When he went (εν τωι ελτειν αυτον en tōi elthein auton). Luke‘s favourite temporal clause = “on the going as to him.”That (και kai). Another common Lukan idiom, καιοτι kai =εγενετο hoti after αυτοι egeneto like Hebrew ησαν παρατηρουμενοι wav (αυτοι autoi). Emphatic. Were watching (παρα ēsan paratēroumenoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle. Note force of autoi middle voice, and para -. They were themselves watching on the side (on the sly), watching insidiously, with evil intent as in Mark 3:2 (active).
Which had the dropsy (υδρωπικος hudrōpikos). Late and medical word from υδωρ hudōr (water), one who has internal water (υδρωπς hudrōps). Here only in the N.T. and only example of the disease healed by Jesus and recorded.
Answering (αποκριτεις apokritheis). First aorist passive participle without the passive meaning. Jesus answered the thoughts of those mentioned in Luke 13:1. Here “lawyers and Pharisees” are treated as one class with one article (τους tous) whereas in Luke 7:30 they are treated as two classes with separate articles.Or not (η ου ē ou). The dilemma forestalled any question by them. They held their peace (ησυχασαν hēsuchasan). Ingressive aorist active of old verb ησυχαζω hēsuchazō They became silent, more so than before.
Took him (επιλαβομενος epilabomenos). Second aorist middle participle of επιλαμβανω epilambanō an old verb, only in the middle in the N.T. It is not redundant use, “took and healed,” but “took hold of him and healed him.” Only instance in the N.T. of its use in a case of healing.Let him go (απελυσεν apelusen). Probably, dismissed from the company to get him away from these critics.
An ass or an ox (ονος η βους onos ē bous). But Westcott and Hort υιος η βους huios ē bous (a son or an ox). The manuscripts are much divided between υιος huios (son) and ονος onos (ass) which in the abbreviated uncials looked much alike (TC, OC) and were much alike. The sentence in the Greek reads literally thus: Whose ox or ass of you shall fall (πεσειται peseitai future middle of πιπτο pipto) into a well and he (the man) will not straightway draw him up (ανασπασει anaspasei future active of ανασπαω anaspaō) on the sabbath day? The very form of the question is a powerful argument and puts the lawyers and the Pharisees hopelessly on the defensive.
Could not answer again (ουκ ισχυσαν ανταποκριτηναι ouk ischusan antapokrithēnai). Did not have strength to answer back or in turn (αντι anti -) as in Romans 9:20. They could not take up the argument and were helpless. They hated to admit that they cared more for an ox or ass or even a son than for this poor dropsical man.
A parable for those which were bidden (προς τους κεκλημενους παραβολην pros tous keklēmenous parabolēn). Perfect passive participle of καλεω kaleō to call, to invite. This parable is for the guests who were there and who had been watching Jesus.When he marked (επεχων epechōn). Present active participle of επεχω epechō with τον νουν ton noun understood, holding the mind upon them, old verb and common. They chose out (εχελεγοντο exelegonto). Imperfect middle, were picking out for themselves. The chief seats (τας πρωτοκλισιας tas prōtoklisias). The first reclining places at the table. Jesus condemned the Pharisees later for this very thing (Matthew 23:6; Mark 12:39; Luke 20:46). On a couch holding three the middle place was the chief one. At banquets today the name of the guests are usually placed at the plates. The place next to the host on the right was then, as now, the post of honour.
Sit not down (μη κατακλιτηις mē kataklithēis). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive of κατακλινω kataklinō to recline. Old verb, but peculiar to Luke in the N.T. (Luke 7:36; Luke 9:14; Luke 14:8; Luke 24:30).Be bidden (ηι κεκλημενος ēi keklēmenos). Periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of καλεω kaleō after μη ποτε mē pote f0).
And say (και ερει kai erei). Changes to future indicative with μη ποτε mē pote as in Luke 12:58.Shalt begin with shame (αρχηι μετα αισχυνης arxēi meta aischunēs). The moment of embarrassment. To take the lowest place (τον εσχατον τοπον κατεχειν ton eschaton topon katechein). To hold down the lowest place, all the intermediate ones being taken.
Sit down (αναπεσε anapese). Second aorist active imperative of αναπιπτω anapiptō to fall up or back, to lie back or down. Late Greek word for ανακλινω anaklinō (cf. κατακλινω kataklinō in Luke 14:8).He that hath bidden thee (ο κεκληκως σε ho keklēkōs se). Perfect active participle as in Luke 14:12 (τωι κεκληκοτι tōi keklēkoti) with which compare ο καλεσας ho kalesas in Luke 14:9 (first aorist active participle). He may say (ερει erei). The future indicative with ινα hina does occur in the Koiné (papyri) and so in the N.T. (Robertson, Grammar, p. 984). Go up higher (προσαναβητι prosanabēthi). Second aorist active imperative second singular of προσαναβαινω prosanabainō an old double compound verb, but here only in the N.T. Probably, “Come up higher,” because the call comes from the host and because of προς pros f0).
Shall be humbled (ταπεινωτησεται tapeinōthēsetai). First future passive. One of the repeated sayings of Jesus (Luke 18:14; Matthew 23:12).
A dinner or a supper (αριστον η δειπνον ariston ē deipnon). More exactly, a breakfast or a dinner with distinction between them as already shown. This is a parable for the host as one had just been given for the guests, though Luke does not term this a parable.Call not (μη πωνει mē phōnei). Μη Mē and the present imperative active, prohibiting the habit of inviting only friends. It is the exclusive invitation of such guests that Jesus condemns. There is a striking parallel to this in Plato‘s Phaedrus 233. Recompense (ανταποδομα antapodoma). In the form of a return invitation. Like αντι anti in “bid thee again” (αντικαλεσωσιν antikalesōsin).
When thou makest a feast (οταν δοχην ποιηις hotan dochēn poiēis). οταν Hotan and the present subjunctive in an indefinite temporal clause. Δοχη Dochē means reception as in Luke 5:29, late word, only in these two passages in the N.T. Note absence of article with these adjectives in the Greek (poor people, maimed folks, lame people, blind people).
To recompense thee (ανταποδουναι σοι antapodounai soi). Second aorist active infinitive of this old and common double compound verb, to give back in return. The reward will come at the resurrection if not before and thou shalt be happy.
Blessed (μακαριος makarios). Happy, same word in the Beatitudes of Jesus (Matthew 5:3). This pious platitude whether due to ignorance or hypocrisy was called forth by Christ‘s words about the resurrection. It was a common figure among the rabbis, the use of a banquet for the bliss of heaven. This man may mean that this is a prerogative of the Pharisees. He assumed complacently that he will be among the number of the blest. Jesus himself uses this same figure of the spiritual banquet for heavenly bliss (Luke 22:29).Shall eat (παγεται phagetai). Future middle from εστιω esthiō defective verb, from stem of the aorist (επαγον ephagon) like εδομαι edomai of the old Greek.
Made (εποιει epoiei). Imperfect active, was on the point of making (inchoative).Great supper (δειπνον deipnon). Or dinner, a formal feast. Jesus takes up the conventional remark of the guest and by this parable shows that such an attitude was no guarantee of godliness (Bruce). This parable of the marriage of the King‘s son (Luke 14:15-24) has many points of likeness to the parable of the wedding garment (Matthew 22:1-14) and as many differences also. The occasions are very different, that in Matthew grows out of the attempt to arrest Jesus while this one is due to the pious comment of a guest at the feast and the wording is also quite different. Hence we conclude that they are distinct parables. And he bade many (και εκαλεσεν πολλους kai ekalesen pollous). Aorist active, a distinct and definite act following the imperfect εποιει epoiei f0).
His servant (τον δουλον αυτου ton doulon autou). His bondservant. Vocator or Summoner (Esther 5:8; Esther 6:14). This second summons was the custom then as now with wealthy Arabs. Tristram (Eastern Customs, p. 82) says: “To refuse the second summons would be an insult, which is equivalent among the Arab tribes to a declaration of war.”
With one consent (απο μιας apo mias). Some feminine substantive like γνωμης gnōmēs or πσυχης psuchēs has to be supplied. This precise idiom occurs nowhere else. It looked like a conspiracy for each one in his turn did the same thing.To make excuse (παραιτεισται paraiteisthai). This common Greek verb is used in various ways, to ask something from one (Mark 15:6), to deprecate or ask to avert (Hebrews 12:19), to refuse or decline (Acts 25:11), to shun or to avoid (2 Timothy 2:23), to beg pardon or to make excuses for not doing or to beg (Luke 14:18). All these ideas are variations of αιτεω aiteō to ask in the middle voice with παρα para in composition. The first (ο πρωτος ho prōtos). In order of time. There are three of the “many” (“all”), whose excuses are given, each more flimsy than the other. I must needs (εχω αναγκην echō anagkēn). I have necessity. The land would still be there, a strange “necessity.” Have me excused (εχε με παρηιτημενον eche me parēitēmenon). An unusual idiom somewhat like the English perfect with the auxiliary “have” and the modern Greek idiom with εχω echō but certainly not here a Greek periphrasis for παρηιτησο parēitēso This perfect passive participle is predicate and agrees with με me See a like idiom in Mark 3:1; Luke 12:19 (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 902f.). The Latin had a similar idiom, habe me excusatum. Same language in Luke 14:19.
To prove them (δοκιμασαι αυτα dokimasai auta). He could have tested them before buying. The oxen would not run away or be stolen.
I cannot come (ου δυναμαι ελτειν ou dunamai elthein). Less polite than the others but a more plausible pretence if he wanted to make it so. The law excused a newly married man from war (Deuteronomy 24:5), “but not from social courtesy” (Ragg). The new wife would probably have been glad to go with him to the feast if asked. But see 1 Corinthians 7:33. There is here as often a sharp difference between the excuses offered and the reasons behind them.
Being angry (οργιστεις orgistheis). First aorist (ingressive) passive, becoming angry.Quickly (ταχεως tacheōs). The dinner is ready and no time is to be lost. The invitation goes still to those in the city. Streets and lanes (τας πλατειας και ρυμας tas plateias kai rhumas). Broadways and runways (broad streets and narrow lanes). Maimed (αναπειρους anapeirous). So Westcott and Hort for the old word αναπηρους anapērous due to itacism (ειη ei =ανα ē in pronunciation). The word is compounded of πηρος ana and pēros lame all the way up.
And yet there is room (και ετι τοπος εστιν kai eti topos estin). The Master had invited “many” (Luke 14:16) who had all declined. The servant knew the Master wished the places to be filled.
The highways and hedges (τας οδους και πραγμους tas hodous kai phragmous). The public roads outside the city of Judaism just as the streets and lanes were inside the city. The heathen are to be invited this time.Hedges is fenced in places from πρασσω phrassō to fence in (Romans 3:19). Compel (αναγκασον anagkason). First aorist active imperative of αναγκαζω anagkazō from αναγκη anagkē (Luke 14:18). By persuasion of course. There is no thought of compulsory salvation. “Not to use force, but to constrain them against the reluctance which such poor creatures would feel at accepting the invitation of a great lord” (Vincent). As examples of such “constraint” in this verb, see note on Matthew 14:22; Acts 26:11; Galatians 6:12. That my house may be filled (ινα γεμιστηι μου ο οικος hina gemisthēi mou ho oikos). First aorist passive subjunctive of γεμιζω gemizō to fill full, old verb from γεμω gemō to be full. Effective aorist. Subjunctive with ινα hina in final clause. The Gentiles are to take the place that the Jews might have had (Romans 11:25). Bengel says: Nec natura nec gratia patitur vacuum.
My supper (μου του δειπνου mou tou deipnou). Here it is still the Master of the feast who is summing up his reasons for his conduct. We do not have to say that Jesus shuts the door now in the face of the Jews who may turn to him.
And he turned (και στραπεις kai strapheis). Second aorist passive participle of στρεπω strephō common verb. It is a dramatic act on the part of Jesus, a deliberate effort to check the wild and unthinking enthusiasm of the crowds who followed just to be following. Note “many multitudes” (οχλοι πολλοι ochloi polloi) and the imperfect tense συνεπορευοντο suneporeuonto were going along with him.
Hateth not (ου μισει ou misei). An old and very strong verb μισεω miseō to hate, detest. The orientals use strong language where cooler spirits would speak of preference or indifference. But even so Jesus does not here mean that one must hate his father or mother of necessity or as such, for Matthew 15:4 proves the opposite. It is only where the element of choice comes in (cf. Matthew 6:24) as it sometimes does, when father or mother opposes Christ. Then one must not hesitate. The language here is more sharply put than in Matthew 10:37. The ου ou here coalesces with the verb μισει misei in this conditional clause of the first class determined as fulfilled. It is the language of exaggerated contrast, it is true, but it must not be watered down till the point is gone. In mentioning “and wife” Jesus has really made a comment on the excuse given in Luke 14:20 (I married a wife and so I am not able to come).And his own life also (ετι τε και την πσυχην εαυτου eti te kai tēn psuchēn heautou). Note τε και te kai both - and. “The τε te (B L) binds all the particulars into one bundle of renuncianda ” (Bruce). Note this same triple group of conjunctions (ετι τε και eti te kai) in Acts 21:28, “And moreover also,” “even going as far as his own life.” Martyrdom should be an ever-present possibility to the Christian, not to be courted, but not to be shunned. Love for Christ takes precedence “over even the elemental instinct of self-preservation” (Ragg).
His own cross (τον σταυρον εαυτο ton stauron heautoū). This familiar figure we have had already (Luke 9:23; Mark 8:34; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 16:24). Each follower has a cross which he must bear as Jesus did his. ασταζω Bastazō is used of cross bearing in the N.T. only here (figuratively) and John 19:17 literally of Jesus. Crucifixion was common enough in Palestine since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes and Alexander Jannaeus.
Build a tower (πυργον οικοδομησαι purgon oikodomēsai). A common metaphor, either a tower in the city wall like that by the Pool of Siloam (Luke 13:4) or a watchtower in a vineyard (Matthew 21:33) or a tower-shaped building for refuge or ornament as here. This parable of the rash builder has the lesson of counting the cost.Sit down (κατισας kathisas). Attitude of deliberation. First (πρωτον prōton). First things first. So in Luke 14:31. Count (πσηπιζει psēphizei). Common verb in late writers, but only here and Revelation 13:18 in the N.T. The verb is from πσηπος psēphos a stone, which was used in voting and so counting. Calculate is from the Latin calculus, a pebble. To vote was to cast a pebble (τιτημι πσηπον tithēmi psēphon). Luke has Paul using “deposit a pebble” for casting his vote (Acts 26:10). The cost (την δαπανην tēn dapanēn). Old and common word, but here only in the N.T. from δαπτω daptō to tear, consume, devour. Expense is something which eats up one‘s resources. Whether he hath wherewith to complete it (ει εχει εις απαρτισμον ei echei eis apartismon). If he has anything for completion of it. Απαρτισμον Apartismon is a rare and late word (in the papyri and only here in the N.T.). It is from απαρτιζω apartizō to finish off (απ ap - and αρτιζω artizō like our articulate), to make even or square. Cf. εχηρτισμενος exērtismenos in 2 Timothy 3:17.
Lest haply (ινα μηποτε hina mēpote). Double final particles (positive and negative with addition of ποτε pote). Used here with aorist middle subjunctive in αρχωνται arxōntai (begin).When he hath laid and was not able (τεντος αυτου και μη ισχυοντος thentos autou εκτελεσαι kai mē ischuontos) to finish (εκ ektelesai). First aorist active infinitive. Note perfective use of τεντος ek to finish out to the end. Two genitive absolutes, first, second aorist active participle ισχυοντος thentos second, present active participle αυτωι εμπαιζειν ischuontos mock him (εμπαιζω autōi empaizein). An old verb, παις em -paizō to play like a child (pais), at or with, to mock, scoff at, to trifle with like Latin illudere.
This man (ουτος ο αντρωπος houtos ho anthrōpos). This fellow, contemptuous or sarcastic use of ουτος houtos f0).
To encounter (συνβαλειν sunbalein). Second aorist active infinitive of συνβαλλω sunballō old and common verb, to throw or bring together, to dispute, to clash in war as here.Another king (ετερωι βασιλει heterōi basilei), to grapple with another king in war or for war (εις πολεμον eis polemon). Associative instrumental case. Take counsel (βουλευσεται bouleusetai). Future middle indicative of old and common verb βουλευω bouleuō from βουλη boulē will, counsel. The middle means to take counsel with oneself, to deliberate, to ponder. With ten thousand (εν δεκα χιλιασιν en deka chiliasin). Literally, in ten thousand. See this so-called instrumental use of εν en in Judges 1:14. Equipped in or with ten thousand. See note on Luke 1:17. Note μετα εικοσι χιλιαδων meta eikosi chiliadōn just below (midst of twenty thousand). To meet (υπαντησαι hupantēsai). Common verb (like απανταω apantaō) from ανταω antaō (αντα anta end, face to face, from which αντι anti) with preposition υπο hupo (or απο apo), to go to meet. Here it has a military meaning.
Or else (ει δε μηγε ei de mēge). Same idiom in Luke 5:36. Luke is fond of this formula.An ambassage (πρεσβειαν presbeian). Old and common word for the office of ambassador, composed of old men (πρεσβεις presbeis) like Japanese Elder Statesmen who are supposed to possess wisdom. In the N.T. only here and Luke 19:14. Asketh conditions of peace (ερωται προς ειρηνην erōtāi pros eirēnēn). The use of ερωταω erōtaō in this sense of beg or petition is common in the papyri and Koiné generally. The original use of asking a question survives also. The text is uncertain concerning προς ειρηνην pros eirēnēn which means with ερωταω erōtaō to ask negotiations for peace. In B we have εις eis instead of προς pros like Luke 14:28. Most MSS. have τα ta before προς pros or εις eis but not in Aleph and B. It is possible that the τα ta was omitted because of preceding ται tai (ομοεοτελευτον homoeoteleuton), but the sense is the same. See note on Romans 14:19 τα της ειρηνης ta tēs eirēnēs the things of peace, which concern or look towards peace, the preliminaries of peace.
Renounceth not (ουκ αποτασσεται ouk apotassetai). Old Greek word to set apart as in a military camp, then in the middle voice to separate oneself from, say good-bye to (Luke 9:61), to renounce, forsake, as here.All that he hath (πασιν τοις εαυτου υπαρχουσιν pasin tois heautou huparchousin). Dative case, says good-bye to all his property, “all his own belongings” (neuter plural participle used as substantive) as named in Luke 14:26. This verse gives the principle in the two parables of the rash builder and of the rash king. The minor details do not matter. The spirit of self-sacrifice is the point.
Dunghill (κοπριαν koprian). Later word in the Koiné vernacular. Here only in the N.T., though in the lxx.Men cast it out (εχω βαλλουσιν αυτο exō ballousin auto). Impersonal plural. This saying about salt is another of Christ‘s repeated sayings (Matthew 5:13; Mark 9:50). Another repeated saying is the one here about having ears to hear (Luke 8:8; Luke 14:35, Matthew 11:15; Matthew 13:43).
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 14". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Lent