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A. Rehoboam chs. 10-12
This writer selected three things to stress in regard to Rehoboam’s reign: the division of the kingdom (ch. 10), characteristics of both the northern and southern kingdoms, but especially Rehoboam’s (ch. 11), and Egypt’s invasion of Rehoboam’s kingdom (ch. 12).
3. The invasion by Egypt ch. 12
The writer pointed out clearly the connection between Shishak’s invasion and Rehoboam’s unfaithfulness (2 Chronicles 12:1-5; cf. Proverbs 3:12).
"The passage makes use of terms that are characteristic of the Chronicler’s theology of divine retribution, namely, ’forsake’ or ’abandon’ (2 Chronicles 12:1; 2 Chronicles 12:5), ’be unfaithful’ (2 Chronicles 12:2), and ’humble oneself’ (2 Chronicles 12:6-7; 2 Chronicles 12:12). The Shishak incident provided a model of the sort of thing that could happen again." [Note: Thompson, p. 257.]
"In his emphasis on immediate retribution, the Chronicler is warning the restoration community against any complacency or presumption that punishment might be deferred as it had been in the past." [Note: Longman and Dillard, p. 200.]
"After three years of stability, Rehoboam led Judah into apostasy. There are conscious parallels with Saul. The ’unfaithfulness’ of 2 Chronicles 12:2 is the same term as that which was applied to Israel’s first king (1 Chronicles 10:13). Rehoboam, therefore, has entered upon what might be termed a ’Saul’ period in his reign, which contrasts with the early phase, in which he ’walked . . . in the way of David and Solomon’." [Note: McConville, pp. 157-58.]
Rehoboam’s repentance caused God to grant deliverance from the Egyptians (2 Chronicles 12:6-7; 2 Chronicles 12:12; cf. Psalms 51:17). Overall, Rehoboam failed to set his heart on the Lord (2 Chronicles 12:14). This resulted in his doing evil, namely, not leading the people to follow Yahweh as David had done.
"The case of Rehoboam has shown particularly clearly how much the Chronicler is concerned to show that obedience and blessing, disobedience and impoverishment are closely linked." [Note: Ibid., p. 160.]
"The destiny of any country depends to a great extent on the character of its leaders; and this was particularly the case among the Hebrews, into whose history God chose to intervene more directly than he has for other nations." [Note: Payne, p. 478.]
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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on 2 Chronicles 12". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany