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1:4 encourages (a-2) Parakaleo , as Matthew 2:18 ; Matthew 5:4 ; Acts 20:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:7 . I do not say 'comfort,' as that is rather conveyed in paramutheomai , so translated in 1 Thessalonians 2:11 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:14 ; 'console,' John 11:19 ,John 11:31 ; and 'consolation,' 1 Corinthians 14:3 . The difference is slight, but here, as in Acts 20:0 , there is the sense of 'cheered,' and this might replace 'encourage' and 'encouragement' if there were a suitable noun.
5:1 house (e-9) 'Tabernacle' is characteristic.
5:2 from (f-17) Ek . 'out of.'
5:4 yet (g-13) Or 'though meanwhile,' 'yet in such sort that.' It is a necessary condition of the right understanding of ver. 4. 'Clothed' is the same word as 'to have put on' in ver. 2. For 'groan,' vers. 2 and 4, see Mark 7:34 .
5:6 know (h-7) Lit. 'knowing' (from oida , conscious knowledge). It was their state; confident and knowing. present (i-10) absent (i-16) The Greek words translated 'present' and 'absent' are literally 'at home' and 'away from home.'
5:10 in (k-20) 'The things which in their accomplishment have their seat there.'
5:11 been (l-13) been (l-24) Or 'are manifested.' It is the perfect tense; what is done and of which the effect continues.
5:12 countenance, (a-31) As 'appearance,' ch. 10.1.
5:13 God; (b-10) Or 'for God;' that is, he was as a fool for God's glory. But the sense is, I think, 'If he lost the blessed calculations of love which was his path towards men, it was to be out of himself with God, and for God.' a blessed alternative. His ecstasy was not excitement or folly, but if out of himself it was with God; if sober, it was the calculation of love for their good.
5:14 died; (c-20) Or 'had died.' It is the aorist, and refers to the state Christ's death proved them to be in , in a state of nature. To make it a consequence of Christ's death is, I judge, an utter blunder.
5:15 them (d-22) 'For them' may apply to both 'died' and 'been raised,' but I think 'raised' is supplementary and by itself.
5:16 know (e-5) known (e-16) know (e-24) Here the first 'know' is 'conscious,' the second and third are objective. see Note, 1 Corinthians 8:1 .
5:18 that (f-24) Or simply 'of reconciliation.'
5:19 that (f-25) Or simply 'of reconciliation.'
5:20 were] (g-10) 'As of God beseeching;' 'as though,' or 'as if,' is too much similarity or comparison. God being in Christ, and they Christ's ambassadors, they besought on God's behalf. He was as beseeching by them. The apostle will not say God was beseeching, but softens it by 'as it were.' yet it amounted to that, as done on his behalf. It is difficult to translate, though the sense is most evident and beautiful.
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Darby, John. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 5". "John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent