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the Week of Proper 11 / Ordinary 16
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Bible Commentaries
Romans 5

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) "Therefore being justified by faith," (dikaiothentes oun ek pisteos) "Therefore, having been justified by (means of) faith," The phrase "being justified" is passive, referring to a present state or condition of being that has already been effected in the believer, a finished work of grace; Isaiah 32:17; Ephesians 2:14.

2) "We have peace with God," (eirene echomen pros ton theon) "We have, hold, or possess, peace with God;" we have reconciliation, restoration to God’s favor, communion with him restored; God’s wrath no longer threatens or endangers the now justified, Romans 1:18; Colossians 1:20, John 14:17.

3) "Through our Lord Jesus Christ," (dia tou kuriou hemon lesou Christou) "Through the person or agency of Jesus Christ, the Lord;" Christ Jesus became both the Peace offering for fallen men and the mediator between fallen men and an Holy offended God. In the former role he paid for man’s sins, to meet the just judgment demand for sin, and in the latter state he is the mediator, the intercessor, to keep peace and harmony between, God the Father and believers, Isaiah 53:5-12; Hebrews 7:25; John 16:33.

Verse 2

1) "By whom also we have access," (di ou kai ten prosagogen eschekamen) "Through whom also we have had access, entrance, or a way in;" the "We" refers to Paul, his missionary helpers, and brethren in the church at Rome, as well as believers now, Romans 10:4; Romans 10:6-7; Romans 10:9-10; Romans 10:17.

2) "By faith into this grace," (te pistei eis ten charin tauten) "By (means, instrument or agency) of faith into the (this) grace," the grace of God, the whole Godhead, Ephesians 2:8-9. Faith in Jesus Christ produces peace, favor and friendship with God, John 1:17; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Romans 3:24.

3) "Wherein we stand," (en he hestekamen) "In which (grace) we stand;" Grace not only saves the soul from hell, when one believes, but also helps one to stand up in friendship and stand out in favor and service for God, Ephesians 2:10; 2 Peter 3:18.

4) "And rejoice in hope of the glory of God," (kai Kauchometha ep’ elpidi) "And boast of our own will (because we will to do it) upon hope (the factual basis of hope) of the glory of God;" gladness and joy are also fruits of the Spirit and by-products of Grace and peace that stand out with hope of the Glory of God, Anchored within "that one" within the veil, in heaven itself; Hebrews 6:18-19; The "glory of God" refers to that eternal state of the redeemed in resurrected joy, love, holiness, and the State of God’s perfected righteousness-- like him! 1 John 3:2; Romans 8:17-18; Romans 8:23-25.

Verse 3

1) "And not only so," (ou monon de) "Not only that;” we do not stop to glory, boast, or rejoice in future glory in his resurrected and holy likeness alone, 2 Corinthians 12:9; Galatians 6:14.

2) "But we glory in tribulations also," (all Kai Kauchometha en thais thlipsesin) "But we also boast of our own accord in afflictions, of tribulation kind;" In the midst of these we can now rejoice, in spite of the burdens, Romans 12:12; 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 7:4.

3) "Knowing that tribulation worketh patience," (eidotes hoti he thlipsis hupomonen katergazetai) "Perceiving or (comprehending divine revelation) that affliction works to or toward patience," to the end of bringing patience to the afflicted or suffering one. Thru it Paul learned in whatever state he was to be content, and even rejoice in the Lord, 1 Thessalonians 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:4; Philippians 4:11.

Verse 4

1) "And patience, experience," (he de hupomone dokimen) "And patience (works) proof, endurance, or evidence;" We are to bear fruit in patience, Luke 8:15; Proof of faith under trial, James 1:12. Possess our souls in patience, Luke 21:19; to minister for God in much patience, 2 Corinthians 6:4; await the coming of Christ in patience, Hebrews 10:36; and run the Christian life with patience, Hebrews 12:1.

2) "And experience hope," (he de dokime elpida) "And proof or evidence (works) hope;" works energetically toward the hope, the Blessed Hope, that one within the veil, (within heaven itself) who is soon to come to consummate in us the righteousness and holiness he has imparted in the new birth and will complete or consummate in the resurrection, at his appearing, Titus 2:11-14; Hebrews 6:19. Our redemption experiences work in us increasing hope the better we serve Him, 2 Timothy 4:7-9.

Verse 5

1) "And hope maketh not ashamed," (he de elpis ou katccischunei) "And the hope does not put (one) to shame;- It has not been weakened or extinguished or put to shame under trial, but confirmed, made stronger, Titus 1:12; Romans 8:17-18; 1 Peter 1:13; Colossians 1:27; 1 Peter 3:15.

2) "Because the love of God is shed abroad," (hoti he agape tou theou ekkechutai) "Because the love of God has been emptied (poured out); "this is the gift of love, one of the three continuing special Spiritual gifts given to believers today. It is to be cultivated, used, 1 Corinthians 13:13; Romans 13:8; Romans 13:10; Galatians 6:2; John 13:34-35.

3) "In our hearts," (en tais kardiais hemon) "In our hearts," our centers of affections. For man is said to love God with his heart, Deuteronomy 6:5; 2 Corinthians 1:22; He has shined in (lighted up) our hearts, our affections, 2 Corinthians 4:6.

4) "By the holy Ghost which is given to us," (dia pneumatos hagiou tou daothentos hemin) "Through the Holy Spirit (which has been) given or doled out to us," because of his grace, through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, not thru any merit of secular or religious work or ceremony, Ephesians 1:13-14; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:19; 2 Corinthians 1:22.

