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The psalmist wrote as though most of the people in his nation had turned against him. He also referred to one opponent in particular. If David wrote this psalm, he may have done so when he fled from Absalom.
1. Prayer for vindication 43:1-3
In this prayer the psalmist asked God to lead him back to Jerusalem so he could worship God there and find refreshment and relief. As mentioned in my introductory comments concerning Psalms 42, this psalm may at one time have been the last part of that one. This psalm is the only one in Book 2 (Psalms 42-72) that does not have a heading.
God had apparently deserted His servant who relied on Him for strength. His enemy had the upper hand.
God’s light is the revelation of His will that brings understanding and life. His truth rests in His Word that reveals that will. The psalmist prayed for God’s guidance through His Word that would bring him back to Mt. Zion, the place where David’s tabernacle stood.
2. Promise to praise 43:4
If God would bring him back to Jerusalem, he vowed to praise God publicly in the sanctuary.
3. Prompting to trust 43:5
The writer encouraged himself with the confidence that he would yet praise God for His deliverance. Therefore he should continue to hope in Him (cf. Psalms 42:5; Psalms 42:11).
When adversaries falsely accuse us, we who are believers can find comfort and encouragement in the fact that ultimately God will vindicate us and bring us into His presence. There we will serve and praise Him. [Note: Ibid.]
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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 43". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://www.studylight.org/