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(1) Did . . . give the house of Haman.—Confiscation of goods necessarily followed on a sentence of death in the East. So, with ourselves, a convicted felon’s property is forfeited to the Crown.
(2) Took off his ring . . . and gave it unto Mordecai.—Constituting him thereby his Vizier, who would thus authenticate a royal decree, and by having, as it were, carte blanche given him for the time, would for that time save his master all further trouble. Mordecai’s position had now become what Daniel’s had been to Darius, that nobler servant to a worthier lord (see Daniel 6:2, 38). He was the queen’s cousin, and he had on one occasion been the means of saving the king’s life, and therefore starts under distinctly favourable auspices.
(3) Besought him . . . to put away the mischief.—Esther’s work was as yet only half done. She has seen the condemnation of the foe of her race, and the exaltation of her kinsman to his office. But the royal edict sent out against the Jews still remains valid, and being a written decree, sealed with the king’s seal, is supposed to be beyond the possibility of alteration. It was not, therefore, a case where Mordecai’s newly-acquired dignity would authorise him to interfere, and therefore Esther, who, now that the ice is once broken, becomes more courageous, makes a fresh appeal to the king to do what theoretically was beyond the king’s power.
(4) The king held out the golden sceptre.—See Note on Esther 4:11.
(5) To reverse.—Rather, to bring back, to recall. Esther shows considerable skill in wording her request. She avoids speaking of the king’s letters, but calls them “the letters, the device of Haman, which he wrote.” It is the king, however, to whom the injury is done—“to destroy the Jews which are in all the king’s provinces.”
(8) Write ye. . . .—Esther’s device is seen through, and the king shrinks from taking so decisive a step as the revocation of a decree once issued. Such a writing “may no man reverse.” Still he will do what he can. It may be possible to meet the difficulty, and save the Jews, without actual reversal of the decree. The king then refers to the proofs of his goodwill, as shown by hanging Haman for his scheme against the Jews, and giving his property to Esther, and bids Esther and Mordecai “write concerning the Jews according to what seems good in your eyes.” Give, that is, any orders you please about them, short of repealing the former order. The result of this permission, whether the idea was suggested by the king, or occurred to Esther or Mordecai, was that authority was given to the Jews to defend themselves.
(9) The month Sivan.—This name also occurs in Bar. 1:8. Sivan began with the new moon in May. Rather more than two months had thus passed since the first edict had been sent out.
Lieutenants.—Satraps. (See Note on Esther 3:12.)
(10) Posts.—The posts. Literally, the runners. (See Note on Esther 1:22.)
Riders on mules.—Rather, on horses of great speed; the “swift beast “of Micah 1:13.
Camels, and young dromedaries.—The words thus translated occur only here, and there is much doubt as to the meaning. It may suffice to mention two renderings :—(1) “Mules, the offspring of royal mares “—so Gesenius; or (2) we may connect the former word with the Persian word meaning royal—so Canon Rawlinson, who translates the whole clause, riders upon coursers of the king’s stud, offspring of high-bred steeds.”
(11) To stand for their life.—It will be noticed that, so far at any rate as the edict authorises, the Jews are not permitted to take the initiative, but merely to stand on the defensive. As it was, it was risking civil war in all the cities of the empire, though the results were considerably lessened by numbers of people taking the hint obviously presented by the second edict. “Many of the people of the land became Jews, for the fear of the Jews came upon them.”
Take the spoil of them.—We find that when the storm actually came, the Jews declined to take advantage of this part of the edict.
(13) To avenge themselves on their enemies.—The Hebrew word used here “does not necessarily signify a violent emotion of a resentful spirit, but a steady resolve to defend the right; it is used of the Almighty Himself, rescuing the oppressed, defending the right, and punishing the assailant and the oppressor” (Wordsworth).
(14) Mules and camels.—See above on Esther 8:10.
Being hastened.—Why this haste, seeing there yet remained nearly nine months (wanting ten days) before the first edict would come into play? There may probably have been fears lest the first edict, which indicated a distinct animus of the Court against the Jews, might have been interpreted freely, according to the spirit of it, and the date anticipated by eager partisans.
(15) Blue and white.—See Note on Esther 1:6.
Crown.—This is a different word from that previously used of a “royal crown” (Esther 6:8).
Garment.—The inner robe or tunic. That of the king was of purple striped with white.
The city of Shushan rejoiced.—The tide of royal favour had changed, and the people of Shushan were evidently not very different from the mass of the populace of the present day, who shout with the winning side. Nothing succeeds like success, and the mobile vulgus of Susa cheered Mordecai as doubtless they would have hooted had they seen him led to execution. The crowds who welcomed our Lord into Jerusalem on His triumphal entry soon let their enthusiasm die away—“ Hosanna!” now; tomorrow, “Crucify!”
(17) Became Jews.—That is, embraced their religion as proselytes.
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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Esther 8". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/
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