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This psalm is purely Messianic, and was always considered to be so. When Jesus quoted it in His conversation with the rulers, it is perfectly evident that they looked upon it in that light. It is equally certain that He made use of it in that sense. While we believe the authorship of many of these psalms to be uncertain, we claim that the words of Jesus put the question of authorship in this case beyond dispute. Then the beauty of the song is seen in all its fulness. David the king, sings of Another as Lord, and therefore superior to himself.
In the first half of the song (vv. Psa 110:1-4 ) he sings of the relation of the coming King to Jehovah. The second half (vv. Psa 110:5-7 ) tells of the might and victory of the appointed King. This division is clearly marked by the names of the psalm. “Jehovah said unto Adonahy,” “Jehovah shall send forth,” “Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent,” “Adonahy at Thy right hand.” Both these names or titles are used often of God. Here Jehovah is used of God, and Adonahy of the coming King. This King is appointed by Jehovah. He is strengthened by Jehovah. He is a King to Whom His people will gather in loyalty, and with the perpetual freshness of youth. He is moreover, by the will of Jehovah, to be Priest as well as King. In the might of this Divine appointment He is to go forth to conquest. The fulfilment of its every word is realised in Christ.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on Psalms 110". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany