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Friday, December 1st, 2023
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Bible Commentaries
John 10

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

THE GOOD SHEPHERD, v. 1-21 (See Ps 231-6; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4)

1) "Verily, verily, I say unto you," (amen, amen, lego humin) "Truly, truly, I tell you all," all who were listening, inclusive of John, the writer, but chiefly directed at the unbelieving Jews who continually carped, criticized, and found fault with Jesus and His church disciples who followed Him, John 9:19; John 21:24. Jesus proceeded to contrast the Pharisees’ harsh treatment of the man born blind with His compassion for the fallen and afflicted.

2) "He that entereth not by the door," (ho me eiserchomenos dia tes thuras) "The one who does not enter through the door," or find salvation by coming to me by faith. For Jesus is the door, the entrance to salvation, and a position of Divine worship and service, and as in the ark of Noah, there is but one door, Genesis 6:16; Genesis 7:16; John 14:6.

3) "Into the sheepfold," leis ten aulen ton probaton) ’’Into the fold of the sheep," the place of care, provision, and place of following the Shepherd. The sheepfold of Jesus, the Good Shepherd, is the church, also called His house, 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:1-6.

4) ’’But climbeth up some other way," (alla anabainon allachomen) "But is continually ascending or going up by another way," trying to acquire salvation and find a place of following the Shepherd, by neither going through Him for salvation nor entering into His New Covenant fellowship of church worship and service. These Jewish rulers sought the pay and the power of their positions more than the care of the sheep.

5) "The same is a thief and a robber." (ekeinos kleptes estin kai lestes) "That one is (exists as) a thief and a robber," John 9:8, or as a thug and a bandit. The idea is that a sinner who tries to gain acceptance into favor with God by any means other than through Jesus Christ, "the door" John 9:9, is acting like a thug and a bandit. And the very Pharisees and Jews who listened were attempting to get into God’s good graces, to acquire Salvation and acceptable service through Moses’ law, while rejecting Him. They were more interested in the fleece than the flock, as thieves. And today any sinner, religious or irreligious sinner, who tries to get into salvation, a state of Divine security from hell and service to God through good works, reformation, baptism, communion, or church membership, while rejecting the shed blood of Jesus Christ, by faith, is still like a thief and a robber, a thug or a bandit, John 14:6; Acts 4:12, Romans 1:16.

Verse 2

1) "But he that entereth in by the door,’’ (ho de eiserchomenos dia tes thuras) "However the one who enters through the door,’’ at the call of the Shepherd, to salvation and service, who leads the way, takes the initiative, goes before and calls lost sheep to a place of perfect safety, shelter, rest, and provision, John 1:29; John 14:6.

2) ’’Is the shepherd of the sheep." (poimen estin ton probaton) "That one is (now exists as) the shepherd of the sheep;"- You see it is His fold and His sheep, f lock for whom He made provision for their redemption and fellowship and service, and the fold, Ephesians 5:25; Luke 12:32, Acts 20:28.

Verse 3

1 ) "To him the porter openeth," (touto ho thuroros anoigei) "To this one the door keeper opens, - Acts 14:27; Acts 16:18; 1 Corinthians 16:9, the guardian, the paraklete, the Holy Spirit, opens the blind eyes, deaf ears, to the voice of the call of the Shepherd to come to and follow Him, in salvation, safety, rest, and service, John 16:7-11, Revelation 3:20; Revelation 22:17.

2) "And the sheep hear his voice:” (kai ta probata tes phones autou akouei) "And the sheep heed his voice," of instruction and advice, respond obediently to His voice, because they belong to Him, to whom they have come, committed themselves; They know Him, give heed to His call, John 10:27; John 6:44; 2 Timothy 1:12.

3) ’’And he calleth his own sheep by name," (kai ta idia probata phonei kat’ onoma) "And he calls his own sheep according to or by (their) name," John 20:16; because He knows and cares for each, with intimate knowledge of every one, He is so interested in names that He enters them in the Lamb’s book of life, when they are saved, in order, Romans 16:7; Revelation 13:8.

4) ’’And leadeth them out." (kai eksagei auta) "And he leads them out," from the fold, into the fields for food and service, Mark 8:24, Luke 9:23.

The sheep should follow, wherever the shepherd leads. The spirit of the sheep should be, ’’Wherever He leads, I’ll go.


And so it is with the Bible --- we read our Bibles, but unless the Porter openeth, the voices of the evangelists and apostles are but as a pleasant tale. And then there is that other book, the book of nature, which lies open before us. But we hear no sounds in the noisy brook, we see nothing in the opening buds and flowers of early summer; but once the Porter opens the door, then suddenly --­"Earth’s crammed with heaven, and every common bush afire with God ’’ Or if we look upon the pages of history. To the natural man they contain only a record of battles, kings, and dynasties, but when the Porter opens wide the door, then we seem to read between the lines. We see how evil haunts the wicked person to destroy him and his seed forever, we see men sowing the wind and in after years, long after the sowing has faded from memory, reaping the whirlwind! To read history without the illumi­nation of the Holy Spirit, is like looking at a beautiful land­scape by the pale light of the moon. We see indeed the dark forms of the hills standing out, we note the trees in their solemn gloom; we hear and see the white foam splashing against the rocky shore; but the flowers and blades of grass, the leaves with their countless tints, the life and the color of the whole scene can only be seen by the light of the clear, noon-day sun. So the manifold workings of the Holy Spirit in every successive generation can only be seen when the Porter has opened the door and enlightened our understanding, and given us a right judgement in all things.

- J. L. Spencer

Verse 4

1) "And when he putteth forth his own sheep," (hotan ta idia panta ekbale) "When he puts out all his own," or puts them forth, in fields of witnessing, light bearing, and service, Matthew 5:15-16; Matthew 28:19-20; Acts 1:8.

2) "He goeth before them," (emprosthen auton poreuetai) "He goes in front of them," or before them of his own choice or accord, as the Eastern Shepherd always leads his sheep. He asks them to go no place, do no service, endure no pain that He Himself does not understand, for He had and does go before them, Hebrews 4:15-16; 1 Corinthians 10:13; John 17:19; Colossians 2:11-15.

3) "And the sheep follow him:- (kai ta probata auto alkolouthei) "And the sheep follow him," one by one, because they choose to do so, feeling safe, secure to go where He leads, John 10:27.

4) "For they know his voice." (hoti oidasin ten phonen autou) "Because they know, perceive, or recognize his voice," as Savior, Lord, Master. As He calls, cheers, encourages, comforts, provides, and protects them, by day and by night, So 2:8; John 10:14; 2 Timothy 1:12; John 17:3.

Verse 5

1) "And a stranger will they not follow," (allotrio de ou me akolouthesousin) "Yet a stranger they will not follow by any means," whose voice they do not recognize, whose love they have not discovered or experienced.

2) "But they will flee from him:” (alla pheuksontai ap’ autou) ’’But they will flee from him," out of fear, of their own will and choice, apprehensive of danger, John 10:12-13 And they should, 2 Timothy 3:5, 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; Galatians 1:8.

3) "For they know not the voice of strangers." (hoti ouk oidasin ton allotrion ten phonen) ’’Because they do not know or recognize the voice of the stranger," Revelation 2:2 though he may imitate the voice of the shepherd, Matthew 7:15-23, Acts 20:29-30. They, as strangers infiltrate the flock with enticing words, but the more the sheep know the shepherd, the better they can lead the retreat, the fleeing of the flock from the destroyer, 2 Peter 2:1-3; 2 Peter 2:17-19.

Verse 6

1) "This parable spake Jesus unto them:” (tauten ten pariomian eipen autois ho lesous) "Jesus told them this allegory," v. 19, the Pharisee Jews especially, who had excluded the former blind man Jesus healed from the synagogue, John 9:34-35; John 16:2.

2) "But they understood not what things they were," (ekeinoi de ouk egnosan tina hen) "Yet they did not know what things they were," the picture He had painted of their moral nature, or did not understand, as described, John 8:43; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4; Ephesians 4:18. They were spiritually blind, ignorant, did not "will" to know or do His will, John 7:17.

3) "Which he spake unto them." (ha elaiei autois) "Which he spoke to them," so directly, to their own condemnation, John 5:30; John 12:47-48.

Verse 7

1) "Then said Jesus unto them again," (eipen oun palin ho lesous) "Then Jesus said again," further explaining to them, His own Jewish people to whom He first came and appealed, John 10:19; John 1:11; Romans 1:16.

2) "Verily, verily, I say unto you," (amen amen lego humin) "Truly, truly, I tell you all," as a matter of serious or grave import, that you all do not seem to comprehend, have not accepted, though I have appealed to you, from the Father repeatedly, John 6:38-40; John 6:57; John 8:29; John 8:38; John 8:54.

3) "l am the door of the sheep.’’ (hoti ego eimi he thura ton probaton) "That I am (exist as) the door (or entranceway) of the sheep," as Savior, Protector, Provider, and Guide, by which or whom one is saved, John 10:2; John 10:9; John 14:6, Acts 4:12, Ephesians 2:18. Through Jesus alone may men find access to God, to salvation, then baptism, and identity and service in and with His church, Matthew 28:18-20.

Verse 8

1) ’’All that ever came before me," (pantes hosoi elthon pro emou) "All those who came before me," not true, all of whom bare witness of Him, Acts 10:43; But all pretended prophets of the hypocritical type, such as the scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees who perverted the true teachings of Moses, Mark 7:1-12; Matthew 5:20; Deuteronomy 18:15 -­19.

2) "Are thieves and robbers " (kleptai eisin kai lestai) ’’They are (exist as or like) thieves and robbers," or as thugs and bandits, robbing God of true glory, loving the praise of men more than the praise of God, spoilers of His own Jewish people, short-changing them in truth and the Spirit of the Word, John 12:41.

3) "But the sheep did not hear them." (all ’ouk ekousan auton ta probata) "But the sheep did not heed them,’’ give ear to, follow and obey them, the true believers did not. They followed John the Baptist instead, then at the voice of Jesus and the encouragement of John the Baptist, they had later turned to follow Jesus, the Good Shepherd, the Great Shepherd, and the Chief Shepherd, Matthew 3:4-10; Mark 1:5; John 1:35-37; John 3:25-30; Acts 19:4; John 4:11; John 10:11; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4.

Verse 9

1) "I am the door," (ho ego eimi he thura) "I am (exist as) the door," John 10:1-2; John 10:7, the entrance, the access-to salvation, security, eternal life, life beyond this, as the one door to Noah’s Ark was not only salvation from destruction by the flood, but also transport to new life and a new beginning on earth, Genesis 6:16; Genesis 7:16; He is not "a door" but "the only door," John 8:24; Acts 4:12.

2) "By me if any man enter in," (di emou ean tis eiselthe)."If anyone enters through me," through the door, doesn’t get into the sheepfold (the church) John 10:1, some other way, climbing over, digging under, or digging through, in some cheating, lying manner, as Judas Iscariot did, as a baptized, ordained, covetous, selfish cheat, John 6:64; John 12:4-6, Our Lord said, have not ’’I chosen twelve of you and one of you is a devil?"

3) "He shall be saved," (sothesetai) "He will be saved or delivered," by me and by no other, Acts 4:12; Acts 10:43; Romans 1:16. He will be safe from the consequences of judgement for his sins, because Jesus has borne them, Isaiah 53:1-12; 2 Corinthians 5:21; 1 Peter 2:24.

4) "And shall go in and out," (kai eiseleusetai kai ekseleusetai) "And he will go in and go out," of the sheepfold or from the sheepfold, in fellowship assembly, for prayer, worship, praise, and study, and out to the fields to feast on God’s daily goodness, let His light shine, and bear witness of Him, Hebrews 10:24-25; Matthew 5:15-16; John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:6.

5) "And find pasture." (kai nomen heuresei) "And he will find pasture," daily food, manna from on high, doing daily tasks, being doers of the Word, praying, "give us this day our daily bread," etc. Matthew 6:11; James 1:22; James 1:27; Philippians 4:19.


I read a story the other day of some Russians crossing wide plains studded over here and there with forests. The wolves were out, the horses were rushing forward madly, the travelers could hear the baying; and, though the horses tore along with all speed, yet the wolves were fast behind, and they only escaped as we say, "by the skin of their teeth,’’ managing just to get inside some hut that stood in the road, and to shut the door. Then they heard the wolves leap on the roof, they could hear them dash against the sides of the hut; they could hear them gnawing at the door, and the howling, and making all sorts of dismal noises; but the travelers were safe, because they had entered in by the door, and the door was shut. Now, when a man is in Christ, he can hear, as it were, the devils howling like wolves, all fierce and hungry for him; and his own sins, like wolves, are seeking to drag him down to destruction. But he has got in to Christ, and that is such a shelter that all the devils in the world, if they were to come at once, could not start a single beam of that eternal refuge: it must stand fast, though the earth and heaven should pass away.

- Spurgeon.

The phrase "to go in and out,’’ is a common Old Testament expression denoting free activity of daily life and service, Numbers 27:15-21, Deuteronomy 28:6; Psalms 121:8; Jeremiah 37:4.

Verse 10

1) "The thief cometh not,’’ (ho kleptes ouk erchetai) ’’The thief comes not," approaches not of his own choice, of his own nature and design, except for three ulterior purposes of selfish, covetous, personal profit or aggran­dizement, at the expense of the sheep and the flock.

2) "But for to steal," (ei me hina klepse) "Except in order that he may steal," seize with stealth that which belongs to another, not for sacrificial purpose for another, for which Jesus came, as the lamb of God, John 1:29; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

3) "And to kill," (kai thuse) "And in order that he may kill," slay the sheep, cause him to die in his own blood, to waste the life and pasture of the sheep.

4) "And to destroy:" (kai apolese) ’’And in order that he may destroy," for destructive purposes, to mangle and tear, to render helpless and useless to the shepherd, after his stealing into the flock, Matthew 7:15-20; Acts 20:27-29.

5) "I am come that they might have life," (ego elthon hina zoen echosin) "I am come (by my own choice) in order that they may have life," eternal life, unceasing spiritual life,’’ eternal life, unceasing spiritual life, and the food that sustains it, John 6:33; John 10:28; John 11:25; John 14:6; As a Shepherd, none of His sheep shall want or lack anything to sustain them in Him, Psalms 23:1.

6) "And that they might have it more abundantly." (kai perisson echosin) "And in order that they may have life more abundantly," both now and hereafter, all needed to sustain this life, in excess of physical life. For this life more abundant, through the spirit, shall be quickened in the resurrection, for eternity, in a body that pleases the Master, Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:38; 1 Corinthians 15:41-42; 1 John 3:2. It is an abundant or "surplus life," in what it provides for the saved, more than enough to meet every soul need. God shed this life on us through Jesus Christ, Titus 3:6.

Verse 11

1) "I am the good shepherd,’’ (ego eimi ho poimen ho kalos) "I am (exist as) the good shepherd," or the ideal shepherd, as described, Isaiah 40:11; Ezekiel 34:11-13; Ezekiel 34:22-25; Hebrews 13:20, 1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4.

2) "The good shepherd giveth,’’ (ho poimen ho kalos tithesin) "The ideal shepherd lays down or sets out,’’ voluntarily, or of his own will, choice, and accord, a thing that may be observed, witnessed, or evaluated by any who will behold Him; It was a conscious divestiture of Himself, of His own life, that the sheep might live, in contrast with the vicious destruction of wolves and cowardly fleeing of hirelings, John 10:10; John 10:12-13; John 15:13.

3) "His life for the sheep." (ten psuchen autou huper ton probaton) "His soul-life on behalf of the sheep," as the good shepherd, John 10:14; John 10:18; 1 John 3:16. The Shepherd died that the sheep might live, might be ransomed, Matthew 20:28, Such was a substitutionary death for wandering, straying sheep, Isaiah 53:3-8; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

Verse 12

1) "But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd,’’ (ho misthos kai ouk on poimen) "The one who is an hireling and not being (existing as) a shepherd," one who works for wages, as an hired hand without sympathy, compassion, feeling, heart, or love for the sheep, but he is there simply for what he can get for his work; Israel’s religious leaders fell to this low plane in olden days, Ezekiel 34:1.

2) "Whose own the sheep are not," (hou ouk estin ta probata idia) "Whose sheep (he attends) are not his own,’’ not his own property, Jeremiah 23:1-2, though he is in trust of their care for wages.

3) "Seeth the wolf coming," (theorei ton lukon erchomenon) "He sees the wolf approaching," for the kill, to destroy and scatter the flock, Zechariah 11:15-16. He becomes a traitor to his trust, a thing that may do as much harm as the kill of the wolf. The wolf doubtless signified the ravages of the Sadducees and the Pharisees against the flock of Jesus, Luke 12:32.

4) "And leaveth the sheep, and fleeth:” (kai aphiesin ta probata kai pheugei) "And he leaves (deserts) the sheep and flees," runs away, rather than resist the wolf and try, at risk of personal danger, to protect the sheep. He leaves, even before the wolf enters the flock, and the battle begins. He cares chiefly for his own safety and welfare, Ezekiel 34:2-6; Zechariah 11:17.

5) "And the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep." (kai ho Ikos harpazei auta kai skorpizei) "And the wolf seizes or snatches and scatters them." What the wolf does not kill or mangle he scatters. God’s flock, the church, like sheep, need good (ideal) under shepherds today who will not "turn tail" or flee when grievous wolves approach or sneak into the flock; Men of the cloth who know truth and its worthiness and are loyal to their Lord-Superior whose flock they oversee, Acts 20:28-30; 1 Peter 5:2-4.

Verse 13

1) ’’The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling," (hoti misthos estin) "Because he is(only)an hireling, he flees; ­His nature is betrayed by his conduct, by his abandoning the sheep without a fight, without any effort of resistance, James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8-9. This is a bleak picture of duty deserted, 1 Corinthians 15:58; Galatians 6:9.

2) "And careth not for the sheep." (kai ou melei auto peri ton probaton) "And it matters not to him concerning (what happens to)the sheep." He took the position, not for the good of the sheep, but for his own sake. The appearance of the wolf only brought out that he cared for himself first, not the sheep, though he was a paid hired hand and on the job when the wolf came, Matthew 7:15-20.

Verse 14

1) "I am the good shepherd," (ego eimi hi poimen ho kolos) "I am (exist as) the ideal shepherd," watching, leading, guarding, feeding, teaching, and dying for the flock, John 10:11.

2) "And know my sheep," (kai ginosko ta ema) "And I know those that are mine," and use my knowledge of them to provide for their benefit, their best interest, 2 Timothy 2:19; John 10:27; Nehemiah 1:7; John 6:64. He knows their number, name, nature, wants, needs, weaknesses, and dangers, John 10:27.

3) "And am know of mine." (kai ginouskousi me ta ema) "And those that are mine know me," John 10:4; 2 Timothy 1:12; as He knows His sheep by their names, marks, and ways, they know Him by His voice and are in submission to it, John 10:3-4; John 10:27.

Verse 15

1) "As the Father knoweth me," (kathos ginoskei me ho pater) "Just as the Father knows me," Matthew 11:27, personally in all my work, offices, and my relation with Him; I and my Father know and trust each other as personally as the sheep and the shepherd know and trust each other.

2) "Even so I know the Father:” (kago ginosko ton patera) "I also know the Father:” John 15:10; John 17:8.

3) ’’And I lay down my life for the sheep." (kai ten psuchen mou tithemi huper ton probaton)"And l lay down my soul-life on behalf of the sheep," John 10:17-18; John 3:16. For l know this to be His will, which I came to do, Isaiah 53:4-6; Isaiah 53:10-12; John 6:39; John 15:13; Luke 23:46.

Verse 16

1) "And other sheep I have," (kai alla probata echo) "And I have, hold, or possess other sheep," alluding to those Jews who had believed on Him, but for fear of being excluded from the synagogue, would not openly confess Him, be baptized, and commit themselves to follow Him in His new covenant church fellowship of worship and service, John 12:42.

2) "Which are not of this fold:" (a ouk estin ek tes aules tautes) "Which are not(exist not) out of this fold," or have not their being out of and from this fold, of which Jesus was "the door," entrance by faith, and "the head," "chief Shepherd," of the church, which He purchased with His own blood, Hebrews 13:20; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 1:22-23; Ephesians 5:25; his house or sheepfold is the church, 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:1-6; Mark 13:34-35.

3) "Them also I must bring," (kakeina dei me agagein) "Those also it behooves (becomes) me to bring," bring to follow me, those Messiah-believing Jews who, though believing He was the Savior, for fear of man, their own Jewish rulers, would not openly confess and be baptized into His church-fold fellowship of following disciples. They held back in horror of being branded outcasts, much as lepers, from all Jewish social and religious rights and privileges of synagogue membership, John 7:13; John 9:22; John 9:34-35; John 16:2; John 19:38.

4) ’’And they shall hear my voice;”- (kai tes phones mou akousousin) "And they will heed my voice," to follow me, because they are my sheep, have already believed, as the aged Simeon and Anna did in His early childhood, Luke 1:25-38; And as three thousand did on the day of Pentecost, after His death on the cross and the Holy Spirit empowering of His church-fold, Acts 2:1-4; Acts 2:38-41.

5) "And there shall be one fold and one shepherd." (kai genesetai mia poimne eis poimen) "And there will be (come to exist) one flock, (and) one shepherd," Hebrews 3:1-6 refers to this house-fold that Jesus as Shepherd built, not two folds and two shepherds (as there were for a limited time), while the house-fold of Moses and house-fold of Jesus existed side by side, during the ministry of Christ, after He established the church, and before He abolished the Mosaic law program of worship, took it out of the way, nailing it to His cross, Colossians 2:14-17. There now exists only one church-fold from which neither Jew not Gentile is disbarred, Ephesians 4:4-5; Ephesians 1:22-23; Ephesians 2:16-22.

Verse 17

1) "Therefore doth my Father love me," (dia touto me ho pater agapa) "On account of this the Father loves me," John 5:20; Ephesians 5:2; Philippians 2:9. Because I am the: 1) Good Shepherd, John 10:11; John 10:14; John 2) The Great Shepherd, Hebrews 13:20; Hebrews , 3) The Chief Shepherd, 1 Peter 5:1-4; the door (the entrance) for salvation and service into the sheepfold, the church or house of God, that Jesus built, in this age and of Israel and the church of the millennial age, Hebrews 3:1-3; 1 Timothy 3:15.

2) "Because I lay down my life," (hoti ego tithemi ten psuchen mou) "Because I lay down my soul-life of my own accord," not by force but voluntarily, Isaiah 53:7-12; Hebrews 2:9; Philippians 2:6-8; Luke 23:46. None took it from Him, except He willed to yield to the time and the method of His departure from life.

3) "That I might take it again." (hina palin labo auten) "in order that I may receive or take it again," for Himself and also to receive the Spiritual, eternal bliss of His redeemed in their resurrection bodies, like His one day, 1 John 3:2; Matthew 26:32; Philippians 3:20-21.

Verse 18

1) "No man taketh it from me," (oudies heren auten ap’ emou) "No one took it from me." To the end He had power to choose another time of exit from life as He asserted, Matthew 26:53.

2) "But I lay it down of myself." (all’ ego tithemi auten ap’ emautou) "But I lay it down from myself," from my own choice, for the redemption of the whole world and the purchase of the church with His own blood, Hebrews 2:9; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 5:25.

3) "I have power to lay it down," (eksousian echo theinai auten) "I hold the authority to lay it down," or to retain it, a thing men do not have, John 3:35; John 12:32.

4) "And I have power to take it again." (kai eksousian echo palin labein auten) "And I have, hold, or own authority to take it again," to reserve it, John 2:19; John 14:1-3.

5) "This commandment have I received of my Father." (tauten ten entolen elabon para tou patros mou "This commandment I received directly from my Father," to dispose of His life and begin or resume it again, John 6:38; Romans 8:11. In doing this He was fulfilling the will and purpose of His Father.

Verse 19

1) "There was a division therefore again," (schisma palin egeneto) "Again there was a schism or faction," among those unregenerate, pious, ceremonial, religious Mosaic law keepers who sought to put Jesus to death, John 9:16.

2) "Among the Jews," (en tois loudaiois) "In and among the Jews," as on previous and later occasions, John 7:11-12; John 7:43.

3) "For these sayings." (dia tous logous toutous) "On account of these words," of His testimony that 1) He was the door to the sheepfold, 2) The Good Shepherd, 3) "That the sheep and the fold belonged to Him and there should one day be only one Shepherd and one fold, after He voluntarily laid down His life for His sheep, John 10:1-18.

Verse 20

1) "And many of them said," (elegon de polloi eks auton)"Then said many of them," of the Jews, those who were frustrated, unsettled about Jesus and His work said, their own nature as children of the devil themselves, Romans 8:7; Matthew 15:18; John 8:44; 1 John 3:10; Matthew 5:20.

2) "He hath a devil, and is mad;” (diamonion echei kai mainetai) "He has a demon (is demon-obsessed- and he raves," or is mad, a mad-dog man, But it appears that it was rather they who were mad or irrational, Mark 3:2; Acts 26:11. Little wonder that they were divided, for the Sadducees among them denied the existence of angels, spirits, and the resurrection, thus not conceding devils existed, see? Acts 23:8.

3) "Why hear ye him?" (ti autou akouete) "Why do you all heed him?" or listen to Him at all? The answer is that they saw too much holiness in His character and too much good in His deeds to accept the charge that He had a devil (demon) or was mentally deranged. That Jesus was mad, demon possessed, or deranged, was surely false as well as a similar charge Festus later tried to pin on the apostle Paul, which he refuted, Acts 26:24-26.

Verse 21

1) "Others said," (alloi elegon) "Others (of them) asserted," or replied, disagreeing with their ridiculing Jewish brethren.

2) "These are not the words of him that hath a devil," (tauta ta hermata ouk estin diamonizomenou) "These (kind of) words are not of one who is raving or demon ­possessed." You all are not sound enough in mind and judgement yourselves to make such a charge stick before a judge, they responded. Demonized men neither speak nor do the kind of things He says and does so orderly, with emotional stability and reason, much as related John 7:46; Luke 4:22.

3) ’’Can a devil open the eyes of the blind?" (me diamonion dunatai tuphlon ophthalmous anoiksai) "A demon is not able to open the eyes of blind men, is he?" It was dog-eat-dog, of Jew-Vs-Jew, when both groups opposing Jesus against one another, while rejecting Jesus, were in the wrong, John 5:20; Could a demon open blind eyes? One party quizzed, and would he, if he could, as Jesus had done to the man born blind? This was the hard truth they could not reasonably explain, John 9:6-7.

Verse 22

1) "And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication," (egeneto tote ta egkainia en tois lerosolumois) "There was (occurred) then the dedication in Jerusalem," the feast of dedication, or annual re-con­secration of the temple, Ezra 6:16. This was some two months after the account previously related, at the healing of the blind man, John 9:1-41. This temple re-conse­cration recalled the renewal by Judaeus Maccabaeus (167 BC), after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, when he offered a sow on the altar and made fun of it and its sacred services.

2) "And it was winter." (cheimon hen) "It was winter," and this is why Jesus was teaching inside, John 10:23, rather than outside and it was also likely stormy weather. It was on the 18th day of December of our calendar year and lasted for eight days, Antiq. of Josephus, 12:7,9.

Verse 23

1) "And Jesus walked in the temple," (kai periepatei ho lesous en to hierou) "And Jesus walked about in the temple area," with His disciples.

2) "In Solomon’s porch.’’ (en te stoa tou Solomonos) "in the porch of Solomon,’’ mentioned also Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12; 1 Kings 6:3, a porch on the east side of the temple, overlooking the Mount of Olives. It was evidently erected over where Solomon had formerly built the temple. Some believe it is a part of the temple left undestroyed by the Babylonians, Josephus Antiq. 20:7, 9.

Verse 24

1) "Then came the Jews roundabout him," (ekuklosan oun auton hoi loudaioi) "Then the Jews surrounded him,’’ in a demanding, intimidating, and threatening manner, demanding an immediate reply to their inquiry.

2) "And said unto him," (kai elegon auto) "And said directly to him," in a requiring manner.

3) ’’How long cost thou make us to doubt?’’ (heos pote ten psuchen hemon aireis) ’’How long do you mean to hold our soul-life in uncertainty?" in suspense in doubt. They had already been given abundance of evidence through 1) Fulfilled prophecy about Him, 2) And miracles He had performed, and to overstate the case of His identity would only lead to their trying to force Him to be King-Messiah like they wanted while yet in their sins.

4) "If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.’’ (ei su ei ho Christos, eipon hemin parresia) "If you are (really) the Christ (the Messiah), tell it to us plainly," as if His works did not already show it, John 5:36. Tell us with open, clear utterance in a categorical manner. He had declared Himself to be the Light of the world, John 8:12; and the Liberating one, John 8:32; John 8:36. Since He had cleansed the temple at His first visit of His active ministry, John 2:13,­25, would it not now be most appropriate at this re-sancti­fication of the temple to say it categorically, if He was the Christ? John 4:25-26; Luke 4:41; Matthew 16:16; John 11:27.

Verse 25

1) "Jesus answered them, I told you," (apekrithe autois ho lesous eipon humin) "Jesus replied, I told you all," who I was and am, again and again, John 5:19-20; John 5:43; John 6:38-40.

2) "And ye believed not:” (kai ou pisteuete) "And you do not believe,’’ John 5:37; John 5:28; John 8:21; John 8:24.

3) ’’The works I do in my Father’s name," (ta erga ha ego poio, en to onomati tou patros mou) "The works which I do in my Father’s name," by my Father’s authority, are more reliable evidence than the plainest words that I speak, John 5:36; John 17:4-5.

4) "They bear witness of me." (tauta marturei peri emou) "These (works) witness concerning me," regarding my Divinity and my Divine attributes, thus it was not necessary for Him to claim the name of Messiah, in the material sense they were looking for as unsaved Jews, Romans 10:1-4.

Verse 26

1) "But ye believe not," (alla humeis ou pisteuete) ’’But you all do not believe,’’ do not trust the Scriptures of your own prophets that point like a road-sign to me, Acts 10:43; Revelation 19:10; John 5:39.

2) "Because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you." (hoti ouk este ek ton probaton ton emon) "Because you all are not out of my sheep," who hear my voice, John 10:4, have not obeyed, given heed to the voice of the Shepherd, John 1:11; Matthew 23:37; John 6:44; John 8:47; 1 John 1:4-6.

Verse 27

1) "My sheep hear my voice," (ta probata ta ema tes phones mou akousin) "My sheep hear or heed my voice," pay attention and obediently respond to my voice. These are those who have come to, believe in, and are following me, John 10:4; 2 Timothy 1:12; John 8:47; 1 John 4:6.

2) "And I know them," (kago ginosko auto) "And I know (recognize) them," I acknowledge them before the Father, John 10:14-15; Luke 12:8; Revelation 3:5.

3) "And they follow me." (kai akolouthousin moi) "And they follow (toward) me," my leadership they follow, as believers, as Simon Peter and Andrew and James and John, early disciples of His ministry and beginners in His new sheepfold fellowship or house, Matthew 4:18-22; John 3:28-30; John 15:16; John 15:27; Mark 13:34-35; 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:1-6; Ephesians 2:19-22; John 8:12.

True sheep - believers, in salvation, are called to be followers of Him in His church, His one-fold-­covenant-fellowship of laborers and worshippers, in. Acts 1:8; Ephesians 5:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 2:14.

Verse 28

1) "And I-give unto them eternal life;" - (kago didomi autois zoen aionion) "And I dole out to them directly, eternal life," right now, of my own choice, will, or pleasure, when they hear or heed my call to come and to follow me, not after they die, John 3:14-15; 1 John 5:13.

2) "And they shall never perish,’’ (kai ou me apolontai eis ton aiona) "And they by no means perish into the age," thereafter, either in this life, the coming millennial, or the heaven age,’’ John 5:24; John 17:12; John 18:9; Hebrews 7:25.

3) ’’Neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.’’ (kai ouch harpasei tis auta ek tes cheiros mou) "And no one shall seize or harpoon them out of or away from my hand," from my hold or care, from my protection ’ No one shall be able to carry them out of my care and keeping, John 6:39; Romans 8:35-39; 1 Peter 1:5. This is our Lord’s Divine pledge to eternal security from Hell, into eternity, for every believer sheep who comes to, trusts in, and follows Him; When they come to Him they then become:

a) His children, John 1:1-2; Galatians 3:26.

b) Saved, and created in Christ unto good works, Ephesians 2:8-9.

c) Justified possessors of a peace with God, Romans 5:1; Matthew 11:28.

d) Possessors of a pure heart, Acts 15:9; Matthew 5:8.

e) Assured they shall never die, perish, or be cast out from Christ, John 6:37; John 5:24.

1. As the Good Shepherd Jesus gave His life for His sheep and new sheepfold, John 10:11; John 10:18; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 5:25.

2. As the Great Shepherd from the dead He assures His sheep of His care of them in life, death, and beyond, Hebrews 13:20; Psalms 23:1-6.

3. As the Chief Shepherd He assures al undershepherds and sheep of certain crowns of rewards at His return, 1 Peter 5:4; Psalms 24; 2 Timothy 4:8; Revelation 2:10.

Verse 29

1) "My Father, which gave them me," (ho pater mou ho dedoken moi) "My Father who has given (them) to me," John 14:28, those who came of their own volition, as He drew them by His Spirit, wooed or convicted them of sin, as taught of the Lord of their sins, guilt, and His call to repentance, John 6:37; John 6:45; Proverbs 1:19-31; Isaiah 55:6-7; note His giving them the Son was always and is the same, by repentance and faith in Jesus Christ, Acts 10:43; 2 Peter 3:9; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:17.

2) "Is greater than all;” (panton meizon estin) "He is (exists) greater than all," all other powers, persons, gods, and things, Psalms 115:4-9; 1 Corinthians 8:6; John 1:3; Hebrews 1:2.

3) "And no man is able," (kai oudeis dunatai) "And no one at all exists who is able," is dynamic enough at all, John 10:10; John 10:14; John 10:28; John 11:26; Isaiah 32:17; Judges 1:1. Not only has Jesus given to every believer in Him eternal life, spiritual life without end, but He has explained that it means they are (exist as) preserved forever! This is based on His ability to preserve and His pledge that He would, John 6:37.

4) "To pluck them out of my Father’s hand." (harpazein ek tes cheiros tou patros) "To harpoon them out of and away from the Father’s hand," protection, security, or care, no matter how anxious, strong, or crafty, any man or demon may be. Jesus and the Father are one, in purpose and power, and both are able and have pledged to preserve all who come to Him by faith in Jesus Christ, in a sealed secure state, into eternity, John 5:24; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Romans 3:14-15; Galatians 4:4-5; John 3:16; Romans 1:16.

Verse 30

1) "I and my Father," (ego kai ho pater) "I exist and the Father," who sent me, Galatians 4:4-5; John 3:17; John 20:21; from whose companionship Jesus came down from heaven, John 16:27-28.

2) "Are one." (en esmen) "One we are," or we exist as one in essence of being, purpose and power, John 14:9; John 15:23-24; John 17:21-24. This should settle the issue of Christ’s Divinity, unless one believes that Jesus was a deceiver and here spoke to deceive, lied to deceive. Had He done such, He would not be the truth or Holy one, John 14:6; Hebrews 7:26.

Verse 31

1) "Then the Jews took up stones again," (ebastasan palin lithous hoi loudaioi) "The Jews again lifted (picked up) stones," as they had planned, connived, and threatened to do before, repeatedly, fulfilling certain prophecies regarding their treatment of Him, John 5:16; John 5:18; John 8:59; John 11:8; Psalms 2:2.

2) "To stone him.’’ (hina lithasosin auton) "In order that they might stone him," had picked up and carried stones in their hands, large pieces of marble bearing them with malice and premeditated intent to slay Him, shortly following the event of John 8:59.

Verse 32

1) "Jesus answered them," (apekrithe autois ho lesous) "Jesus replied directly to them," as they picked up the stones or carried them within His knowledge and view, as a person would prepare to stone a mad-dog or ferocious beast.

2) "Many good works have I shewed you from my Father " (polla erga edeiksa humin kala ek tou patros) "Many good or ideal works I showed you all out of and from the Father," John 2:11; John 2:23; John 3:2; John 4:34; John 5:36; John 17:4-5.

3) "For which of those works do ye stone me?" (dia poion auton ergon eme lithazete) "Because of which work, of them that I have done, do you all stone me?" or want to stone me to death? What incites you all to this act of treachery and ingratitude? John 1:11; John 5:43. Was it the healing of the paralytic at the pool of Bethsaida, or the healing of the man born blind, or some other miraculous’ work I did in obedience to my Father’s mandate from heaven?

Verse 33

1) "The Jews answered him, saying," (apekrithesan auto hoi loudaioi) "The Jews replied to him," defending the hate and malice in their hearts manifest by the stones they gripped in their hands, John 10:32.

2) "For a good work we stone thee not;” (peri kalou ergou ou lithazomen se) "We do not stone you concerning an ideal or good work," any miraculous deed you have done, for they feared the people, if they opposed the physical help He had unquestionably given them, Mark 11:18; Mark 12:12; Luke 12:19-20; Luke 22:2.

3) "But for blasphemy;" (alla peri blasphemias) "But concerning blasphemy;" what He had said that they, rejecting Him as God’s Son, considered to be blasphemy. They made the false charge on numerous occasions because there was "evil" in their hearts, as expressed Matthew 9:3-4; To claim to be Divine, on an equal plane of truth, righteousness and power with the Father, was blasphemy in their unsaved religious minds, John 5:18; Matthew 26:65.

4) "And because that thou, being a man," (kai hoti su anthroposen) "And because that you being a man," a complete man, the (heir) Redeemer of mankind, Luke 19:10; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:15.

5) "Makest thyself God." (poieis sea uton theon) "Make yourself God," claiming to be Divine. So they at least got the message that He claimed to be the Son of God, one with the Father, John 10:30; John 1:14; John 3:16-17; John 4:9; John 17:21-24; John 19:7.

Verse 34

1) "Jesus answered them," (apekrithe autois ho lesous) "Jesus responded to them," to those Jews who had charged Him with blasphemy because He had asserted that He was the Son of God, John 10:33; in candor, truth, and honesty.

2) "Is it not written in your law," (ouk estin gegrammenon en to nomo humon) "Is it not having been written in your law," asserted, certified in your law, Mosaic law, thus recognizing the Divine authority of Old Testament Scriptures.

3) "I said, ye are gods?" (hoti ego eipa theoi este) "That I said, you all are gods?" alluding to Psalms 82:6; Romans 13:1. The term "gods" is used, not to refer to the one true God, or to idol gods, but to the appointed leaders of the Jewish people. The Psalms are therefore referred to in a very general sense as the law.

Verse 35

1) "If he called them gods," (ei ekeinous eipen theous) "If he called those gods," meaning responsible judges and Jewish adjudicators of every day affairs, under Jewish law, and He (God) did call them "gods," as the term "the law" is used in the general sense to refer to all the Old Testament as in John 12:34; John 15:25; Romans 3:19; 1 Corinthians 14:21.

2) "Unto whom the word of God came," (pros ous ho logos tou theou egeneto) "With whom the word of God was," expressed; Acts 23:5, was entrusted, for administration or enforcement, when they were consecrated to worship or to perform in service in Israel. Why should it then be considered unreasonable that God had consecrated and sent His own Son into the world? John 3:16-17; Galatians 4:4-5.

3) "And the scripture cannot be broken; - (kai ou dunatai luthenai he graphe) "And the scripture is not able (cannot) be broken," for it is written, "Thy word is true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160; Matthew 5:17-19; Acts 13:39.

Verse 36

1) "Say ye of him," (humeis legete) "Do you all tell," mean to tell, or charge, directly to Him; Do you wish to stick to your charge about me that I blaspheme? John 10:33.

2) "Whom the Father hath sanctified," (hon ho pater hegiasen) "Him whom the Father has sanctified," conse­crated, sent forth, set apart as the Son of man, heir redeemer, John 1:14; Luke 4:16-21; Isaiah 11:2-3; Isaiah 61:1-2; John 6:27.

3) "And sent into the world," (kai apesteilen eis ton kosmon) "And commissioned, sent, or mandated (to come) into the world," as He has me, John 3:17; John 3:34; Luke 19:10; 1 John 4:9-10; John 17:18.

4) "Thou blasphemest;" (hoti blasphemeis) "That you blaspheme," repeatedly, every time you claim to be Divine, as also charged, Matthew 9:3; Matthew 26:65; Mark 14:64.

5) "Because I said I am the Son of God?’’ (hoti eipon huios tou theou eimi) ’’Because I said, I am (exist as) the Son of God?’’ Philippians 2:6; John 10:29-30. To blaspheme meant to make remarks of intentional reviling of indignity toward God or sacred things, John 14:9.

Verse 37

1) ’’If I do not the works of my Father," (ei ou poio ta erga tou patros) "If I do not (perform or do) the works of my Father," as I assert that I do, John 5:36; John 6:38; John 17:4-5; And Nicodemus witnessed it, as well as others of their own numbers, John 3:2; John 10:21.

2) "Believe me not." (me pisteuete moi) "You all believe or trust me not," but if I do them as I have repeatedly told you, believe in me, for I am the one all the true prophets have talked about, Acts 10:43; John 20:30-31; And I have warned you or your destruction in eternity, if you do not repent of your sins and believe, John 8:21; John 8:24; John 8:32; John 8:36; Luke 13:3; Luke 13:5; Luke 19:10.

Verse 38

1) "But if I do," (ei de poio) "However if I do them," as I claim with many witnesses; 1) The prophets, 2) John the, Baptist, 3) The miraculous works that I do, 4) The testimony of the people made whole, etc.

2) "Though ye believe not me," (kan emoi me pisteuete) "Even if you do not believe in me," that I am the Son of God, John 6:69, my personal virgin birth, Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18-25; my lineage from David, Bethlehem of Judea, Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:4-6; Luke 2:1-12; that I am the Water of Life, Bread of Life, and Light of the world, John 4:1 to John 6:71; John 8:1-59.

3) "Believe the works:” (tois ergois pisteuete) "You (are to) believe the works;- the miraculous deeds that I do, John 4:34; John 5:36; John 17:4-5; For these were works of power, with love and out-pouring compassion to help the needy, John 14:10-11; John 15:24.

4) "That ye may know, and believe," (hina gnote kai ginoskete) "In order that you all may know and continue to know," by the miracles that I have done, the prophecies I have fulfilled, and the testimony I have given, for this is why they were done, Mark 2:10-11; John 3:2; John 20:30-31.

5) "That the Father is in me, and I in him."(hoti en emoi ho pater kago en to patri) "That the Father is (exists) in me, and I exist in him," the one true God, John 10:30; 1 Corinthians 6:8; John 10:27-30; John 17:21; John 17:23, Colossians 2:9.

Verse 39

1) "Therefore they sought again to take him:" (eksetoun oun auton palin piasai) "Then they attempted to arrest him again," apparently they dropped their stones that they had held in their clutches for a time, John 10:31; but they still were intent on arresting and harassing Him again, as in John 7:30; John 7:32; John 7:44,

2) "But he escaped out of their hand," (kai ekselthen ek tes cheiros auton) "And he went forth out of and away from their hands," so that they could not hold and stone Him to death, as they were intent on doing, with malice and murder in their hearts, John 10:31 ; For His "hour was not yet," Luke 4:30; John 8:59.

Verse 40

1) "And went away again beyond Jordan," (kai apelthen palin peran tou lordanou) "And again he went away across the Jordan (river)," into Perea, for at least three months until John 11:7.

2) "Into the place where John first baptized;"- (eis ton topon hopou en loannes to proton baptizon) "Into the locality where John (the Baptist) was first baptizing," as recounted John 1:28; John 4:1. These had been made ready for His words by former testimony of John the Baptist.

3) "And there he abode." (kai emenen ekei) "And he remained (for a period) out there,’’ For some three or four months, still laboring, diligently doing the works His Father sent Him to do and finish, John 4:34; John 5:36; John 6:38, until He had finished all, John 17:4-5.

Verse 41

1) "And many resorted unto-him, and said,’’ (kai polloi elthon pros auton kai elegon) "And many people came to him and said," among themselves, one to another.

2) "John did no miracle;” (hoti loannes men semeion epoiesen ouden) "That John certainly did no miracle at all," offered no miraculous sign to attest his ministry, except as he preached with holy boldness, Matthew 3:1-8.

3) "But all that John spake of this man were true." (panta de hosa eipen loannes peri toutou alethe hen) "Yet all the many things John said concerning this one (concerning Jesus) are true," accurate or correct; He fills the bill in His personal identity of birth, in character, and teachings, and miraculous life-changing deeds that He does, making deaf to hear, dumb to speak, blind to see, the paralytics to walk, the lepers cleansed, the demon possessed (mentally deranged) to be whole, etc., John 20:30-31. John had testified "He is mightier than I’’ as the Lamb of God, the Life and Light of the world, and the only begotten of the Father, John 1:1; John 1:3-6; John 1:15; John 1:27; John 1:29; John 1:31-34; Matthew 3:11.

Verse 42

1) "And many,’’ (kai polloi) And many people," of that area, John 10:41, where John the Baptist had faithfully labored.

2) "Believed on him there." (episteusan eis auton ekei) "Believed in him out there,’’ in that place, because John the Baptist and his disciples had planted and watered, and God gave the increase here, John 4:36-38; 1 Corinthians 3:5-9; Ecclesiastes 11:1; Ecclesiastes 11:6.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on John 10". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/john-10.html. 1985.
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