upon Shoshannim-Eduth. The testimony relating to the Feast of the second Passover (Numbers 9:5-14. Compare 2 Chronicles 29:25-35; 2 Chronicles 30:23. The other of the two Psalmsthus called is Psalm 59. See App-65.
Before. A special various reading called Sevir (App-34) reads "For the sons of".
Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton App-6), calling our attention to these three. They were descended from Rachel, and marched together in the rear (Numbers 2:18-22). As Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun marched in the van, the Ark (the symbol of God"s presence) led them as a Shepherd (Psalms 78:13-16, Psalms 78:52-55. John 10:4, John 10:5).
Turn us again. Figure of speech Cycloides (App-6) governing the Structure. Compare verses: Psalms 80:7, Psalms 80:19. Not from captivity, but from idolatry to the true worship.
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4. Note the significant order: Psalms 80:3, "O God"; Psalms 80:7, "O God of hosts"; Psalms 80:19, "0 Jehovah, God of hosts". This Divine order rebukes our own loose use of the Divine titles; and shows us the importance of noting their Divine use, not heeding modern hypotheses.
O LORD God of hosts. Hebrew. Jehovah.Elohim Zebaioth. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3. Not common in the Psalms, but occurring in Psalms 59:6 and Psalms 84:8.
How long . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.
laugh among themselves. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "have mocked at us".
to shine. Compare Numbers 6:25.
a vine. Compare Isaiah 5:1-7; Isaiah 27:2-6. Jeremiah 2:21; Jeremiah 12:10. Psalms 80:11 connects Joseph and Genesis 49:22.
heathen = nations.
the goodly cedars = mighty cedars. Hebrew "cedars of El". App-4.
the sea: i.e. the Mediterranean.
branches = roots, or suckers.
the river: i.e. the Euphrates.
Why . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), for emphasis.
the wood = forest. The Hebrew word for forest here (miyya"ar), has the letter Ayin suspended (see note on Judges 18:30). This is the second of four such suspended letters (the other two being Job 38:13, Job 38:15). Read with this letter, the word means "forest"; without it, and with an Aleph instead, it is miyy"ar, "river". The ancient Jewish interpreters took this suspended letter as denoting that, when innocent, Israel would be assailed only by a power weak as a river animal; but, when guilty, it would be destroyed by a power as strong as a land animal. Until the Roman power arose (whose military ensign was the "boar"), it was understood as "river" (meaning Egypt); but afterward the Septuagint, Chaldee, and Vulg, read "forest".
Return. Compare verses: Psalms 80:3, Psalms 80:7, Psalms 80:19, and see the Structure above.
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) for emphasis. Almost an Ellipsis = "[once more] look down, [once more] behold, [once more] visit".
And the. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6), "And [protect] the".
branch = son. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "son of man", as in Psalms 80:17.
upon: or over.
man. Hebrew "ish. App-14.
son of man = son of Adam. Hebrew. "adam. App-14. See note on Ezekiel 2:1.
Quicken = make alive, restore, revive.
O LORD, &c. See note on Psalms 80:3 and Psalms 80:7.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 80". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany