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1:4 encourages (a-2) Parakaleo , as Matthew 2:18 ; Matthew 5:4 ; Acts 20:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:7 . I do not say 'comfort,' as that is rather conveyed in paramutheomai , so translated in 1 Thessalonians 2:11 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:14 ; 'console,' John 11:19 ,John 11:31 ; and 'consolation,' 1 Corinthians 14:3 . The difference is slight, but here, as in Acts 20:0 , there is the sense of 'cheered,' and this might replace 'encourage' and 'encouragement' if there were a suitable noun.
4:2 shame, (g-9) i.e. all that of which one is ashamed and therefore keeps concealed.
4:3 lost; (h-15) Or 'that perish,' as ch. 2.15.
4:4 forth (i-38) I add 'for them' to complete the sense. I have doubted as to this passage. The word translated 'shine forth' is only found here in the New Testament and generally means 'to see,' or 'discern.' If this be the meaning here, we should read 'so that they should not discern the shining forth of the glad tidings of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.'
4:6 God (k-5) Or '[it is] God.' shine (l-14) Lit. 'who spoke light to shine out of darkness.' forth (m-24) 'Shining forth,' or 'radiancy;' the same word as translated 'radiancy' in ver. 4.
4:10 dying (n-8) Or 'putting to death.' The word implies the moral character of death, not only the fact of death. The same word is used in Romans 4:19 , 'the deadening ' of Sarah's womb.
4:13 written, (a-12) See Psalms 116:10 .
4:15 many (b-14) 'Grace abounding through the many.' The grace of God, perfect in itself, multiplies itself in its objects, so that thanksgiving abounds. Paul was delivered, but everything was for the assembly. It was not therefore merely a benefit to him, but still more to all, so that the grace or benefit was multiplied, and caused thanksgiving to abound to God's glory. The form of thought is peculiar, but the sense plain and striking.
4:17 light (c-5) Lit. 'the momentary lightness of our.'
4:18 (d-1) 'While' has not the sense of time here. The literal translation, 'we not looking,' would convey a somewhat causative sense, which is not the force of the passage.
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Darby, John. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 4". "John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 12 / Ordinary 17