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Continuing, He gave a more detailed picture of that coming order. There was to be a fold, with a door. There was to be a flock, with a shepherd. Entrance to the fold would be by the door. The flock would know and follow the shepherd. Here John declared, "They understood not what things they were that He spake unto them"; and that "therefore" of Jesus shows that what followed in His teaching resulted from their failure to understand. This fuller statement centers on two principal claims of our Lord, "I am the Door," "I am the good Shepherd." Entrance on the new order would be through Him. Of the fold He is the Door. Sustenance and government within the order would be through Him. Of the flock He would be the Shepherd. Such teaching again caused division.
While walking in the porch of Solomon, the Jews asked for some more definite pronouncement. In reply, Jesus referred them to what He had already told them, and then restated the facts of the new order, insisting on the relation between Himself and His Father. All this teaching aroused those opposed to further activity, but their rage was restrained, and they were not able to arrest Him.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on John 10". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent