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Thursday, May 23rd, 2024
the Week of Proper 2 / Ordinary 7
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Bible Commentaries
Hebrews 10

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

1) "For the law having a shadow," (skian gar echon ho nomos) "Because the law, having, holding, or possessing (in it) a shadow," an outline, as that of a sketch to be filled in later, Colossians 2:17; Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 9:9.

2) "Of good things to come," (ton mellonton agathon) "Of the coming good things," good things of intrinsic value about to come, Hebrews 9:11.

3) "And not the very image of the things," (ouk auten ten eikona ton pragmaton) "Not itself the practical image of the matters;” The law was not an historical living form of the invisible good things to come thru the new covenant.

4) "Can never with those sacrifices," (oudepote dunatai tais autais thusiais) "Can never by the same sacrifice," though repeated day after day, month after month, and year after year, Hebrews 9:9; Hebrews 9:24.

5) "Which they offered year by year continually," (has prospherousin kat’ eniauton to dienekes) "Which they offer every year continually, or repeatedly," 1 Peter 3:18-19; Galatians 3:19-25. The law was at its best an hazy outline, a shadow of good things to be wrought in Christ, to which it pointed in its sacrifices.

6) "Make the comers thereunto perfect," (tous proserchomencis teleiosai) "Make perfect (perfect) those approaching," the sacrifices, Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 9:24; Hebrews 10:4; Hebrews 10:14.

Verse 2

1)"For then would they not have ceased to be offered?" (epei ouk an epausanto prosphromenai) "Since they would not have ceased being continually offered?" If the repeated offerings of Law sacrifices – the shadow-outline of better things to come, could have saved men from their sins and secured their entrance into heaven, the death of Christ would not have been needed, would it? The answer is, "no," Galatians 2:21.

2) "Because that the worshippers once purged," (dia to tous latreuontas hapaks kekatharismenous) "Because that the ones worshipping (serving) once having been (actually) cleansed," would have had no need of a righteousness, an imputed cleansing, or purging, by faith in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for their sins, Galatians 3:21.

3) "Should have had no more conscience of sins," (medemian echein eti suneidesin hamartion) "Would have held no more (guilt) conscience of sin at all;” No more fear or uneasiness of conscience on account of sin would have existed, if repeatedly sacrificial ceremonies could have remitted sins. What was only a shadow in the law became a living reality and fulfillment in the death, sacrifice, burial, resurrection, ascension and intercession of Jesus Christ as Saviour and High Priest-intercessor. This is Grace, life, and hope, Romans 8:3-4; 2 Corinthians 5:17; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

Verse 3

1) "But in those sacrifices there is," (all’ en autais) "But in those sacrifices there exists," in the offering of those sacrifices, repeatedly, by the Jews at the Jerusalem temple, which continued until about five years after the book of Hebrews was written; There still existed for the Jews a shadow prophecy of their sacrifice, Colossians 2:17.

2) "A remembrance again made of sins," (anamnesis hamartion) "A remembrance (again and again) of sins," Micah 6:6-7. This repeated sacrifice privilege to the Jewish Christ-rejectors ceased, shortly after this writing, when the temple was destroyed in Jerusalem about A.D. 70, and they to whom the law of sacrifices had been given, who had rejected the Christ, were carried captive into all the nations, John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:37-39; Luke 21:20-24.

3) "Every year," (kat’ eniauton) "Yearly," or "every year," as instructed by the law, by the annual atonement offering, Leviticus 16:21; Hebrews 9:7. But the remembrance sacrifices of animals ceased in reminding Israel of her sins shortly after this was written, in fulfillment of the above cited prophecies of our Lord concerning them. Let it be recalled that those often called, often enlightened of Divine needs and rejecting them are eventually, suddenly doomed to certain Judgement. Men cannot persistently rebel against, despise, take lightly, or defy, the call of God to salvation or separated service without coming to fearful judgement therefor, Proverbs 1:22-30; Proverbs 29:1; Romans 2:4-5; Hebrews 4:7.

Verse 4

1) "For it is not possible," (adunaton gar) "For it is impossible;" It exists as an impossibility, a fact of no potentiality - - Simply not possible; Hebrews 10:11 states that these same sacrifices, though repeatedly offered, "can never take away or remit sins."

2) "That the blood of bulls and of goats," (haima tauron kai tragon) "That blood of bulls and of goats," the blood of clean beasts, sanctioned for sacrifice shadows of the Law, could not do more than typically show how Jesus one day would and did "bear our sins in his body on the tree," 1 Peter 2:24; Romans 8:3-4; Romans 1:16.

3) "Should take away sins," (aphairein hamartias) "To bear away or remit sins;” Micah 6:6-7; Hebrews 9:13-14, What the Law forms, shadows- in-sacrifice, could not do in taking away sins and imparting Divine life and righteousness to believers, Jesus came to do and now does, John 1:29; Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:21; Galatians 3:25.

Verse 5

1) "Wherefore when he cometh into the world," (dio eiserchomenos eis ton kosmon) "Wherefore entering into the world order;” The "He" referred to is Jesus Christ, when he had become flesh to dwell among men, John 1:14; Luke 19:10.

2) "He saith, sacrifices and offerings," (legei thusian kai prosphoran) "Sacrifices and offerings, he says," or states, are not objects of his delight, when men reject their need of a redeemer and refuse to walk in moral and ethical uprightness, while formally making sacrifices, Isaiah 1:11.

3) "Thou wouldest not,"(oukethelesas) "Thou didst not wish," desire or long for. For to "obey is better than sacrifices," 1 Samuel 15:22; Psalms 40:6; Isaiah 1:13-18; Jeremiah 6:20.

4) "But a body hast thou prepared me," (soma de katertiso moi) "But a body thou didst prepare for me,” or fitted me, in which he lived a sinless life, died a sinless death, except as he "bare our sins in his own body (the body of his flesh) on the tree," 1 Timothy 3:16; Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Peter 2:24; Colossians 1:20; Colossians 1:22; Ephesians 2:15-16; Hebrews 7:26.

Verse 6

1) "In burnt offerings," (holokautomata) "Concerning burnt offerings," made in meaningless formality, without personal acknowledgment of, remorse for, or a purpose to turn away from sin, Psalms 50:7-9; Hosea 6:6.

2) "And sacrifices for sin," (kai peri hamartias) "And concerning sacrifices for sins;” For "to do justice and judgement is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice," Proverbs 21:3; "The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord," Proverbs 15:8. They who worship God acceptably must still do it "In spirit and in truth," John 4:24.

3) "Thou hast had no pleasure," (ouk eudokesas) "Thou wast not well pleased," with them, because they were offered in such cold, ritualistic formalism, with the one making the sacrifice living in almost total disregard for moral and ethical codes and standards of the very law whose sacrifices called men to pledge that they would do all that the law commanded; Joshua 1:16; Joshua 1:18; Isaiah 1:11; Isaiah 1:13; Isaiah 29:13; Mark 7:6-9; Amos 5:21-22.

Verse 7

1) "Then said I, Lo, I come," (tote eipon edou heko) "Then I said, behold I have come," of my own accord, or will, to do the will of my Father, and to finish the work He gave me to do, John 5:30; John 17:4-8; It was his meat to do the will of the Father who sent him, John 4:34.

2) “(In the volume of the book it is written of me,)" (en kephalidi bibliou gegraptai peri emou) "in a heading of a scroll it has been written concerning me," concerning the coming of the Sacrifice Redeemer, Genesis 3:15; In the book of the Law, Psalms 22; Luke 24:26-27; Luke 24:46.

3) "To do thy will, O God," (tou poiesai ho theos to thelma sou) "To do your will, O God," by dying as a sin offering that would satisfy God the Father, Isaiah 53:10-12; John 10:18; In the Garden He cried "not as I will, but as thou wilt," Matthew 26:42; John 6:38.

Whose will should true worshippers then seek to know and do today? Ephesians 5:17-18: James 1:22.

Verse 8

1) "Above when he said," (anoteron legon hoti) "Saying above that," above coming to do the will of his Father, John 4:34.

2) "Sacrifices and offerings," (thusias kai prosphoras) "Sacrifices and offerings," quoting the messianic-redemptive prophecy again more freely, Psalms 40:6.

3) "And burnt offerings and offering for sin," (kai holokautomata kai peri hamartias) "And burnt offerings and sacrifices concerning sin," that were designed as personal acknowledgment of sin, Leviticus 1:1 to Leviticus 7:38.

4) "Thou wouldest not," (ouk elelesas) "Thou didst not wish," care for, when offered in hypocrisy and insincerity, apart from evidence of remorse for sin, Isaiah 1:11-18.

5) "Neither hadst pleasure therein," (oude eudokesas) "Nor wast thou well pleased therewith," Leviticus 22:20; So insincere had Israel become in formal sacrifice rites that they broke the sacrifice-law in offering sacrifices of the Law, Malachi 1:12-14.

6) "Which are offered by the law," (aitines kata nomon prospherontai) "Which are offered according to law," in Jerusalem, up to the time this book of Hebrews was written, while the people of Israel had rejected the redeemer, John 1:11-12; Mark 7:6-9.

Verse 9

1) "Then he said," (tote eoreken) "Then he has said," the true sacrifice, Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God, as slain from the foundation of the world, said to the Father, 1 Peter 1:18-20; John 5:30.

2) "Lo I come to do thy will, 0 God," (idou heko tou poiesai to thelema sou) "Behold I have come to do thy will," the holy will of you the Father, by voluntary commitment, John 6:38; John 17:4; John 19:30.

3) "He taketh away the first," (anairei to proton) "He takes away the first (in order)," of the covenant or testaments of worship and sacrifice, the Mosaic covenant, by being nailed to the cross and fulfilling, conquering the requirements of the Law, Colossians 2:14-17; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 3:24-25.

4) "That he may establish the second," (hina to deuteron stese) "In order that he may set up the second;” the second covenant or testament that involves, first his High Priestly intercession at Heaven’s mercy seat, by His own blood, second that He might establish, enlarge, and empower His church which He purchased with His own blood, as His service and worship institution among all nations, Matthew 16:18; Matthew 18:18-20; John 20:21; Mark 13:34-35; 1 Timothy 3:15; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 3:9-11; Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 10

1) "By the which we are sanctified," (en ho thelemati hegiasmenoi esmen) "By which will we exist, having been sanctified," John 17:19; Hebrews 13:12; or set apart as individuals, by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and as a church, empowered, and indwelt by the Holy Spirit since Pentecost, 1 John 4:12; Romans 8:14-16; Luke 24:46-49; John 20:21; Acts 1:8.

2) "Through the offering of the body of Christ," (dia tes prosphoros tou somatos lesou christou) "Through the offering of the body of Christ," the true sacrifice of which old testament sacrifices were types and shadows, dimly outlining that the true sacrifice was to be and do for fallen man and a world polluted in and by sin, Isaiah 53:4-6; Isaiah 53:11; Colossians 1:20-22; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Peter 3:18.

3) "Once for all," (ephapaks) "Once for all," on behalf of all men and all times, Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 9:28; Titus 2:14. In his death Jesus became the one sufficient, perfect, ’and acceptable sacrifice of all time since the Garden of Eden that satisfied God the Father and the demands of the Law, Isaiah 55:10-12.

Verse 11

1) "And every priest standeth daily," (kai pas men heireus hesteken kath’ hemeran) "And on the one hand every priest stands daily," Levitical priests upon the earth, in earthly tabernacles of sacrifice worship, up to the time this book was written, lifting up holy hands to God, acknowledging sins of the masses, Numbers 28:3.

2) "Ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices," (leitourgon kai tas autas pollakis prospheron thusias) "Ministering and repeatedly offering the same sacrifices," day after day, repeatedly, Exodus 29:38; These were morning and evening sacrifices of lambs, offered the one in the morning and the other in the evening, with oblations, Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:11; Hebrews 7:27.

3) "Which can never take away sins," (aitinesoudepote dunantai periein hamartias) "Which are never able to take away or remit sins;” This is a specific statement that the rites of Law sacrifices and worship were not able, no matter how devoutly offered, to cancel, remit, remove, or take away the guilt or consequence of anyone’s sin -neither can baptism, the Lord’s Supper, or any other form or ceremony of church worship remit one’s sins in this new covenant era, Micah 6:7; Hebrews 9:13-14; Hebrews 10:4; Ephesians 2:8-9; Titus 3:5-7.

Verse 12

1) "But this man," (houtos de mian) "But this priest on the other hand," Jesus Christ, Heaven’s interceding High Priest, also a man, the Son (heir) of mankind,

2) "After he had offered one sacrifice for sins forever," (huper hamastion prosenegkas thusian eis to dienekes) "When he had offered a sacrifice on behalf of sins in perpetuity," forever; that sacrifice was his own blood which he freely gave up for all, John 10:18; Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 10:10.

3) "Sat down on the right hand of God," (ekathisen en deksia tou theou) "Sat at the right hand of God," where he is now seated. Only a king might sit or be seated in the inner court of the temple, and Jesus our High Priest, as intercessor, and coming king, is now declared continually to sit or stand at the right hand of the throne setting and mercy seat in heaven, Hebrews 7:25; Matthew 28:20; John 17:17-24.

To be seated at one’s right hand signifies honor, approval, or support. This Jesus has of the Father now, as He had before he came to redeem man, 2 Corinthians 8:9; John 17:5.

Verse 13

1) "From henceforth expecting," (to loipon ekdechomenos) "Hereafter expecting," continually, unceasingly looking out to the time when, waiting for the time of the restitution of all things, Acts 3:20-21.

2) "Till his enemies be made his footstool," (heos tethosin hoi echthroi autou huppodion ton podon autou) "Till his enemies are set (as) a footstool at his feet," Psalms 110:1; Matthew 22:44; Acts 2:34-35; 1 Corinthians 15:24-25. This is a foreview of the millennial age during which time Jesus shall sit on David’s throne and rule in peace, restoring the earth to its Edenic glory, Luke 1:33; Hebrews 10:37. He shall then be King of kings and Lord of lords, Revelation 19:16.

Verse 14

1) "For by one offering," (mia gar prophora) "Because by means of one offering," the offering of himself voluntarily as a sacrifice for all men, for all times; John 10:18; Romans 5:8-9; Romans 8:1.

2) "He hath perfected forever," (teteleioken eis to dienekes) "He has perfected in perpetuity," made complete in him forever, Colossians 2:10. His fullness all the redeemed receive in regeneration, that is in their new nature, so that it is declared they can not, (have not, a potential) in the new nature to sin, John 1:16; John 5:24; 1 John 3:9.

3) "Them that are sanctified," (tous hagiaz omenous) "The ones being or they who are sanctified," separated unto him, from condemnation to eternal life, John 10:27-29; 1 John 5:13. This speaks of the redeemed who has the righteousness of God imputed to him in the regeneration of the new man, or implanted in him as the Divine, new creature, 2 Corinthians 5:17; 2 Peter 2:4; Romans 4:7-8; Psalms 32:2.

Verse 15

1) "Wherefore the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us," (marturei de hemin kai to pneuma to hagion) "And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us;” By his personal indwelling testimony, 1 John 4:15; Romans 5:5; Romans 8:14-16; By his indwelling and empowering the church he witnesses, and thru the spoken and written word of God and men he witnesses, John 14:16-17; Proverbs 1:22-30; John 20:21.

2) "For after that he had said before," (meta gar to eirekenai) "For after he (is) having said before;” in the writings he had inspired, as Holy men of God wrote as they were moved, ferried gently along, by the Holy Ghost, 2 Peter 1:16-21. The writer simply indicates his belief in the Old Testament scriptures as a whole and the ones he quotes concerning Jesus Christ as Sacrifice, High Priest, and coming Redeemer-King in particular, Romans 15:4.

Verse 16

1) "This is the covenant," (aute he diatheke) "This (is) (exists as) the covenant," foretold in Jeremiah 31:33-34.

2) "That I will make with them," (hen diathesomai pros autons) "Which I will covenant to or toward them," Jeremiah 31:31-32, to restore them to the promise he made thru Abraham, to possess the Israel land in peace, Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 15:5; Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:2-13.

3) "After those days, saith the Lord," (meta tas hemeras ekeinas legei kurios) "After those days says the Lord,’ after his return to regather Israel, Hebrews 8:10-11, and after they had been dispersed among all nations, cut off till the time of the Gentiles be fulfilled, Luke 21:24; .

