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1. The Man with the Dropsy Healed on the Sabbath. (Luke 14:1-6 )
2. The Wisdom of Humility. (Luke 14:7-11 )
3. Recompensed in Resurrection. (Luke 14:12-14 )
4. The Parable of the Great Supper. (Luke 14:15-24 )
5. Conditions of Discipleship. (Luke 14:25-35 .)
Again He heals on the Sabbath. In the house of a ruler, a Pharisee, they were watching Him. He had gone there to eat bread. What condescension! They were His enemies, yet He loved them. He healed the man with the dropsy. The question, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day?” was answered by the very power of God.
The parable which follows, also peculiar to Luke, emphasizes the wisdom of humility. The natural man with the pride of life as a governing principle loves self-exaltation. Abasement for him follows in judgment to come; but if man humbleth himself before God, exaltation will follow. He, the Son of Man, had humbled Himself and taken the lowest place. How great is His exaltation! Then He exhorts to seek recompense at the resurrection of the just. Here is a hint on the two resurrections, which are so clearly distinguished in Scripture. The first resurrection is the resurrection of the just and includes all the Saints of God. In that resurrection there will be a reward according to works, but no sinner can work to make himself worthy of that resurrection.
The parable of the great supper is distinct from the similar one in Matthew 22:1-14 . They were spoken at different occasions. The parable in Matthew has clearly marked dispensational aspects, such as the twofold offer to Israel, before and after the cross, the judgment upon Jerusalem and the calling of the Gentiles, etc. The primary object of the parable in Luke is also to show the unbelief of the Jews, especially the self-righteous Pharisees and the call of the publicans and harlots. God has mercifully provided the feast. The Kingdom had come nigh. All things are now ready. The Son of God had come in their midst. But the parable also looks forward to the finished work of the Cross. That work has made all things ready. The self-righteous among the Jews refused and brought their excuses. Then exactly that came to pass of which the Lord had spoken (Luke 14:12-14 ). The publicans and harlots, the poor, maimed, blind and lame came. They could not have the excuses of the self-righteous of the nation. The call of the Gentiles is also seen in this parable: “Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.” The doom of the rejectors is seen in Luke 14:24 . The great multitude, which followed Him then hears from His lips the conditions of true discipleship. Let no one say, as it has been said, that they are not binding today.
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Gaebelein, Arno Clemens. "Commentary on Luke 14". "Gaebelein's Annotated Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent