Latin occupare, and French occuper. Greek. pragmateuomai. Occurs only here. Compare Judges 16:11. Psalms 107:23 (P.B.V.)

till I come: i.e. while I go and return.

Verse 14

citizens, or subjects.

hated = used to hate, a message = an embassy (Compare Luke 14:32). This was actually done in the case of Archelaus (Josephus, Antiquities xvii. 11 1, &c.) The Jews appealed to Augustus, on account of the cruelties of Archelaus and the Herods generally, It led ultimately to his deposition,

will. App-102.

over. Greek. epi. App-104.

Verse 15

it came to pass. A Hebraism.

when, &c. = on (Greek. en. App-104.) his coming back.

commanded = directed.

know = get to know. App-132.

had gained by trading. Greek. diqpragmateuomaiOccurs only here.

Verse 16

Lord. App-98. B.

hath gained = hath gained by labour: i.e. made in addition. Occurs only here.

Verse 17

in. Greek. en. App-104.

have thou authority, &c. Exactly what Archelaus had then just done.

authority. Greek. exousia. App-172.

cities. Evidently in the kingdom to which the nobleman had returned.

Verse 18

gained = made.

Verse 19

likewise to him = to this one also.

Be = Become.

Verse 20

another. Greek. heteros. App-124.

have kept = was keeping.

napkin = handkerchief See on John 11:44.

Verse 21

austere. Greek austeros = dry, then hard and harsh. Only here, and Luke 19:22.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

thou takest up. &c. Typical injustice of those times.

Verse 22

Out of. Gk. ek. App-104.

wicked. Greek. poneros. App-128.

Thou knewest. Greek. Didst thou know, &c. ?

knewest. Greek. oida. App-132.

Verse 23

bank = table, of the exchangers.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

usury = interest.

Verse 24

Take from him, &c. Compare Matthew 21:43.

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.

Verse 26

For I say, &c. This is the Lord"s own application.

not. Greek. me. App-105.

Verse 27

But = But as for. would not = were unwilling. App-102.

slay them = cut them down. Greek. katasphazo. Occurs only here.

Verse 28

went before = went on.

ascending. See note on Luke 10:30, Luke 10:31.

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

Verse 29

And, &c. This is the second entry, which was not unexpected as the former was (Matthew 21:1, &c.), but pre-arranged (John 12:12, John 12:13). See App-153and App-156.

Bethphage. See note on Matthew 21:1.

Bethany. Now el "Azeriyek = The place of Lazarus. See App-156. Bethany was the starting-point of this second entry. See John 12:3, John 12:12; Mark 11:1, whereas in Matthew 21:1 the Lord was at Bethphage. See note there.

He sent two. As before (Matthew 21:1).

Verse 30

Go = Withdraw. Not go forward, as in Matthew 21:2 over against. Greek. katenanti, down and opposite. colt. On the former entry, two animals were sent for. Luke is not "less circumstantial", but more so.

whereon = on (Greek. epi. App-104.) which.

Verse 31

if, &c. The condition probable. App-118.

any man = any one.

the Lord. App-98.

Verse 33

the owners. Greek. kurioi. See App-98.

Verse 35

brought = led.

to. Greek. pros. App-104.

their = their own.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

set. Greek. epibibazo. Only here, Luke 10:34, and Acts 23:24.

Verse 36

spread = were strewing under. Greek. hupostronnumi. Occurs only here.

Verse 37

at = to. Greek. pros. App-104.

the descent. The second sight of the city after the first, owing to a dip in the route.

descent. Greek. katabasis. Occurs only here.

God. App-98.

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

Verse 38

Saying, &c. Quoted from Psalms 118:26.

name. See note on Psalms 20:1.

the LORD = Jehovah. See App-98.

heaven. Singular. without Art. See note on Matthew 6:9, Matthew 6:10

Verse 39

Pharisees. App-120.

from among = from, as in Luke 19:24.

Master = Teacher. App-98. Luke 19:1.

Verse 41

come near. Marking the progress.

beheld . . . and = looking on. App-133.

wept = wept aloud. Greek. klaio = to wail. Not dakruo to shed silent tears, as in John 11:35.

over. Greek. epi. App-104.

Verse 42

Saying, &c. Peculiar to Luke.

If thou, &c. Assuming it as an actual fact. App-118. Not the same as in verses: Luke 19:8, Luke 19:31, Luke 19:40.

hadst known. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for heeding. See note on Isaiah 1:3.

day. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct). App-6, for the events taking place in it.

which belong unto = for (Greek. pros. App-104.) thy peace. For these see Isaiah 48:18 and Psa 122. Note the Figure of speech Aposiopesis (App-6), denoting that the blessedness involved in this knowledge was overwhelmed by the thought of the tribulation which was to come on account of their ignorance of it.

Verse 43

the days = days.

trench = rampart. Greek charax. Occurs only here. Compare Isaiah 29:3, Isaiah 29:4; Isaiah 37:33.

Verse 44

lay = level(and dash). Compare Septuagint, Psalms 137:9. Hosea 10:14.

children. App-108.

within. Greek. en. App-104.

one stone, &c. = stone upon (Greek. epi. App-104.) stone.

because = the reason for (anti. App-104. ) which things [is that].

time = season.

visitation. As stated in Luke 1:68; Luke 1:78.

Verse 45

the temple = the temple courts. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16

to cast out, &c. This is a repetition of the Lord"s act in Luke 21:12, but the same as in Mark 11:15, which has supplementary details. See App-156.

therein = in (Greek. en).

Verse 46

It is written = It standeth written. Quoted from Isaiah 56:7 and Jeremiah 7:11. See App-107.

a den of thieves = a robbers" cave.

den = cave. Greek. spelaion. Occurs six times: Matthew 21:13. Mark 11:17. John 11:38 (cave), Hebrews 11:38, and Revelation 6:15.

thieves = robbers, or brigands. As in John 10:1, John 10:8; John 18:40 and 2 Corinthians 11:26, and should be so rendered in Matthew 21:13; Matthew 26:55; Matthew 27:38, Matthew 27:44, &c. Not kleptes = a thief.

Verse 47

taught = was (or continued) teaching.

daily = day by day: i.e. on each of these last six days. Compare Luke 20:1. See App-156.

chief priests = high priests.

Verse 48

very attentive to hear Him= hanging on Him, listening.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.