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The author of this Ps. can hardly be David, for he speaks as a citizen of a distracted city rather than as its king, and the friend of whom he complains is his equal and not his subject. There is really nothing to fix the date of the Ps., though some of the experiences of Jeremiah may illustrate it. It falls into three portions, which have been described as marked by despair (Psalms 55:1-8), indignation (Psalms 55:9-15), and trust (Psalms 55:16-23).
3. Cast iniquity upon me] attack me with wicked devices, as they might roll down stones on an enemy.
6. A dove] the wild rock-dove, which can fly fast and far.
8. Hasten my escape] RV ’haste me to a shelter.’
9. Divide their tongues] with a confusion like that of Babel.
13. Guide.. acquaintance] RV ’companion.. familiar friend.’
14. Unto.. company] RV ’in the house of God with the throng.’
15. Quick into hell] RM ’alive into Sheol.’ For the light in which we are to regard such imprecations see Intro.
18. From the battle that was against me] RM ’so that none came nigh me.’ There were many with me] RV ’they were many that strove with me.’
19. Because, etc.] RV (with comma after old) ’The men who have no changes, and who fear not God.’ By ’changes’ we may understand ups and downs of fortune, or pauses in their wickedness. A slightly different reading would give, ’who have no faithfulness.’
23. Bloody] RV ’bloodthirsty.’
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Psalms 55". "Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Fourth Week after Epiphany