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1. RV ’him that is before thee.’ Do not excite his contempt.
2. Restrain your appetite.
3. He invites you for his own purposes.
4. Cease, etc.] i.e. desist from the attempt to be rich.
6-8. Estimate the niggard according to his thoughts, rather than his words. Your pleasant conversation is wasted labour.
10, 11. Read, ’The landmark of the widow.’ God Himself is the Goel, the redeemer, the next of kin, who protects widows and orphans (Exodus 22:21-23; Leviticus 25:25; Numbers 30:12; Ruth 4:3-4; Jeremiah 50:34).
16. Reins] lit. ’Kidneys.’ Heart and kidneys were considered to be the seat of mental and spiritual life (Job 19:27; Psalms 16:7; Jeremiah 10:20; Jeremiah 20:12).
18. End] lit. ’latter end,’ crowning the life.
21. The drowsiness follows nights of intemperance.
27. In Galilee there are scores of ancient cisterns, bottle-shaped, into which one may fall and find it impossible to climb out.
28. The miserable duplicities and ’treacheries’ (RV) of an unholy passion.
29. ’Complaining’—not babbling—arises amongst boon companions. Redness of eyes] is due to dissipation.
30. Seek] RV ’seek out,’ try it thoroughly. Mixed wine] see on Proverbs 9:2.
31. Giveth his colour] i.e. sparkles. Moveth itself aright] RV ’goeth down smoothly.’
34. The midst of the sea] i.e. on the high seas (Proverbs 30:19; Ezekiel 27:25). With a slight change in the text we get, ’in a great storm,’ instead of, upon the top of a mast.
35. The sot is represented as saying that the blows which were showered on him when drunk have neither injured nor pained him, and as longing to be fully awake from his drunken sleep in order to return again to his carousing.
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Proverbs 23". "John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 12 / Ordinary 17