Bible Commentaries
Luke 3

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

MINISTRY OF JOHN THE BAPTIST V. 1-20 (The historic setting)

1) "Now in the fifteenth year," (en epi de pentekaidekato) "Then in the fifteenth year." By giving these data Luke furnishes abundant means of testing the historical accuracy of this Gospel, which he had determined to-do, Luke 1:1-3.

2) "Of the reign of Tiberius Caesar," (ten hegemonias Tiberiou Kaisaros) "Of the government of Tiberius Caesar," the ruler of the Roman Empire, which appears to have been in AD 26. It was he who succeeded Augustus Caesar as Emperor at the death of Augustus, AD 14, with whom he had been associated two years.

3) "Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea," (hegemoneuontos Pontiou Pilatou tes loudaias) "While Pontius Pilate was governing Judaea," a term lasting through the ministry of both John the Baptist and Jesus, Matthew 27:2; Matthew 27:25-27; Matthew 27:22-24.

4) "And Herod being tetrarch of Galilee," (kai tetrarchountas tes Galilaias Herodou) "And while Herod was ruling as tetrarch of Galilee," of the territory of Galilee, North of Judaea, Luke 3:19-20, who later shut up John in prison, Matthew 14:1-4.

5) "And his brother Philip tetrarch," (Philippou de tou adelphou autou tetrarchountos) "His brother Philip was then ruling as tetrarch," whose wife Herod took, Luke 3:19-20.

6) "Of Iturae and of the region of Traconitis," (tes Itouraias kai Trachonitidos choras) "Of the territory of area of Ituraea and Trachonitis," north and east of the Sea of Galilee.

7) "And Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene," (kai Lusaniou tes Abilenes terrarchountos) "And Lysanias was ruling as tetrarch of Abilene," yet north of the region of Abilene, the area of Syria, West of Damascus, about 18 miles. These are the districts in which our Lord’s ministry was performed.

Verse 2

1) "Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests," (epi archiereos Hanna kai Kaiapha) "in the time of Annas and Caiaphas the high priests;" Annas was the former high priest, now out of office, yet honored with the title, John 11:49-51; John 18:13-24; Acts 4:6. For he had been deposed by Pilate’s predecessor and replaced by Caiaphas.

2) "The word of God came unto John," (egeneto hrema theou epi loannen) "A message of and from God, came to John (the Baptist)," by the Holy Spirit, impelling him to preach, as a prophet (to deliver himself of a great work, and heaven-given message for Israel, regarding Jesus Christ who was to come) as messages came to ancient prophets, 1 Kings 12:22; 1 Chronicles 17:3; Jeremiah 1:1, etc.

3) "The son of Zacharias in the wilderness." (ton Zachariou huion en te ercmo) "The son of Zacharias while he was in the desert," wilderness, or an uninhabited area, as indicated, Luke 3:3; Luke 1:57; Luke 1:59-60; Luke 1:62-63.

The wilderness was located north of the Dead Sea around the mouth of the Jordan on the north, most of the way up to the Sea of Galilee.

Annas was administrative High Priest AD 7-14, later succeeded by Caiaphas who presided AD 17-35.

Verse 3

1) "And he came into all the country about Jordan," (kai elthen eis pasan ten perichoron tou lordanou) "And he came of his own choice or will into all the neighborhood of the Jordan," as an itinerant prophet, meaning into the inhabited villages along the Jordan, Jordan valley areas.

2) "Preaching the baptism of repentance," (kerusson baptisma metanoias) "Heralding a baptism of repentance," an immersion related to repentance, Luke 3:8; Matthew 3:2; Acts 17:30; Acts 19:4. The Jews had been familiar with a baptism, as a symbolism of consecration and purification, from the earliest days of their history, Exodus 29:4; Leviticus 14:8. It was a ceremony by which proselytes of other races and religions were admitted into Judaism. But the Baptism which John came preaching was of a different nature, and of direct orders to John from heaven, Luke 3:2, John 1:6; John 1:31; John 1:33.

3) "For the remission of sins;" (eis aphesin hamartion) "With reference to forgiveness of sins," witnessing to the remission of sins, of those who had repented. The baptism was a "symbol of" not "means of obtaining" remission of sins. Repentance and faith, before heaven’s authorized baptism, is the Bible order, and any other order is out of order, Matthew 3:2; Matthew 3:7-8; Matthew 1:15; Acts 19:20; Acts 19:22. Jesus told the sinful chief priests and elders that after they had heard the preaching of John, seen the publicans and harlots had repented and believed him, his preaching about Jesus; that after all that, they did not repent of their sins, that (in order that) they might believe, Matthew 21:23; Matthew 21:32. The, baptism or immersion required and represented an inward spiritual change.

Verse 4

1) "As it is written in the book," (hos gegrapta en biblo) "As it has been and is written in the book, roll, or scroll," giving credence to the trustworthiness and accuracy of the Old Testament Scriptures, as claimed by David, Psalms 119:160.

2) "Of the words of Esaias the prophet," (logon Esaiou tou prophetou) "Of Esaias the prophet, of the saying, or affirming the saying of Isaiah," John 5:39; Though some believe this alludes to the return of the Jews from captivity, it certainly had its primary fulfillment in the preaching of John.

3) "Saying, the voice of one crying in the wilderness," (phone boontos en te eremo) "There shall be a voice of one bellowing or crying aloud in the wilderness," or in the little populated area, Isaiah 40:3; Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3.

4) "Prepare ye the way of the Lord," (hetoimaste ten hodon kuriou) "You all prepare or make ready (for) the way of the Lord," Isaiah 40:3-5; John 2:23.

5) "Make his paths straight." (eutheias poieite tas tribous autou) "Make his paths to be straight ones," well trodden ones, moral and ethical paths, in harmony with the principles of truth and holiness of heart and life, as set forth in the law of the Lord, in preparation for receiving Him. Remove the crooks and turns and rough places that would be offensive to the Christ (Messiah) of glory, Malachi 3:1-3.

Verse 5

1) "Every valley shall be filled," (pasa pharagks plerothesetai) "Every valley shall be filled up," in preparing the way for a royal one, an eminent person, such as a king.

2) "And every mountain and hill shall be brought low;" (kai pan oros kai bounos tapeinothesetai) "And every hill and mountain shall be laid low." The metaphor is derived from a practice of ancient people to go before a king to clear the road, make it level.

3) "And the crooked shall be made straight," (kai estai ta skolia eis eutheias) "And the crooked places shall be made into straight ones;" Sharp curves were to be straightened, so that a chariot was not to overturn, when traveling in haste with a king.

4) "And the rough ways shall be made smooth;" (kai hai tracheiai eis hodous leias) "And the rough ways or roads shall be made into, smooth roads or ways," such as become a king. The bumpy places were to be planed, bladed, or cut down to a smooth level, for comfortable travel.

Verse 6

1) "And all flesh shall see," (kai opsetai para sarks) "And all flesh (all people) shall see," not the Jews only, is the idea, as also expressed Psalms 98:2; Acts 2:17; Romans 10:12. No power or device would be able to resist the labors of the pioneer herald of the coming Savior and His work.

2) "The salvation of God." (to soterion tou theou) "The salvation or deliverance of God," for "Salvation is of the Lord," of His purpose and His provisions of deliverance from sin, Jonah 2:9; Luke 2:30; By the gift of God, John 3:16; Ephesians 2:8-20.

Verse 7

1) "Then said he to the multitude that came forth," (elegen oun tois ekporeuomenois ochlois) "Therefore he said directly to the crowds that were continually coming out." It was a vast throng of all classes who streamed forth to hear the forthright testimony of the famous desert or wilderness preacher, Matthew 3:5; Mark 3:5.

2) "To be baptized of him," (baptisthenai hup’ autou) "To be baptized (immersed) of him," and by authority or mandate given to Him, as he claimed from heaven, John 1:6; John 1:30-32.

3) "0 generation of vipers," (gennemata echidnon) "You offspring of vipers," progeny of vipers, Matthew 3:7; Matthew 23:33, you offspring of serpents, of demon depraved men, who hold the venom of sin in your nature from conception and from birth." These scorching words were directed specifically at the Pharisees and Sadducees, who, without repentance, wanted to be baptized to please the Messiah, if He should come, Matthew 3:7-12; Matthew 12:34.

4) "Who hath warned you to flee," (tis hupedeiksen humin phugein) "Who has warned you to flee," Matthew 23:33, from the condemnation of hell. This was specifically directed at the Pharisees and Sadducees, perhaps privately, Matthew 3:7; Matthew 5:20.

5) "From the wrath to come." (apo tes mellouses orges) "From the on-coming wrath," the pending wrath that is certain to come, and is on its way? It is described, Isaiah 13:9; Romans 2:5; Revelation 6:17; Matthew 23:33. The rugged desert prophet used illustrations of stones, vipers, and barren trees, objects familiar to his hearers.

Verse 8

1) "Bring forth therefore fruits," (polesate oun karpous) "Therefore you all produce fruits," some evidence of remorse from sin, of a need for your sins that your daily sins that you try to cover up, have been confessed and forgiven, Ecclesiastes 7:20; 1 John 1:8-9.

2) "Worthy of repentance," (aksious tes metanoias) "Worthy of (as a testimony of) repentance," toward God and belief or faith in the coming Messiah, as Redeemer, Acts 19:4.

3) "And begin not to say within yourselves," (kai me arksesthe legein en heautois) "And do not begin repeatedly saying within and among yourselves," saying one to another, and basing your redemption hope on your racial heritage, claiming to be the seed of Abraham, when you are unbelieving, John 8:37.

4) "We have Abraham to our father:" (patera echomen ton Abraam) "We have or hold Abraham (as) our father," scarcely believing that any son of Abraham could be lost, John 8:39-44.

5) "For I say unto you," (lego gar humin) "For I tell you," plainly, directly, and clearly disclose to you all, as lost Jews, not prepared to meet God, Matthew 5:20.

6) "That God is able of these stones," (hoti dumatai ho theos ek ton lithon touton) "That God can (is able) out of these stones," these flint rocks around here on the ground.

7) "To raise up children unto Abraham." (egeirai tekna to Abraam) "To raise children to Abraham," He who made Adam as dust from the ground was able to make from flint stones sons to Abraham, Matthew 3:9, or children from the pagans about you all.

Verse 9

1) "And now also the axe Is laid unto the root of the trees:" (ede de kai he aksine pros ten hrizan ton dendron keitai) "And even at this moment the axe is laid at the root of the trees," indicating certain accounting or judgment, Psalms 7:11-13.

2) "Every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit," (pan oun dendron me poioun karpon kalon) "Therefore every tree that is not producing ideal fruit," is a bad tree, as later described by Jesus Christ, Matthew 7:17-18; Luke 13:5-9.

3) "Is hewn down and cast into the fire." (ekkoptetai kai eis pur halletai) "is being cut down and thrown into fire," Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:19-20; Revelation 21:8.

Verse 10

1) "And the people asked him, saying," (kai eperoton-c auton hoi ochoi legontes) "And the crowds asked him, repeatedly inquiring," with convicted conscience, Romans 2:3-6.

2) "What shall we do then?" (ti oun poiesomen) "What then may we do?" Their consciences were pierced regarding judgment to come, so that they responded, even as Felix did, Acts 24:25. This is much as the people asked Peter on Pentecost, Acts 2:37, and as the Philippian jailer, Acts 16:30.

Verse 11

1) "He answereth and saith unto them," (apokritheis de elegen autois) "Then replying, he instructed or told them," the Pharisees and Sadducees in particular, Matthew 23:25.

2) "He that hath two coats," (ho echon duo chitonas) "The one having two coats," tunics or outer garments, 1 John 3:17; Mark 7:6; Luke 11:39, and you all who are so mechanically meticulous about traditions and the law.

3) "Let him impart to him that hath none;" (metadoto to me echonti) "Let him impart (or give it) to the one who does not have a coat, tunic, or outer garment at all," as admonished by James 2:15; James 2:17, as an expression of self-denial, a first condition for a true penitent to enter the labors of the coming Lord, Luke 9:23.

4) "And he that hath meat, let him do likewise." (kai ho echon bromata komoios poieito) "And the one who has excess food, let him do likewise," or a similar thing, let him share with those who are without food, bearing one another’s burdens, fulfilling the law, which always points to Christ, as the true and great Provider, Galatians 3:24; Galatians 6:2; They are reminded that deeds of justice, charity toward the needy, are first fruits or evidence of repentance for sin and an inner change of spiritual life.

Verse 12

1) "Then came also publicans to be baptized," (elton de kai telonai baptisthenai) "Then there came publicans (tax collectors) to be baptized." These tax gatherers or collectors were hated and despised as oppressive extortioners of excessive taxes against even the poor farmers, Matthew 21:32.

2) "And said unto him," (kai eipan pros auton) "And they inquired (of) to him," though stigmatized and hated by the Jews.

3) "Master, what shall we do?" (didaskale ti poiesomen) "Teacher, just what may we do?" As they desired to be rid of their grievous and offensive sins. And they responded to his preaching, Luke 7:29. Rome did not collect her own taxes abroad but leased them out for persons called publicans to collect. These publicans came to make or extort unreasonable profits from their transactions.

Verse 13

1) "And he said unto them," (ho de eipen pros autos) "And he said directly to them," in response to their question, after they were conscience stricken for their sins.

2) "Exact no more than that which is appointed you." (meden pleion para to diatetagmenon humin prasete) "You all are to practice doing nothing more than (or beyond) the things you have been commanded or contracted to do." Be honest, refrain from theft by extortion or threat, restating the Divine moral principle of the law, Exodus 20:15. Collect only the lawful tax, with a common fair wage for your service, providing things "honest in the sight of all men," Romans 12:17.

Verse 14

1) "And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying," (eperoton de auton kai strateuomenoi legontes) "And soldiers or men serving in the army, soldiers on the march, also asked him, saying," inquiring, after he had instructed the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the publicans, Luke 3:7-9; Luke 3:12-13.

2) "And what shall we do?" (ti poiesomen ksi humeis) "And what then may we do?"

3) "And he said unto them, Do violence to no man," (kai eipen autois medena diasisete) "And he said to them, do not intimidate any one," or put any man in fear, simply because you are in uniform of State, or may be able to extort money from the rich, through the things you learn.

4) "Neither accuse any falsely;" (mede sukophantesete) "Nor accuse anyone falsely," or do not inform against anyone to the hurt of another.

5) "And be content with your wages." (kai arkeisthe tois opsoniois humon) "And be satisfied with your pay," for the time being, with the rations or allowance granted you for your being soldiers. Mutinies for higher pay were frequent, a thing disapproved as unethical, by God’s prophet, 2 Peter 2:15; Philippians 4:11; 1 Timothy 6:8.

Verse 15

1) "And as the people were in expectation," (prosdokontos de tou laou) "Then the people were expecting," in suspense, the masses in the regions of Jordan, who had come out to hear John the Baptist preach, Luke 3:7.

2) "And all men mused in their hearts of John," (kai dialogizomenon panton en tois kardiais auton peri tou loannou) "And all were debating in their hearts concerning John," they wondered, perplexed in mind, whether or not this one (John) could himself be the Messiah, much as related John 1:19-25.

3) "Whether he were the Christ, or not;" (mepote autos eis ho Christos) "Whether or not he might be the Christ," the anointed one, the Messiah, instead of His forerunner, John 1:25; Deuteronomy 18:15-18.

Verse 16

1) "John answered, saying unto them all," (apekrinato legon pasin ho loannes) "John replied, repeatedly saying, to all," to the mass who had come to hear him preach, the religious leaders, the common workmen, the publicans and the soldiers who were on the march, Luke 3:3-14.

2) “ I indeed baptize you with water," (ego men hudati baptizo humas) "I surely immerse you all with and in water," a thing I was sent from heaven to do, in preparing for the coming of the Christ, Isaiah 40:1-3; John 1:6; John 1:31-33.

3) "But one mightier than I cometh," (erchetai de ho ischuroteros mou) "Yet, there comes one stronger than I am," much mightier than I, Matthew 3:11-12; Mark 1:7-8.

4) "The lachet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose:" (ou ouk eimi hikanos lusai ton himanta ton hupodematon autou) "Of whom I am not competent to loose the thong of his sandals," or I am not worthy to be His humblest slave, to serve at His Majesty’s feet, an attitude of great humility, Luke 18:14.

5) "He shall baptize you," (autos humas baptisei) "He will immerse you," or submerge you all, you of all classes of society, religious people, publicans, common people, and soldiers, Luke 3:3-14.

6) "With the Holy Ghost and with fire:" (en pneumati hagio kai puri) "In and with the Holy Spirit and with or in fire," the former to obedient believers, and the latter to obstinate unbelievers, Romans 8:14-16; 1 John 4:13; Acts 2:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9.

Verse 17

1) "Whose fan is in his hand," (hou to ptuon en te cheiri autou) "Who has a fan in his hand," to separate the chaff from the grain, the chaff to be burned, and the grain to be saved, Psalms 1:4.

2) "And he will thoroughly purge his floor," (diakatharai ten alona autou) "To cleanse his threshing floor thoroughly," where the grain was prepared for food or storage.

3) "And will gather the wheat into his garner;" (kai sunagagein ton siton eis ten apotheken autou) "And to gather the wheat unto his barn," Matthew 13:30.

4) "But the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable." (to de achuron katakausei puri asbesto) "But he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire," but not one of grain, his own children will be burned.

Verse 18

1) "And many other things in his exhortation," (polla men oun kai hetera parakalon) "Therefore indeed with many different things of exhorting nature," of which the above was of chiefest importance, and the primary substance, John 1:15; John 1:19-23; John 1:31-34.

2) "Preached he unto the people." (euenngelizeto ton laon) "He evangelized the people," he proclaimed good tidings to the people of the soon coming of the Christ, Matthew 3:1-8; Mark 1:1-5.

Verse 19

1) "But Herod the tetrarch," (ho de Herodes ho tetrarches) "Then Herod who was the tetrarch," Matthew 14:1.

2) "Being reproved by him for Herodias," (elegchomenos hup, autou peri Herodiados) "Being reproved by him (John the Baptist), concerning Herodias," Matthew 14:4.

3) "His brother Philip’s wife," (tes gunaikos tou adelphou autou) "Who was the wife of Philip his brother," Matthew 14:3.

4) "And for all the evils which Herod had done," (kai peri panton hon epoiesen poneron ho Herodes) "And particularly concerning all the wicked things which Herod had done," Matthew 14:1; Matthew 14:6; Matthew 14:9-10. From some he seems to have reformed, at least partially, Mark 6:20.

Verse 20

1) "Added yet this above all," (prosetheken kai touto epi pasin) "Added also this (deed) above all," or in addition to all other wicked deeds that he had already done, Mark 6:17-20. And this was the worst, the beheading, after the imprisonment, Matthew 14:10; Mark 6:27.

2) "That he shut up John in prison." (katekleisen ton loannen en phulake) "He shut up John (the Baptist) in prison," Matthew 14:3, to please a wicked, adulterous wife whom he had taken from his brother, Philip, Matthew 11:2; Matthew 14:3-12.

Verse 21


1) "Now when all the people were baptized," (en to baptisthenai hapanta ton laon) "When all the people were immersed," who repented at the preaching of John, and gave fruit-evidence of it, Matthew 3:7-8; and as John’s ministry drew near an end, John 3:30.

2) "It came to pass," (egeneto de) "Then it occurred," happened, or came to be, when Jesus had come to him, to be baptized by John, Matthew 3:13-15.

3) "That Jesus also being baptized," (kai lesou baptisthentos kai proseuchomenou) "That Jesus also being baptized and praying," or having been baptized, as also recounted, Matthew 3:15-17.

4) "And praying," (kai proseuchomenou) "And as he was praying," or while He prayed, in solemn preparation for His work, Luke 18:1; without ceasing, 1 Thessalonians 5:17.

5) "The heaven was opened." (aneochthenai ton ouranon) "The heaven came to be opened," Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10.

Verse 22

1) "And the Holy Ghost descended," (kai katabenai to pneuma to hagion) "And the Holy Spirit descended or was caused to come down," upon Him to anoint Him for His ministry, from that hour, Luke 4:1; Luke 4:14; Luke 4:18; Isaiah 61:1-2.

2) "In a bodily shape like a dove upon him," (somatiko eidei hos peristeran ep’ auton) "in a bodily form appearing as a dove upon him," to identify Him visibly as the Son of God, as formerly told to John the Baptist, John 1:31-33; Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10. The Holy Spirit is symbolized by a dove.

3) "And a voice came from heaven, which said," (kai phone eks ouranou genesthai) "And a voice was caused to come out of heaven," clearly declaring, Matthew 3:17; This voice was also heard on the Mount of Transfiguration, Luke 9:35.

4) "Thou art my beloved Son;" (su ei ho huios mou ho agapetos) "You are my beloved Son," Mark 1:11; Matthew 17:5; John 1:1-2; John 8:29. The voice of the Father, and the presence of the Spirit upon Jesus, give testamentary evidence of the trinity of God.

5) “In whom I am well pleased." (en soi eudokesa) "in you I was well pleased," in what you said to John the Baptist, and in what he did to you, Matthew 3:17; Matthew 17:5; Mark 1:11.

Verse 23


1) "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age," (kai autos en lesous archomenos hosei eton trakonta) "And Jesus was himself about thirty years of age," as He began His public doing and teaching ministry, the age required by Jewish law for one to be an administrative priest or teacher of the law, Numbers 4:3; Numbers 4:23; Numbers 4:30; Numbers 4:43; Numbers 4:47; Acts 1:1.

2) "Being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph," (on huios hos enomizeto loseph) "Being as was supposed, a son of Joseph," who had come to the age to teach: 1) At which age Joseph stood before Pharaoh, 2) David began his reign, and 3) The scribes began to teach, as cited above. This term "Supposed" infers that Jesus was not Joseph’s son by nature; Yet, He was his son by the law, legally.

3) "Which was the son of Hell," (tou Eli) "Who was the son of Eli," or Jacob.

Although Jesus was the promised seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15; Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Timothy 3:16), His genealogy is traced through Joseph who was legally united to Mary by the law of marriage, which God instituted in Eden’s Paradise; and Jesus had an hereditary claim to the heritage rights of Joseph as son of David, and owed him fatherly obedience as set forth in Matthew chapter one. Luke then traces Mary’s lineage backward to Adam, through David, to certify, that as the Son of man He was of the seed of David, through Nathan’s natural descent, an uncursed son-lineage of David.


The doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus is important because: 1) It is required for the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy; and 2) because the Bible specifically states that Jesus shall reign on the throne of His father David. Had Jesus been born of Joseph, of the seed of David, He could not have sat upon David’s throne, because Joseph’s ancestry was from the line of Solomon, through Jechonias or Coniah. Solomon’s seed, after Coniah, was cut off from ever sitting on David’s throne, but Nathan’s seed, of the tribe of Judah and seed of David of Mary’s ancestry was not cut off. The seed of David by Nathan’s family could sit on David’s throne.

Of Coniah God said:

"Thus saith the Lord, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days; for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah," (Jeremiah 22:30).

Joseph was the son of Jacob, of the lineage of Solomon, not of Nathan (Matthew 1:6-11). Joseph was, however, the son-in-law of Heli, Mary’s father, whose lineage is traced to David through Nathan, Solomon’s full brother and David’s son (Luke 3:23; Luke 3:31). Matthew gives the genealogy of Joseph, of the lineage of David, family of Solomon, and father of the lineage of David, through the family of Solomon, of the tribe of Judah.

Verse 24

1) "Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi," (tou Mathat tou Levi) "The heir-son of Matthat, of the heir-son of Levi;" The name "Matthat" means "gift", and is the same as Matthan, Matthew 1:15; While the name "Levi" means "associate," a son of Jacob, as first found Genesis 29:34.

2) "Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna," (tou Melchi tou lannai) "The heir-son of Melchi, of the heir-son of Janna;" Melchi is the Gk. form of Melchaiah which means "The king of Jehovah," while "Janna" is another form of the word John and means "Jehovah is gracious."

3) "Which was the son of Joseph," (tou loseph) "Who was the heir-son of Joseph," whose name means "he shall add," first used Genesis 30:24.

Luke’s genealogy account of Jesus ascends from son to father, back to Adam, whereas Matthew recounts the genealogy of Jesus from father to son, beginning with Abraham, and descending to Joseph, Luke 3:23-38; Matthew 1:1-18.

Verse 25

1) "Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos," (tou Mattaihiou tou Amos) "The heir-son of Mattathias, the heir-son of Amos," Matthias means "gift of Jehovah," while "Amos" means "a burden," Amos 1:1-2.

2) "Which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli," (tou Naoum tou Hesli) "The heir-son of Naum, the heir-son of Hesli;" Naum is the same as Nahum which means "Comforter," while Esli is the same as Azaliah which means "whom God has reserved," 2 Kings 22:3.

3) "Which was the son of Nagge," (tou Naggei) "The heir-son of Naggai" which means "brightness" and is the same as Nogah, 1 Chronicles 3:7.

Verse 26

1) "Which was the son of Maath which was the son of Mattathias," (tou Maath tou Mattathiou) "The heir-son of Maath, the heir-son of Mattathias;" Maath means "small" while the name Mattathias means "a gift of Jehovah."

2) "Which was the son of Samei," (tou Semein) "The heir-son of Semein;" The name Semei is a Greek form of Shemei which means "my fame," Numbers 3:18.

3) "Which was the son of Joseph," (tou loseph) "The heir-son of Josech," or Joseph, which means "he shall add."

4) "Which was the son of Juda," (tou loda) "The heir-son of Judah," which name means "praised."

Verse 27

1) "Which was the son of Joanna," (tou loanan)"The heir-son of Joanan," the Gk. spelling of Jehonan which means "whom Jehovah gave."

2) "Which was the son of Rhesa," (tou Hersa) "The heir-son of Rhesa," which means "chieftain."

3) "Which was the son of Zorobabel," (tou Zorobabel) "The heir-son of Zorobabel," Gk. form of Zerubabel, Matthew 1:12 and means "scattered in Babylon."

4) "Which was the son of Salathiel," (tou Salathiel) "The heir-son of Salathiel," Gk. form of the word Shealtiel, which means I asked from God," Ezra 3:2.

5) "Which was the son of Neri," (tou Neri) "The heir-son of Neri," which means "lamp of Jehovah," Jeremiah 32:12.

Verse 28

1) "Which was the son of Melchi," (tou Melchi) "The heir-son of Melchi," which means "Jehovah’s king," Jeremiah 21:1.

2) "Which was the son of Add!," (tou Addi) "The heir-son of Addi," which name means, "ornament."

3) "Which was the son of Cosam," (tou Kosam) "The heir-son of Kosam," the only known Bible usage of the name or mention of the person who will not be without his revealed reward one day, 1 Corinthians 3:8.

4) "Which was the son of Elmodam," (tou Elmadam) "The heir-son of Elmadam," same as the term Almodad which means "extension," Genesis 10:26.

5) "Which was the son of Er," (tou Er) "The heir-son of Er," which means "watchful", Exodus 38:3.

Verse 29

1) "Which was the son of Jose," (you lesou) "The heir-son of Joseph," meaning Jesus, Matthew 1:21; Matthew 13:55.

2) "Which was the son of Eliezer," (tou Eliezer) "The heir-son of Eliezer," which means "my God is my help," Abraham’s steward bore the name, Genesis 15:2.

3) "Which was the son of Jorim," (tou lorim) "The heir-son of Jorim," derived from Jehoram which means "Jehovah is high," or exalted.

4) "Which was the son of Matthat," (tou Matthat) "The heir-son of Matthat," another form of the name Matthan, meaning "a gift," Matthew 1:15.

5) "Which was the son of Levi," (tou Levi) "The heir-son of Levi," meaning "an associate."

Verse 30

1) "Which was the son of Simeon," (tou Sumeon) "The heir-son of Simeon," Gk. spelling of the name (Jewish) as all these names are, Shimeon, which means "an hearkening," Ezra 10:31.

2) "Which was the son of Juda," (tou louda) "The heir-son of Juda," same as Judah, of the tribe of Judah, which means "praised," or to be praised, Genesis 29:35.

3) "Which was the son of Joseph," (tou loseph) "The heir-son of Joseph," which name means "he shall add."

4) "Which was the son of Jonan," (tou loanam) "The heir-son of Jonam", Gk. spelling of Johanan which means "Jehovah is gracious," 2 Kings 25:23.

5) "Which was the son of Eliakim," (tou Eliakim) "The heir-son of Eliakim," which name means "whom God establishes or stabilizes," 2 Kings 18:18.

Verse 31

1) "Which was the son of Melea," (tou Melea) "The heir-son of Melea," which means "fulness."

2) "Which was the son of Menan," (tou Menna) "The heir-son of Menna," about whom nothing further is known, except he was in our Lord’s genealogy through Mary’s lineage, back to David and Adam.

3) "Which was the son of Mattha," (tou Mattatha) "The heir-son of Mattatha," Gk. form of the word Mattaniah, meaning "gift of Jehovah," 2 Kings 24:17.

4) "Which was the son of Nathan," (tou Natham) "The heir-son of Nathan," which means "a gift", a prophet of God, 2 Samuel 7:1-29.

5) "Which was the son of David," (tou David) "The heir-son of David," the sweet singer of Israel. The name means "beloved", King of Israel, and son of Jesse.

Verse 32

1) "Which was the son of Jesse," (tou lessai) "The heir-son of Jesse," a name which also means "gift" as used Ruth 4:17.

2) "Which was the son of Obed," (tou lobed) "The heir-son of Jobed," which means "worshipping God," Ruth 4:17.

3) "Which was the son of Booz," (thou Boos) "The heir-son of Boos" same as Boaz which means "fleetness" used Ruth 2:1.

4) "Which was the son of Salmon," (tou Sala) "The heir-son of Sala," which means "shady," as used Psalms 68:14.

5) "Which was the son of Naason," (tou Naason) "The heir-son of Naason) Gk. form of the word Naashon, which means "an enchanter," as found in Exodus 6:23.

Verse 33

1) "Which was the son of Aminadab," (tou Aminadab) "The heir-son of Aminadab," which means "of the prince," derived from the word Aminadab.

2) "Which was the son of Aram," (tou Aram) Which means "height," Genesis 10:22; (tou Admin) "The heir-son of Admin," also known as (tou Arni) "The heir-son of Arni, of whom nothing is further known.

3) "Which was the son of Esrom," (tou Herom) "The heir-son of Hesrom," also called Hezron, Matthew 1:3, which means "an enclosed wall," to be enclosed.

4) "Which was the son of Phares," (tou Phares) "The heir-son of Phares," Gk. form of Pharez which means "a breach," Genesis 38:29; Ruth 4:18.

5) "Which was the son of Juda," (tou louda) "The heir-son of Juda," also spelled Judah, as the son of Jacob who was specially blessed, Genesis 49:10. The name means "praised."

Verse 34

1) "Which was the son of Jacob," (tou lakob) "The heir-son of Jacob," whose name means "a supplanter" or trickster.

2) "Which was the son of Isaac," (tou Isasak) "The heir-son of Isaac," whose name means "laughter."

3) "Which was the son of Abraham," (tou Abraam) "The heir-son of Abraham," which means "a high", or a father, of many nations, or a great multitude. Genesis 12:2; Genesis 17:4-5.

4) "Which was the son of Thara," (tou Thara) "The heir-son of Thara," Gk. form of Terah, which means "a station," Genesis 11:24.

5) "Which was the son of Nachor," (tou Nachor) "The heir-son of Nachor" which means "snorting", or to snort.

Verse 35

1) "Which was the son of Saruch," (tou Serouch) "The heir-son of Seruch," Gk. form of Serug, which means "to shoot," or a "shoot," Genesis 11:20.

2) "Which was the son of Ragau" (tou Rhagau) "The heir-son of Ragau," Gk. form of the name Reu, also same as Raguel and it means "friend of God," Numbers 10:29.

3) "Which was the son of Phalec," (tou Phalek) "The heir-son of Phalek" Gk. form of Peleg, which means "division," Genesis 10:25.

4) "Which was the son of Heber," (tou Heber) "The heir-son of Heber," the same as Eber, which means "the region beyond," Genesis 10:21.

5) "Which was the son of Sala," (tou Sala) "The heir-son of Sala," Gk. form of Salah, which means "a sprout" or "to sprout," Genesis 10:24.

Verse 36

1) "Which was the son of Cainan," (tau Kaianm) "The heir-son of Cainan" meaning "a possessor," Genesis 5:9.

2) "Which was the son of Arphaxad," (tou Arphaksad) "The heir-son of Arphaxad," about which nothing further is known, Genesis 10:22.

3) "Which was the son of Sam," (tou Sem) "The heir-son of Sem," Gk. form of Shem, which means "name" or "monument," Genesis 5:32.

4) "Which was the son of Noe," (tou Noe) "The heir-son of Noah," which means "rest" or "to rest", Genesis 5:29.

5) "Which was the son of Lamech," (tou Lamech) "The heir-son of Lamech" which means "destroyer" a descendant of Cain, Genesis 4:18.

Verse 37

1) "Which was the son of Mathusala," (tou Mathousala) "The heir-son of Mathusala," Gk. form of Methuselah, which means "man of the dart," and Methuselael means "man of God," Genesis 4:18; Genesis 5:21.

2) "Which was the son of Enoch," (tou Henoch) "The heir-son of Henoch," which means "experienced", Genesis 4:17.

3) "Which was the son of Jared," (tou laret) "The heir-son of Jared," which means "descent", Genesis 5:15.

4) "Which was the son of Maleleel," (tau Maleleel) "the heir-son of Maleleel," Gk. form of Mahaleleel, which means "praise of God," Genesis 5:12.

5) "Which was the son of Cainan," (tou Kainan) "The heir-son of Cainan," meaning "possessor", Genesis 5:9.

Verse 38

1) "Which was the son of Enos," (tou Enos) "The heir-son of Enos," which means "man", Genesis 4:26.

2) "Which was the son of Seth," (tou Seth) "The heir-son of Seth," which means "substitute", the son of Adam, after Abel was slain, Genesis 4:23; Genesis 5:3.

3) "Which was the son of Adam," (tou Adam) "The heir-son of Adam," which means "red," Genesis 2:19, called "the first man Adam," meaning the first in order, rank, or priority of mankind in existence, 1 Corinthians 15:45.

4) "Which was the son of God." (tou Theou) "The heir-son of God," the trinitarian "elohim" God, or "theos" God, the self-existing, eternal, living, creating, and sustaining God, Genesis 1:2; John 1:1; 1 Corinthians 8:6.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 3". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. 1985.