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Galatians 1

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


This book has been, and may properly be, referred to as Paul’s Proclamation of Emancipation from the Mosaic law and its obligations. It is a Christian Declaration of Independence, under Christ, or a Magna Charta, of Christian Liberty.

WHO WRITES AND SPEAKS? Paul, and all the brethren with him, Galatians 1:1-2; Galatians 5:2.

TO WHOM? The churches of Galatia--an association or fellowship of churches of like faith and order in Galatia, a province of Asia Minor, Galatians 1:2; Galatians 3:1.


1) A Vindication of his Divine Apostleship, Galatians 1, 2 ch.,

2) The error of those who perverted the Gospel, preached "another gospel" 1:6-9;

3) He explained and defended justification by faith in Christ, exposed the fallacy and false teaching that justification before God might be obtained or retained through obedience to law forms and ceremonies, including circumcision ---ch. 3, 4.

4) Chapters 5, 6 assert the Divine call to Service in Christian Liberty, 5:1, 13; in practical spirit-controlled living, and closes with a grave warning against the chains and bondage of Judaizers and the Law.

WHEN? About A.D. 50-56 on which scholars widely differ, perhaps from Corinth during Paul’s second journey, or from Ephesus or Macedonia during his third journey--no particular Scripture or record seems specifically to indicate the exact time or place from which it was written--only allusions or inferences seem to be basis for time and place.

ON WHAT OCCASION? It appears that some "unsent", self-appointed, unauthorized, self-styled "independent evangelists," of Jewish Judaizers went out on their own as a "truth-squad"

party from Jerusalem, without the sanction of the church, or the apostles, and sowed false teaching along Paul’s Missionary trail-in the Antioch church, in Asia Minor, and later in Macedonia, and Greece, Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Acts 15:24; Galatians 1:6-9; Galatians 3:1-3; Galatians 5:1-10; Galatians 6:12-13. To correct such error, was the occasion of this epistle.





I. The gospel Declared and Vindicated

1) Testimonial and Apologetic--The Gospel of Grace, V. 1-9.

2) It’s Source - of God, not Man. 1:10,11. `

3) Paul’s Acceptance of it from God, by faith, like Abraham, not by law or of men, Galatians 1:12 to Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:8.

CHAPTERS 3:1 - 5:1

II. The Gospel Defended

1) Doctrinal (as by faith, not by legalisms of the Law).

2) Heirs by Faith--(Free) No more Slavery to the Law, 4:6.

3) Freedom taught, by Allegory, 4:22-31;5:1.

CHAPTERS 5:2 - 6-18

III. The gospel Freedom Applied

1) The Call to Liberty, 5:1,13.

2) The Call to Sanctified living and service, 5:16-26.

3) Church Members exhorted to:

a) Meekness and Forbearance, 6:1.

b) Burden bearing and Sharing, 6:2-5.

c) Support of Good Teachers of the Word, 6:6.

d) Diligently consider the law of Sowing and Reaping, 6:7-10.

4) Requires glory in the Cross of Christ, 6:14.


1) "Paul, an apostle," (paulos apostolos- "Paul an apostle - - one commissioned, having been sent by due authority, Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:11; Philemon 1:1.

2) "Not of men, neither by man," (ouk ap’ anthropon oude di’ anthropon) "not from authority of men, nor through (authority of) a man;" for authority to send apostles and missionaries has not been given, either to any group of men or any individual man, but 1) First by Jesus Christ, and 2) Second, now through authority of his church, John 20:21; Matthew 28:18-20 -not by a board or council of men.

3) "But by Jesus Christ," (alla dia lesou Christou) "But through (authority of) Jesus Christ, Acts 26:15-17.

4) "And God the Father," (kai theou patros) "and (thru authority of) God the Father;" This denotes the co-identity of Jesus Christ from the Father who backed him in calling and sending Paul, by his Spirit, through the instrument of the church, Acts 9:15-17; Acts 13:1-4.

5) "Who raised him from the dead;" (tou egeirantos auton ek nekron) "The one having (who) raised him from the dead," among dead corpses, Romans 8:11; Acts 4:10; Acts 10:40.

Verse 2

1) "And all the brethren which are with me," (kai hoi sun emoi pantes adelphoi) "and all the brethren in colleague with me," associated missionaries working with Paul, perhaps in Ephesus from which he wrote this letter in A.D. 55 or 56.

2) "Unto the churches of Galatia," (tais ekklesiais tes Galatias) "to the churches of Galatia;" in a province of Asia Minor where Paul had labored, in the Southern territory of Asia Minor especially, along the Imperial Highway, as 1 Corinthians 16:1; 1 Corinthians 16:19.

Verse 3

1) "Grace be to you and peace," (charis humin kai eirene) "Grace (be) to you all and peace;" This is the apostolic blessing which implores the life-giving, quickening, and sustaining power of the spirit to cause grace and peace to abide.

2) "From God the Father," (apo theou patros hemon) "From God our Father;" having their origin in, from the source of God, our Father, not from or thru the works, forms, or rituals, and ceremonies of the law.

3) "And from our Lord Jesus Christ," (kai kuriou lesou Christou) "and (our) Lord Jesus Christ." Here both the Father and the Son are identified in cooperation in effecting man’s redemption.

Verse 4

1) "Who gave himself," (tou dontos heauton) "The one having given or who gave himself," Galatians 2:20; Titus 2:14; John 10:15; John 10:18; 1 Timothy 2:5-6.

2) "For our sins," (huper hamartion hemon) "on behalf of our sins," the sins of us (all). Law offerings were made (peri) concerning man’s sins, but Jesus Christ offered himself up freely (huper) on behalf of our sins, Hebrews 10:6; Hebrews 10:8; 1 Peter 3:18.

3) "That he might deliver us," (hopos ekseletai hemas) "so as (that) He might deliver us," 1 Peter 2:24; Romans 4:25; 2 Corinthians 1:10. This deliverance was from the penalty, power, and presence of sin with which every person is confronted.

4) "From this present evil world," (ek tou aionos tou enestotos ponerou) "out of the age of the present wickedness;" Christ gave himself for the salvation (deliverance) of all men from sin, not merely for the minority or a few, John 3:16; Luke 19:10; Luke 12:2.

5) "According to the will of God and our Father;" (kata to thelema tou theou kai patros hemon) "according to the will of the God, our Father," John 3:17; 1 John 2:15-17; John 20:21.

Verse 5

1) "To who be glory," (ho ke doksa) "To whom (let) be the glory or praise;” or "whose is the glory and praise;" every time a soul is saved, in every age and generation; and when the redeemed through His grace live the separated, sanctified life it is to His glory or praise! Philippians 4:20.

2) "Forever and ever. Amen." (eis tous aionas ton aionon; Amen) "Into the ages of the ages;" "So may it ever be;" The greatest degree of this glory, and praise, may be rendered or offered in Divine service, through His church, Ephesians 3:21; If Ti 4:18.

Verse 6


1) "I marvel that ye are so soon removed," (thaumazo hoti houtos tacheos metatithesthe) "I wonder, marvel, that you all are so rapidly removing, drifting," and so soon after their conversion and his recent visit. The shocking, sharp expression indicates an almost disillusion, Paul had in their fickle turn or drift toward Judaism, as in 2 Thessalonians 2:2.

2) "From him that called you into the grace of Christ," (apo tou kalesantos humas en Chariti Christou) "From the one who called you by (the grace of Christ;” The Galatians were giving ear to religious renegades, a drift that caused Paul alarm, though he had not lost faith in their personal loyalty or general soundness in the faith, Galatians 4:11; Galatians 4:20; Galatians 5:9-10.

3) "Unto another gospel," (eis heteron euangellion)"with reference to, or with regard toward another kind (of) gospel." The (Gk. heteros) "another" gospel distinguishes it as a spurious, putrid one, in contrast and conflict with the gospel of Christ, Romans 1:16; 1 Corinthians 15:1-3.

Any gospel that mingles law, (ceremonials and rituals) with grace, as a means of acquiring or retaining justification, sanctification, or salvation is "another gospel." The proclaimer (Preacher) of such is still under the curse (anathema) of God! Galatians 1:8-9. Ceremonials and rituals and pictorial ordinances of Christ no more impart grace in obtaining or retaining salvation than did those of the Law. Those who preach that they to are under God’s anathema of preaching "another gospel today," by perverting the gospel of Christ, Acts 10:43; 2 John 1:8-11; Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9; Romans 11:6.

Verse 7

1) "Which is not another," (ho ouk estin allo) "which is (exists) not (as) another (gospel)," For there actually exists only one true gospel, John 14:6; Acts 4:12; Acts 10:43.

2) "But there be some that trouble you," (ei me tines eisen hoi tarasontes humas) "Only there are some continually troubling you all;” They were “self-appointed," independent evangelists, religious egotists, who had gone out on their own from the Jerusalem church, as a "self -authorized" "truth-squad" of religious politicians, hounding Paul in his ministry labors; See Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Acts 15:24; Galatians 5:10; Galatians 5:12.

3) "And would pervert the gospel of Christ," (kai thelontes metastrepsai to euangelion tou Christou) "and strongly wishing to pervert the gospel of Christ;" as Paul warned 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; Acts 15:24.

NOTE: in Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Acts 15:24 those "certain ones," who "went out" from the Jerusalem church, "of their own independent, isolated accord, without sanction of the church, were and became doctrinal and moral leaven to pollute, despoil, and pervert the gospel of Christ.

Verse 8

1) "But though we," (alla kai ean hemeis) "But even if we; to concede any might err from the truth Paul includes himself and his missionary colleagues in the hypothetical "we".

2) "Or an angel from heaven," (e angelos eks ouranos) "or an angel out of (come from) heaven," for even angels (fallen angels) still lie to men, 1 Kings 13:18; Spirits are to be tested, by the Word, whether they be in harmony with the Word of God, 1 John 4:1.

3) "Preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you," (euangelisetai (humin) par’ ho euangelisametha humin) "should preach a gospel (to you all) beside (different in kind from) what we preached to you all," Deuteronomy 12:32; Joshua 1:7; Proverbs 30:7.

4) "Let him be accursed," (anathema esto) "Let him be (as) a curse," or accursed; Avoid him like a leper or contagious disease, have no close contact with him, 1 Corinthians 16:22; Deuteronomy 4:2; Revelation 22:18-19.

Verse 9

1) "As we said. before," (hos proseirekamen) "as we have previously said," before asserted, affirmed; This alludes to former warnings that Timothy and Silas had joined him in giving to the churches in Galatia during their travels.

2) "So say I now again," (kai arti palin lego) "even at this moment (right now) I again say (it);" The truth stands repeating, and false doctrine, like wild weeds, must be resisted and exposed again and again, as Paul had done to the Galatian brethren in the recent past.

3) "If any man preach any other gospel unto you," (ei tis humas euangelizetai) "if anyone preaches to you all a gospel," referring to the gospel of circumcision.

4) "Than that ye have received," (par’ ho parelabete) "Beside what ye received," when we preached, which was the gospel of Christ, Romans 1:16; 1 Corinthians 15:1-3.

5) "Let him be accursed," (anathema esto) "Let him be a curse," or "let him alone, as if he were a curse," of leprosy, black plague, or some other deadly, contagious disease, 1 Corinthians 16:22; Revelation 22:18-19.

Verse 10


1) "For do I now persuade men, or God?" (arti gar anthropous peitho he ton theon) "For at this moment (now) do I please men or God?" The idea is "am I courting the favor of men, or do I seek the favor of God?" The latter was his objective, 1 Thessalonians 2:4. He, like John, sought always to do the things pleasing in the sight of God, John 3:22.

2) "Or do I seek to please men?" (e zeto anthropois ereskon) "or do I seek (go out of my way) to please men?" as a priority of my motives; the answer is that he did not, 1 Thessalonians 2:5-6; nor did he teach others to conduct themselves in such a manner, Ephesians 6:6; Colossians 3:22. Each should daily ask "whom should I seek first to please?"

3) "For if I yet pleased men," (ei eti anthropois ereskon) "If (indeed) I still pleased men," If this were my prime motive, the love of God would not be in my heart, 1 John 2:15-16; Romans 8:7 asserts that those "in the flesh," concerned with it as a priority of life and affections, "cannot please God." See also James 4:4.

4) "I should not be the servant of Christ," (Christou doulous ouk an emen) "I would not have been a servant of Christ," while doing so. For no man can serve the will of two masters with equal devotion or loyalty, Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13-15. For that which "highly esteemed among men is an abomination to God."

The Rev Joseph Alleine was very faithful and impartial in administering reproof. Once when employed in a work of this kind, he said to a Christian friend, "I am now going about that which is likely to make a very dear and obliging friend become an enemy. But, however, it cannot be omitted; it is better to lose man’s favor than God’s." But, so far from becoming his enemy for his conscientious faithfulness to him, he rather loved him the more ever after, as long as he lived.


Verse 11

1) "But I certify you, brethren," (gnorizo gar humin, adelphoi) "For I make known to you all, brethren," of a certainty, as a legal, testamentary affirmation of fact and truth, a reminder of what he had preached to them - not merely making known to them.

2) "That the gospel which was preached of me," (to euangelion to euangelisthen hup’ emou hoti) "That the gospel preached by me," which was the gospel of Jesus Christ, even of God, Romans 1:16; Romans 2:16; Romans 15:16; and of truth, Galatians 2:14.

3) "Is not after man," (ouk estin kata anthropon) "Is not according to man," the order of things done by natural man, or received from a council of man; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; but by revelation of Jesus Christ, as Genesis 12:1-3; Galatians 2:2.

Verse 12

1) "For I neither received it of men," (oude gar ego para anthropou parelabon auto) "For I received it not from (a) man," not from a council, board, Synod, etc.; but by Divine revelation, as follows: after the agency of Ananias’ baptizing him into the church at Damascus, no other man had any real active influence over his ministry.

2) "Neither was I taught it," (oute edidachthen) "nor was I taught it by (a) man, or mankind," not by Gamaliel or by contemporary sages of his time, Acts 22:3; Tho he was brought up "at the feet of Gamaliel," Galatians 1:14-20.

3) "But the revelation of Jesus Christ," (alla di’ apokalupseos lesou Christou) "but through a revelation of Jesus Christ." Galatians 1:1; Acts 9:6; Acts 22:10; Acts 22:15; Acts 22:21; Acts 26:16-18; Ephesians 3:2-6.

Verse 13

1) "For ye heard of my conversation," (ekousate gar ten emen anastrophen) "For you all heard of my conduct," course of early life, how he breathed out threatenings and slaughter "death threats," against the disciples, Acts 9:1; 1 Timothy 1:13.

2) "In times past in the Jews’ religion," (pote en to loudaismo) "then, in past times, in Judaism," how that he was a zealot, practical "hot-head", hating and persecuting Christians, even to death, as follows.

3) "How that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God," (hoti kath’ huperbolen ediokon ekklesian tou theou) "That I persecuted the church of God excessively," Acts 7:58; Acts 8:1; Acts 8:3; Acts 22:3; Acts 22:20.

4) "And wasted it," (kai eporthoun auten) "and wasted it," brought it to waste, a matter of conscious regret that seemed to follow Paul to the end of his life; He "wasted" the church in the sense that he brought great grief, hurt, division, and obstruction to her people and their worship and service to God, as described in the passages above, 1 Timothy 1:13.

Verse 14

1) "And profited in the Jews’ religion," (kai proekopton en to loudaismo) "and progressed (advanced) in Judaism," of the order of the Pharisees in a polluted state of traditions of men and ceremonialism that led men to reject Jesus Christ, Mark 7:5-9; Acts 26:3; Philippians 3:5-6.

2) "Above many my equals," (huper pollus sunelikiotas) "beyond many contemporaries," so that he was a leader, a trusted "liquidation squad member," of the enemies of Christ, entrusted with license to persecute and slaughter, Acts 9:1-2; Acts 19:9; Acts 19:23.

3) "In mine own nation," (en to genei mou) "in my (own) race," the Jewish race.

4) "Being more exceedingly zealous," (perissoteros zelotes huparchon) "being abundantly a zealot," a leader of zealots, out front, as when he held or guarded the clothes of those who stoned Stephen, He was the overseer of the slaughter, the murder, you see Acts 7:58.

5) "Of the traditions of my fathers," (ton patrikon mou paradoseon) "of my ancestral traditions," setting at naught, ignoring the commandments of God for the traditions, pleasures of men, resisting truth and the Spirit of God – Isaiah 29:13; Matthew 15:8-9; Acts 7:51-54; Acts 7:58.

Verse 15

1) "But when it pleased God," (hote de eudokesen) "But when (God) was pleased;" Paul attributed the whole of his conversion and missionary ministry to the initiative and sustaining call and direction of God as Old Testament prophets did, Isaiah 49:1; Isaiah 49:5; Jeremiah 1:5; 2 Timothy 1:9.

2) "Who separated me from my mother’s womb," (ho aporisas me ek koilias metros mou) "The one who separated me out of (from) my mother’s womb," from infancy. God’s special call of Paul, as of ancient prophets, was not On afterthought of God, Paul affirmed, Acts 9:15; Acts 13:2; Acts 22:14; Romans 1:1; Matthew 1:20-21; Luke 1:15; Luke 1:31; John 10:36.

3) "And called me by his grace," (kai kalesas dia tes charitos autou) "and (who) called me through his grace; Paul was at once an Hebrew, a Greek, and a Roman citizen who was educated in the Hebrew Scriptures and in Greek learning, at the feet of Gamaliel, from which background, of a zealot Pharisee, God’s grace called and redeemed him, Acts 22:3; Acts 9:5-6; Romans 8:30; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Galatians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 12:9.

Verse 16

1) "To reveal his Son in me," (apokalupsai ton huion autou en emoi) "to reveal (unveil) his Son in me;" both in God’s special plan from his birth and in his call to special separation from Judaism, Acts 26:15-23; 1 Corinthians 9:1.

2) "That I might preach him among the heathen," (hina euangelizomai auton en tois ethnesin) "In order that I might preach him among the heathen, races, or nations;" Acts 9:15; Ephesians 3:8.

3) "Immediately I conferred hot with flesh and blood," (eutheos ou prosanethemen sarki kai haimati) "I conferred not immediately with flesh and blood," sought not council from a natural man or men," not with friends or kindred, or instructors, but sought to be led by the Spirit of God. Flesh and Blood did not reveal his gospel or call to service to him, but the Father in heaven, Matthew 16:17; 1 Corinthians 2:10; Romans 8:14.

Verse 17

1) "Neither went I up to Jerusalem," (oude anelthon eis lerosoluma) "Neither went I off up to Jerusalem of a choice of my own;” Tho Jerusalem was considered the seat of the Temple of the Jews and center from which the church was sending out laborers, from where apostles went out.

2) "To them which were apostles before me," (pros tous pro emou apostolous) "To (confer with) those who were apostles before, prior to me," referring especially to the twelve apostles, but also where the church recognized Paul and Barnabas equally with the twelve in conference, 1 Corinthians 9:2; Romans 16:7.

3) "But I went into Arabia," (alla apelthon eis Arabian) "But (instead) I went into Arabia, of my own accord," perhaps for solitary communion with God and re-evaluating his former interpretation of the Law, the prophets, and the psalms, Luke 24:44.

4) "And returned again unto Damascus," (kai palin hupestrepsa eis Damaskon) "and again, thereafter, returned to Damascus," to tell them his revelation and seek their authority, blessings in his obedience to preach the gospel to the Gentiles, Acts 9:2; Acts 22:6; Acts 22:10; Acts 26:12. Damascus is one of the oldest cities in the world, perhaps the oldest that has never been totally destroyed, as was Jericho; it is mentioned first in Genesis 14:15; Genesis 15:2.

Verse 18

1 ) "Then after three years," (epita meta tria ete) "Then after three years," three years after his conversion, he went to Jerusalem to visit Peter, a faithful and zealous apostle who had both preached the mighty message of Pentecost and been sent of the church to work among the Samaritans.

2) "I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter," (anelthon eis lerosoluma historesai kephan) "I went, of my own accord, unto Jerusalem to visit Cephas (Peter), Acts 9:26-28. Here he was both received into the church, then "sent forth" (Gk. stello), sent forth as a missionary from the Jerusalem brethren to Tarsus, his birthplace.

3) "And abode with him fifteen days," (kai epemeina pros auton hemeras dekapente) "and remained with him (for) fifteen days," and received information while tarrying with him. Peter had visited Samaria, the maritime plain, and Caesarea by the seaside, and baptized many of Samaria, Acts 8:14-16; Acts 8:25.

Verse 19

1 ) "But other of the apostles saw I none," (heteron de ton apostolon ouk eidon) "But I saw not (any) other of the apostles," either of the twelve or of the seventy. The Gk. term "heteron," means he saw not another except James only. Whether this James was pastor of the Jerusalem church, brother of Jude, or one of the twelve apostles, is not clear, Acts 12:17; Acts 15:13; Acts 21:18; 1 Corinthians 9:5.

2) "Save James, the Lord’s brother," (ei me lakabon ton adelphon tou kuriou) "Except James, the Lord’s brother," Matthew 13:55. This James was perhaps one of the seventy apostles, not one of the twelve, Matthew 12:46. Apparently Barnabas carried a report of his testimony to other apostles, while he was in the fifteen day conference with Peter, Acts 9:27-30.

Verse 20

1) "Now the things which I write unto you," (ha de rapho humin) "Now what things I write to you all," especially regarding, in context of this setting, the fact that he had a supernatural call and message from God to bear to the Gentiles.

2) "Behold, before God," (idou enopion tou theou) "Behold, before (in the face of) God;" a solemn affirmation of Paul regarding his Divine Credentials to the gospel, missionary ministry to the Gentiles.

3) "I lie not," (hoti ou pseudomai) "that I do not lie; Romans 9:1 is a similar affirmation of Paul’s open conscience of stated truth, with God the Holy Spirit called as his witness, as a witness in legal court is to tell "the truth, whole truth, nothing but the truth."

Verse 21

1) "Afterwards I came into the regions - (epeita elthon eis ta Klimata) "Then (thereafter) after I visited Peter, I went of my own accord, choosing, into the regions or provinces;" yet, sent (stello) by commissioned authority, by the brethren of the Jerusalem church, Acts 9:30.

2) "Of Syria and Cilicia," (tes Surias kai tes kilikias) "of Syria and of Cilicia;" perhaps Syria is listed first because it is a larger territory than Cilicia, to which Paul went directly from Caesarea, and perhaps also because he preached in Damascus Syria before going down to Jerusalem for his first time, to visit Peter. In Acts 15:41 Syria and Cilicia are joined (coupled) together as representing one region. It was from Tarsus in Cilicia Barnabas brought Paul to Antioch in Syria to work with the church, from which both were later sent further into Syria, Galatia, and Asia Minor to bear the gospel, Acts 11:25-26; Acts 13:1-3.

Verse 22

1) "And was unknown," (emen de agnosumenos) "and I was being unknown," or continued unknown by sight to the churches of Judea.

2) "By face unto the churches of Judea," (to prosopo tais ekklesiais tes loudaias) "by face to the churches of Judea," where these were located is not certain, but it is certain that a plurality of churches existed in Judea by A.D. 54, 1 Thessalonians 2:14.

3) "Which were in Christ:" (tais en Christo) "which (churches of Judea) were in Christ;" churches, as well as individuals are therefore said to be in "Christ," meaning in the order of, or in harmony with, his will and purpose, Romans 16:7; 2 Corinthians 5:17; 1 Thessalonians 2:14.

Verse 23

1) "But they had heard only," (monon de akountes esan) "But they had heard only," or "were hearing only," by reports of those individuals who had seen and heard his testimony and preaching:

2) "That he which persecuted us in times past," (hoti ho diokon hemas pote) "That the one formerly persecuting them;" their persecutor of former times, Acts 8:1; Acts 8:3.

3) "Now preacheth the faith," (nun euangelizetai ten pistin) "now and hereafter, continually, preaches the faith, the system of teachings of Christ, by word and by example of life, 1 Corinthians 9:26-27; 1 Corinthians 11:1-2.

4) "Which once he destroyed," (hen pote eporthei) "which he was then, in the past while among them, destroying," or obstructing, tearing down or overthrowing, Acts 9:21; Acts 9:26-27.

Verse 24

1) "And they glorified," (kai edoksazon) "and they, the churches of Judea, glorified, gave adoration and praise to or toward;" that God could change avenge-bent murderer to a caring Christian character, as he had in Saul of Tarsus, stirred praise of grace-gratitude in these Judean brethren.

2) "God in me," (en emoi ton theon) "The God in me;" because of the mighty change wrought in Paul’s life and work, Acts 21:18-20.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Galatians 1". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/galatians-1.html. 1985.
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