4) "I will put my laws into their hearts," (didous nomous mou epi kardias auton) "Giving my laws (or laying my laws) upon their hearts," their center of affections. This is to occur when Jesus returns to keep or finish his covenant with natural Israel restored, Jeremiah 32:40.

5) "And in their minds will I write them," (kai opi ten dianoian auton epigrapso autous) “And I will inscribe them upon their mind," Jeremiah 24:6-7; Philippians 2:5; Philippians 2:7; 2 Peter 3:18. Today God’s new covenant people in the church, who constitute his church, should seek always to have, hold, and manifest the mind of Christ, Romans 12:1-2.

Verse 17

1) "And their sins and iniquities," (kai ton hamerton auton kai ton anomion auton) "And the sins and iniquities of their former charge;” They are put away, put behind, or buried, to be turned to or dug up and confronted no more, by those who turn to God, Isaiah 38:17; Isaiah 44:22.

2) "Will I remember no more," (ou me mensthesomoi eti) "Of my own accord I will not remember by any means;” Will not hold in account against them any more. This does not mean that God has less recall or knowledge of one’s former sins than the one who is pardoned, but that such sins are not to be paid twice, Psalms 32:1-2; Psalms 103:12; Micah 7:18-19, both by the Lord and the one who repents and trusts in Jesus.

Verse 18

1) "Now where remission of these is," (hopou de aphesis touton) "Now where remission of these (sins and iniquities) exists," where forgiveness or pardon has been granted, and the righteousness of faith imputed, to all who have believed.

2) "There is no more offering for sins," (ouketi prosphora peri hamartias) "There is (exists) no longer an offering concerning sin," nor even a further need for it. When the one offering for sin has been once received, by any person with an heart of faith, he is saved, redeemed, or born again, has a new (Divine) nature; he becomes and remains a child of God forever; nobody is ever saved from hell a second time, Acts 4:12; John 5:24; John 8:24; Ga 126; Romans 6:23.

Verse 19

1) "Having therefore, brethren," (echontes oun adelphoir) "Having, holding, or possessing therefore brethren;" Because of the kind of redemption Jesus Christ, the better sacrifice, brought to the Christian, the (new covenant church person) is challenged in the rest of this book to obey and follow the risen Redeemer, High Priest, and King.

2) "Boldness to enter into the holiest," (parresian eis ten eishodon ton hagion) "Confidence to enter into the Holy of Holies, to approach the throne of God in prayer with holy boldness, as a prince or princess approaches the throne of a Queen-Mother or King-Father, Luke 18:11; Hebrews 4:15-16; Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12; Colossians 3:17.

3) "By the blood of Jesus," (en to hamati lesou) "By or through media or instrument of the blood of Jesus;” note that the boldness or confidence is by or thru the blood of Jesus Christ and, by faith in his blood - --not by morals, ethics, good deeds, church membership, and not by or thru baptism, the Lord’s Supper, or Religious Ceremonies, Romans 3:24; Ephesians 2:8-9; Revelation 5:9-10; 1 Peter 1:18-19.

Verse 20

1) "By a new and living way," (hodon prophaton kai zosan) "But by away that is fresh and living, progressively, on and on, by a life-giving way," an eternal life way, John 10:27-29; John 14:6; 1 John 5:13.

2) "Which he hath consecrated for us," (hen enekainisen hemin) "Which he consecrated (dedicated) for us," initiated for us, on behalf of us. The "us" refers not only to individual believers, but also to "the church," that New Testament band, or covenant assembly body he established while on earth, commissioned after his resurrection, and empowered for the ages on Pentecost, Matthew 16:18; Matthew 28:18-20; John 20:21; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:1-4; John 14:16-17; Ephesians 3:21; Acts 20:28.

3) "Through the veil," (dia tou katapetasmatos) "Through media of the (special) veil," that body-veil God prepared for him, the body of his flesh, in which he bear our sins on the tree, till the Father was satisfied and he had given himself for the church he had loved, Colossians 1:20-22; Isaiah 53:10-12; 1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 5:25.

4) "That is to say his flesh," (tes sarkos autou) "Which is his flesh body," specially prepared for him, in which "he bear our sins in his body on the tree," Ephesians 2:15-16; 1 Peter 3:18; Galatians 3:13; In that resurrected, glorified body he went into heaven itself, to make intercession and advocate for every believer and his church, in the midst of which John beheld him walking, Revelation 1:12-20; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2.

Verse 21

1) "And having an high priest," (kai heirea megan) "And (having) a great priest," one greater, better, and higher than any of the Aaronic order, or Levitical tribe, or even that of Melchisedec, having Jesus Christ the Son of God in heaven, with his own blood to minister or intercede and advocate, Hebrews 4:14-16.

2) "Over the house of God," (epi ton oikon tou theou) "Who is over the house (church) of God," his own new body or assembly of covenant people, who carry on his worship and service on earth, while he intercedes in their behalf, Mark 13:34-37; 1 Timothy 3:15; Ephesians 1:22-23; Hebrews 3:1-6; Ephesians 2:19-22; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9.

Verse 22

1) "Let us draw near with a true heart," (proserchometha meta alethines kardias) "Let us approach of our own choice or accord, with a true heart;" Hebrews 4:16; Psalms 51:6; John 1:47. The law covenant said, "thou shalt" and "thou shalt not," but the new covenant entreats, "let us;” gratitude for our better worship and service to Jesus Christ, not fear, should be our true motivation, Hebrews 10:23-24; .

2) "In full assurance of faith," (en plerophoria pisteos) "In full assurance of faith," that our faith in his blood will be received for every sinful need; That he will receive our prayers, petitions, is just as certain, as a child’s requesting his father when in need, 1 John 3:21-24.

3 "Having our hearts sprinkled," (hrerantismenoi tas kardias) "Having been sprinkled (as to) the hearts;" as the passover blood was sprinkled by the father of every household, in faith that death would pass over all in that house, so every one who rests in personal trust in Jesus’ shed blood for him, which he took to heaven’s mercy seat, is secure and should rest and serve God with peace, Ephesians 1:7; 1 John 1:7.

4) "From an evil conscience," (apo suneideseos poneras) "From a conscience that is wicked by nature," that is by nature in fear, but is never to be after one is saved, Hebrews 2:15; Romans 8:15; 1 Peter 3:21.

5) "And our bodies washed with pure water," (kai lelousmenoi to soma hudati katharo) "And the body having been bathed in clean water;” Baptism, like washing and sprinklings of the law, is a symbolic or ceremonial cleansing to Divine service, not to salvation, Romans 6:4; Acts 8:36-37; Galatians 3:26-27; Matthew 28:18-20.

Verse 23

1) "Let us hold fast," (katechomen) "Let us hold fast," grasp, or cling to;” The "us" appeal is to "the house of God," the "new covenant" body or church of commissioned worship and service by our Lord, High Priest, and coming king, as cited in Hebrews 10:21. "Hold fast" means to take hold, not let go, as in 1 Corinthians 15:58; Galatians 6:9; Judges 1:3.

2) "The profession of our faith without wavering," (ten homologian tes elpidos akline) "The confession of our hope unyieldingly," tenaciously, without letting go, or turning away under any circumstance; For Jesus has gone before us, is looking on from heaven, has promised all the present and future help his servants will ever need, and victory at the end of the way; Hallelujah, what an assurance, ; 1 Corinthians 10:13; Hebrews 13:5; 1 Corinthians 15:57.

3) "(For he is faithful that promised;)," (pistos gar ho epangeilamenos) "Because faithful is the one promising;” He still speaks, makes his sin-remitting promises "thru faith in his blood;” to every believer, without failure; His word is true, from the beginning, Psalms 119:160; and he is the way, the truth, and the life, John 14:6; 1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:24; 2 Thessalonians 3:3; Romans 4:21; Hebrews 11:11.

Negatively this faithfulness, veracity, or trustworthiness of God’s character in keeping his promises thru his Son, is expressed, "if we believe not, (even doubt at times) yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself," 2 Timothy 2:13; John 14:1-3.

Verse 24

1) "And let us consider one another," (kai katanoomen allelous) "And let us consider (be considerate of) one another," as members of the Lord’s house, his church with entrusted obligations and service to him, one another, and the world, John 13:34-35; Matthew 28:18-20; Let us bear in mind one another’s wants, needs, weaknesses, character, and individuality, and bear and share one another’s cares and burdens, Galatians 6:1-2; 2 Thessalonians 3:13-15; 2 Timothy 2:25 also calls us to lift and restore a fallen brother.

2) "To provoke unto love and to good works," (eis paroksusmon agapes kai kalon ergon) "To incitement (motivation), to motivate (to deeds) of love and good works," to do good deeds of moral and ethical value every day, and challenge or motivate others to do so by word, testimony, and deed, Matthew 5:15-16; James 1:22; Matthew 25:40; Galatians 6:10; 1 John 3:18-19. From these passages it is certified that God’s children, especially those of the "household of faith," those of the church, should delight in doing good one to and for another, being assured they would be blessed for it in this life, and rewarded by Jesus Christ in the life that is to come, 1 Corinthians 3:8; Revelation 22:12.

Verse 25

1) "Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together," (me egkaleipotes ten episunogogen heauton) "Not forsaking or deserting, or neglecting the coming (assembling) of ourselves together, in intimate affinity of fellowship," for worship, praise, study, witnessing, and service, to which members of the Lord’s church, when baptized, seal their pledge of new covenant labors together; This is their commitment at baptism, Acts 2:41-42; Romans 6:4; Galatians 3:27; Judges 1:20-23; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2.

2) "As the manner of some is," (kathos ethos tisin) "Just as the manner (ethic), or custom of some is," as the moral and ethical conduct, neglect, habit of assembling, church attendance of some had become. Disobedience in church attendance usually leads to disobedience in daily prayer, Bible study, tithing, and weakens ones resistance to temptation, James 4:17.

3) "But exhorting one another," (alla parakalountes) "But exhorting (calling alongside) to motivate one another;” Church attendance regularly is to motivate, to encourage one another in the labors of the Lord, and in a life of holy service, 1 Corinthians 15:58.

4) "And so much the more," (kai tosouto mallon) "And by so much more reason;” even more so, as the time of the Lord’s Day of worship approaches, reminding of the grand homecoming and accounting day, 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Matthew 6:33; Philippians 4:5-6; Hebrews 10:35-37.

5) "As ye see the day approaching," (hoso blepete engizousan ten hemeran) "As you all see or recognize the day (of assembly) drawing near," both weekly assembly, to which they are here called, and the coming of the Lord for the marriage in the air, 1 Thessalonians 4:12-18; Revelation 19:5-9; Matthew 25:1-3; Mark 13:34-37.

Verse 26

1) "For if we sin willfully," (ekousios gar hamaranonton hemon) "Because when we sin willfully," of our own will, our own volition, voluntarily, even presumptuously; most sins are voluntary, if not also knowingly presumptuous, presuming upon the goodness and mercy of God, taking things into ones own hand, Numbers 15:30; Deuteronomy 17:12; Psalms 19:13; Hebrews 6:4; 2 Peter 2:10.

2) "After that we have received the knowledge of the truth," (meta to labein ten epignosin tes aletheias) "After receiving a living, believing, full knowledge (experimental knowledge) of the truth," after salvation and baptism, and with it, a new covenant church commitment to divine worship and service, Matthew 28:18-20; Romans 6:4; Ephesians 2:10; Galatians 5:13; Matthew 5:15-16.

3) "There remains no more," (ouketi apoleipetai) "There (then and thereafter) remains no more," none at all. The blood of Jesus Christ is not offered to exclude his disobedient children from flesh consequences, even chastisement, for their sins of presumption, their highhanded sins; The law of sowing and reaping in the flesh is not canceled in salvation, Galatians 6:7-8; James 4:17.

4) "Sacrifice for sin," (thusia peri hamartion) "A sacrifice for (concerning) sin," for your premeditated, wilful, presumptuous sins, for sins committed by children of God and church members knowingly, in defiance of God’s will and word, James 4:17; John 13:17; Sins of the flesh, in every child of God, must be paid for in the flesh, when defiantly committed against God or his creatures. Tho the once for all sacrifice that releases every believer from hell’s consequence of sin be eternal, man must still obey God’s and nature’s natural laws or suffer certain consequences of natural or Divine decree, Galatians 6:7-8; Luke 12:45-48; Hebrews 12:6-11.

Verse 27

1) "But a certain fearful looking for of judgement," (phobera de tis ekdoche kriseoa) "But some fearful (kind of) expectation of judgement," anticipated, certain judgement. This judgement of the negligent, careless, disobedient child of God is a judgement called chastisement, not damnation in hell, Hebrews 12:5-8.

2) "And fiery indignation," (kai puros zelos) "And of fire-zeal," or fiery fury of chastisement anger from God; The idea is that God’s anger burns against his children of the new covenant who willfully and presumptuously sin, even those who sin by neglecting "to assemble" and do good works, Hebrews 10:24-26. This chastisement seem grievous to bear for the moment, but rightly received produces good fruit, Hebrews 12:9-11.

3) "Which shall devour the adversaries," (esthiein mellontos tous hupenantious) "Being about to consume the adversaries," to consume those who willfully pursue sins and iniquities," who run or follow a known course of disobedience to God and the profession they have made. Because of such Annanias and Sapphira lost their lives and some members of the church of Corinth as well, Acts 5:1-11; 1 Corinthians 11:29-32.

Verse 28

1) "He that despised Moses’ law," (athetesas tis nomon mouseos) "Anyone disregarding Moses’ law," who took the moral and ethical codes of Moses’ law lightly, with flippant disregard; had judgement without mercy, James 2:13; Psalms 109:16-17.

2) "Died without mercy," (choris oiktirmon apothnesken) "Dies without(apart from) any compassion," without any real occasion for pity. There was a death penalty for presumptuous, premeditated, headstrong will in breaking the ten commandments. This was capital punishment to be executed against the saved and unsaved, Exodus 21:29; Exodus 35:2; Numbers 20:11.

3) "Under two or three witnesses," (epi dusin e trisin martusin) "On the word or testimony of two or three witnesses;” who would by personal testimony certify evidence that the law had been presumptuously broken, Numbers 35:30; Deuteronomy 17:2-7; Deuteronomy 19:15; Matthew 18:16; John 8:17; 2 Corinthians 13:1.

Verse 29

1) "Of how much sorer punishment," (poso cheironos timorias) "By how much (of) worse punishment," more severe punishment, corporal, body punishment, punishment in the flesh, for presumptuous sins of the flesh, self will sins, 1 Corinthians 11:27-29.

2) "Suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy," (dokeite aksiothesetai) "Think ye that one will be thought worthy," as Divinely inflicted punishment, called chastisement from the Lord, to cause men to be "weak," "sickly," and even to die, 1 Corinthians 11:30-32; God chastens his children because he loves them, Deuteronomy 8:5; Revelation 3:19.

3) "Who hath trodden under foot the Son of God," (ho ton huion tou theou katapatesas) "The one having trampled on the Son of God," whom he has pledged in his profession and baptism to follow daily, Luke 9:23-24; James 4:17.

4) "And hath counted the blood of the covenant," (kai to haima tes diathekes hegesamenos) "And (even) one who has deemed (considered) the blood of the covenant," the redemption and intercession blood, 1 Peter 1:18-20; Ephesians 1:7.

5) "Wherewith he was sanctified," (koinon en ho hegiasthe) "By which he was sanctified," as if it were a common thing, though sealed as God’s own to the resurrection, .

6) "An unholy thing," (koinon) "A common, profane, worthless thing," acted as if the redemption blood were to be ignored as if it were an unholy, unclean thing.

7) "And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?"(kai to pneuma tes charitos enubrisas) "Even the one having insulted the spirit of grace?" He shall be chastened, beaten with many stripes to call him back to confession, obedience, and service to Christ, Luke 12:47-48; 1 John 1:8-9; Revelation 3:19.

Verse 30

1) "For we know him that hath said," (oidamen gar ton eiponta) "For (because) we know (experimentally) know him who has said," God who has warned, pre-warned of his judgement against wrong as an expression of his holy and just character, Romans 12:19; Deuteronomy 32:35.

2) "Vengeance belongeth unto me," (emoi ekdikesis) "Vengeance is mine," or Vengeance belongs to me;” Children of God can not treat God and their professed faith in him with arrogant disregard, turn their back on pursuing promises and pledges made to him without paying the price of lost joys of salvation, loss of influence, and finding chastisement, even as David did, Psalms 51:1-17; 2 Samuel 12:1-13.

3) "I will recompense saith the Lord," (ego antapodose) "I will repay," pay back, says the Lord, Galatians 6:7-8. Even the natural law of sowing to the flesh, after regeneration, against the call of God to sanctification, brings chastening, Romans 12:1-2.

4) "And again, The Lord shall judge his people," (kai palin krinei kurios ton laon autou) "And again, (it is written) the Lord will judge his people," Deuteronomy 32:36; Psalms 50:4; Psalms 135:14; those who belong to him by covenant of the blood of his Son, not merely those of natural Israel. They are his after they have disobeyed, before he punishes, or (chastens) them, while he chastens them, and after he chastens them; You see fathers do not presume to chasten children who do not belong to them, neither does God, Hebrews 12:5-11; Psalms 89:30-33; Luke 12:47-48.

Verse 31

1) "It is a fearful thing," (phoberon) "A fearful thing it is," or it exists as a thing to be feared," a terrible thing, a thing fitted to produce fear; "to fear God and keep his commandments," is the specific duty of gratitude every child of God owes him, Ecclesiastes 12:13; Exodus 20:20; Deuteronomy 6:2; Deuteronomy 10:12-13.

2) "To fall into the hands,"(to empesein eis cheiras) "To fall into (the) hands," to be brought low, to be punished as God’s erring, disobedient child. To fall into the hands of the living God, is to do wrong to the extent that he send, Divine chastisement, punishment upon the body of this flesh, though "he shall not be utterly cast down," Psalms 37:24; Psalms 89:30-33.

3) "Of the living God," (theou zontos) "Of a living God;" That there are mercies expressed in Divine chastisement of the children of God who do wrong is expressed by David, 2 Samuel 24:14. "Let us fall now into the hand of the Lord; for his mercies are great: and let me not fall into the hand of man." For David’s sin of numbering Israel three forms of punishment were offered him by the Lord - - He chose the latter and God sent a pestilence that caused seventy thousand (70,000) people to die, 2 Samuel 24:10-25. While God may punish his children who do wrong, that punishment is limited to the flesh, in this life, and does not take from or deprive them of eternal life. For instance, though God took the life of Moses, deprived him of entering Canaan, he did not send him to hell; Instead, he appeared at the transfiguration with Jesus, Matthew 18:1-3; He upholds all his children who fall into his hand, Psalms 145:14.

Verse 32

1) "But call to remembrance the former days," (anamimneskesthe de tas proteron hemeras) "But you all remember those former days," When you "suffered so many things," Galatians 3:4; When you walked out of the way, stumbled as young Christians, did wrong, but arose, confessed, and kept on keeping on, 1 John 1:8-9. Recall the days of your first love, first affections, John 13:34-35; John 14:15.

2) "In which, after ye were illuminated," (en hais photisthentes) "in which, after ye were enlightened," In which days you all were indwelt by the Holy Spirit, when first you were brought out of darkness into light, Hebrews 6:4; 2 Corinthians 4:6; As a chosen people to do God’s work, 1 Peter 2:9.

3) "Ye endured a great fight of afflictions," (pollen athlesin hupemeinate pathematon) "You alI endured much (great) struggle of sufferings," endured or preserved with much fortitude. The "ye" appears to be the saints, holy brethren, at Jerusalem, the church "ye," to whom, as The Lord’s House, this letter was written, Hebrews 3:1-6; Philippians 1:29-30. Perhaps this alludes to the early persecutions of the Jerusalem church following Pentecost, . In addition to the harassment that the Jerusalem church endured there was a famine that caused much affliction in the early years of the church’s ministry, Acts 11:27-30; Romans 15:25-27.

Verse 33

1) "Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock," (touto men theatrizomenoi) "While on the one hand you all were being theatrically exposed," exposed as one acting, being gazed upon as one on the theatre stage, 1 Corinthians 4:9. Paul here describes dedicated church members as "a spectacle unto the world." This alludes to public punishments inflicted to humiliate the punished party, as when the apostles were beaten one by one for preaching the gospel, Acts 5:40-42.

2) "Both by reproaches and afflictions," (oneidismoiste kai thlipsesin) "To both reproaches and afflictions," objects of the world’s derision, sarcasm, scorning and scoffing, especially where epithets of insult were hurled at the saints; Our Lord foretold his disciples of such, Matthew 5:11-12; John 15:20-21.

3) "And partly, whilst ye became companions," (touto de genethentes koinois) "And while on the other hand ye became sharers, common associates," voluntary friends and open companions showing love one for another; Even Jesus was not ashamed to call them brethren who, like their Lord, were to suffer such indignities, Hebrews 2:11; Acts 4:13.

4) "Of them that were so used," (ton houtos anastrephomenon genethentes) "Of those living in this manner," of those who were enduring reproaches and afflictions. These were Christians who were not ashamed to be identified with their brethren who were in need, persecuted, derided and abused. They gladly bare or shared one another’s burdens and cares, fulfilling the love of Christ, Galatians 5:13; Galatians 6:1-2; Romans 15:1.

Verse 34

1) "For ye had compassion of me in my bonds," (kai gar tois desmois sunepathesate) "For you all also suffered the bonds (chains) together," in association with me, you all entered compassionately into my prison experience, sympathized and empathized with me.

2) "And took joyfully," (meta charas prosedeksasthe) "And accepted joyfully," as a mark of true discipleship, 2 Corinthians 1:3-4. In such a state, and in spite of wicked scorn and persecution God’s children are charged to "rejoice and be exceeding glad," Matthew 5:11-12; John 15:11; John 16:33; Philippians 4:4.

3) "The spoiling of your goods," (kai ten harpagen ton huparchonton humon) "Even the sudden plunder, seizure, or (confiscation) of your possessions;” Perhaps this refers to the persecution in which Paul himself entered homes to persecute and destroy people before he was saved, Acts 8:3; Acts 9:1; Acts 9:13-14; Galatians 1:13.

4) "Knowing in yourselves that ye have," (ginosknotes echein heautous) "Knowing yourselves to have, hold, own or possess," having assurance in salvation and by the indwelling Holy Spirit and testimony of the word of God, Romans 8:14-16; 1 John 3:14; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 4:15; 2 Corinthians 5:1.

5) "A better and an enduring substance," (kreissona huparksin kai menousan) "A better and remaining possession," even a mansion and new body awaiting, in waiting, John 14:1-3; 2 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Corinthians 2:9. Then what else? A joint heirsetting of the world with Jesus Christ, Romans 8:17-18; Revelation 5:9-10.

Verse 35

1) "Cast not away therefore," (me apobalete oun) "You all cast not away therefore;" or don’t discard, throw aside, or abandon for a moment, do not turn your back on the profession you have made, 1 Corinthians 15:58; Galatians 6:9.

2) "Your confidence," (ten parresian humon) "Your confidence or boldness," motivated by faith in the blood of Christ, the better covenant; come boldly instead to the throne of God where there is grace to help in time of need, Hebrews 4:15-16; 1 John 5:14; 2 Peter 3:18.

3) "Which hath great recompence of reward," (hetis echei megalon misthapodosian) "A much better and remaining possession," Romans 8:18, than any seized or confiscated from you by men, 1 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 3:8; 2 Timothy 4:7-8.

Verse 36

1) "For ye have need of patience," (hupomones gar echete chreian) "For you all hold a continuing need of endurance," patience, or perseverance, that you may do the will of God, Luke 21:19; Galatians 6:9; Hebrews 12:1; Romans 12:12.

2) "That, after ye have done the will of God," (hina to thelema tou theou poiesantes) "In order that when you have done the will of God," even thru enduring afflictions, reproaches, and spoiling of your properties; Ephesians 5:17-20; Ephesians 6:6; 1 Peter 2:15; 1 John 2:17.

3) "Ye might receive the promise," (komisesthe ten epangelian) "You may all receive the promise;" of the coming of Christ as King and an eternal heirsetting with him, Hebrews 9:15; 2 Peter 1:8-11; Romans 8:17-18.

Verse 37

1) "For yet a little while," (eti gar mikron hoson) "For yet a very little while," Therefore be not weary, faint, or don’t quit doing the will of God, whatever the opposition because the coming of the Lord is but so little while away, in comparison with eternity, 2 Peter 3:9; 2 Peter 3:3-14; Habakkuk 2:3.

2) "And he that shall come will come," (ho erchomenos heksei) "And the one coming will come of his own accord," as he promised, and as angels promised, John 14:3; Acts 1:8-11; James 5:7-8.

3) "And will not tarry," (kai ou chronisei) "And will not delay," when the fit time of events and prophetic matters are perfectly fulfilled to that point in time, Matthew 24:1-3; Matthew 24:24; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-3; Revelation 22:7; Revelation 22:12; Revelation 22:20.

Verse 38

1) "Now the just shall live by faith," (ho de dikaios mou ek pisteos zesetai) "But the just one (righteous one) will live by faith," not by moral or religious rites or ceremonies, by faith in Jesus Christ and the pattern of morals, ethics, and religious service, and the higher life he established and committed to his new covenant people, the church, Romans 1:16-17; Romans 4:5; Galatians 2:20; Galatians 3:11; Judges 1:3; Ephesians 2:8-10.

2) "But if any man draw back," (kai ean huposteiletai) "And if anyone withdraws," shuns or separates himself, shrinks back from the higher life of new covenant service to which he has been saved and called, Ephesians 2:10; Romans 12:1-2; 1 John 2:19.

3) "My soul shall have no pleasure in him," (ouk eudokei he psuche mou en auto) "My soul is not well pleased in him," in his withdrawal from righteous, moral, and ethical conduct. Paul believed that men were saved by grace thru faith in Jesus Christ and called to an active life of sanctified service which they should follow till death; Galatians 5:13; Galatians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 15:58; Ephesians 2:10; James 1:22.

Verse 39

1) "But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition," (hemeis de ouk esmen hupostoled eis apoloeion) "But we are or (exist) not of those of a withdrawal to destruction," of those who have a superficial and ritual faith only, such as the Pharisees and Scribes had, Matthew 5:20; Romans 9:31; Romans 10:3.

2) "But of them that believe to the saving of the soul," (alla pisteos eis peripoiesin Psuches) "But we are or exist of those who believe to the perseverance (possession) of the soul;” With view to the keeping of the whole man under subjection to the Word and Will of God, Mark 8:35; 1 Corinthians 6:19-20; 1 Corinthians 9:26-27; Romans 12:1-2; 1 Corinthians 15:58. Paul believed that to lose one’s life in faithful service was to find it, find it rewarded in the life to come, 2 Timothy 4:7-8, even in a new deliverance body, ; 2 Thessalonians 2:14-17.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Hebrews 10". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/hebrews-10.html. 1985.
 
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