Verse 6

1) "For when we were yet without strength," (ei ge onton hemon asthenon) "Indeed (even) when we were weak or sickly ones;" When we were Spiritually helpless and sinfully living under a quarantine state, of sin, with no entrance rights into heaven, when we were defiled, corrupted, condemned, separated from God, Powerless to save ourselves, to obey, serve, or please God, Psalms 51:5; Isaiah 1:4-6; Isaiah 53:4-12; James 1:15.

2) "In due time," (eti kata kairon) "Yet, according to a predetermined time or period," in "the fullness of time," at the proper, prophecied, or appointed time, Galatians 4:4-5; 1 Timothy 2:6; Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:6; Ephesians 1:10.

3) "Christ died for the ungodly”- (Christos huper asebon apethanen) "Christ died (of his own accord or will) on behalf of us," to ransom or redeem from weakness to strength, from sin or unholiness to righteousness, from hell to heaven. Luke 23:46; Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:7; Matthew 20:28; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; 1 Peter 1:18-23.

This was a substitutionary death, when Christ, suffered for my sins, bare the judgement for my sins in his body (in death) on the tree (the cross)," 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Peter 3:18.

Verse 7

1) "For scarcely for a righteous man," (molis gar huper dikaiou) "For hardly on behalf of a just man," a just person, (one can hardly be persuaded) on behalf of one reputed to be just or upright; Righteousness refers to God’s imputed righteousness to a sinner, for ones faith in Jesus, Romans 4:5-8.

2) "Will one die," (tis apothaneitei) "Will anyone die," or be convicted he should or persuaded to die, so great is each persons selfish "me first," love for himself; The terms just and good man seem to be closely related in usage.

3) "Yet peradventure for a good man," (huper gar tou agathou) "Yet, on behalf of the good (kind of) person;” occasionally, now and then it might happen, as an exceptional case, on behalf of one known well to be morally good and full of goodness to others, as a rare case, Luke 23:50-53.

4) "Some would even dare to die," (tacha tis kai tolma apothanein) "Perhaps some even dare (risk) to die;" some would venture truly risk their lives to die for the just or good person-one of good reputation and character to find such a person would be rare, is the idea. Jonathan dared to die for his love for David, but Peter would not do so at the night-trial of our Lord, 1 Samuel 18:8-9; 1 Samuel 18:11; 1 Samuel 19:1-3; 1 Samuel 20:13; 1 Samuel 20:30-34; 1 Samuel 20:42; Mark 14:66-72.

Verse 8

1) "But God commendeth his love toward us," (sunistesin de ten heauton agapen eis hemas ho theos) "But God commends his (own) love to us all;" God establishes, proves, demonstrates, or makes known his own love to or toward us all, John 3:16; Galatians 4:4-5; Matthew 3:17; Ro 6;23.

2) "In that while we were yet sinners," (hoti eti hamartolon onton) "That while we yet existed as sinners," while we were yet in our rebellion, with no turn or inclination toward repentance, dead in trespasses and in sin, Romans 2:14; Ephesians 2:1-3; While we were sinners, as in opposition to doing righteous or good, Romans 3:10; Romans 3:20.

3) "Christ died for us," (hemon Christos huper hemon apethanen) "Christ died of his own accord or will on our behalf" Isaiah 53:6-12; John 10:17-18. Deliberately, willingly Jesus died of his own accord for our sins, Luke 23:46; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; Titus 2:13-14.

Verse 9

1) "Much more then," (pollo oun mallon) "By much more therefore;" Since the work of redemption has been finished thru his death, Romans 3:20-28.

2) "Being now justified by his blood," (dikaiothentes nun en to haimati autou) "Now (and forever hereafter) having been justified (acquitted) in or by his blood;” Romans 3:24-25; Romans 3:28; Revelation 5:9; the term "being justified" is a passive verb and expresses a present state of condition of being of the believer, the righteous person --not a progressive active verb or participle that would reflect an unfinished or uncertain outcome of adjudication, John 5:24.

3) "We shall be saved," (sothesometha) "We shall be saved or (delivered)," not we may, might, or have a good chance of being saved on condition of-our good works or righteousness, See Ephesians 2:8-10; Romans 11:6; Titus 3:5-6; 1 John 3:1-3; John 10:27-29.

4) "From wrath through him," (di’ autou apo tes orges) "From wrath through him," away from, separated from wrath to come through Him, Jesus Christ, thru faith in Him, not thru baptism, church membership, morality, or good works; Romans 1:18; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-10.

Verse 10

1) "For if when we were enemies," (ei gar echthroi ontes) "For if when we existed as enemies," objects of Divine hostility, rebels against, and under the condemnation of God’s wrath, every day and every hour, Psalms 7:11-13; Romans 1:18; John 3:18; John 3:36; 1 Thessalonians 1:10.

2) "We were reconciled to God," (katellaglmen to theo) "We were reconciled (restored to favor) to God;” restored to favor, fellowship and communion with God, from whom we were separated by sin and enmity, Isaiah 59:1-2; Romans 8:7; 2 Corinthians 5:17-18.

3) "By the death of his Son," (dia tou thanatou tou huiou auton) "Thru the death of his Son," God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, Romans 3:24-25; 2 Corinthians 5:19.

4) "Much more being reconciled," (pollo mallon katalagentes) "Much more, having been reconciled" or already having been restored to God’s favor; The term "being reconciled," is present passive, referring to a present state, condition, or relationship of favor with God; Isaiah 53:11; in harmony and at peace with God, Colossians 1:20-21.

5) "We shall be saved," (sothesometha) "We shall be saved," or delivered --This refers to the saving or salvaging of ones influence, testimony and service thru an obedient life, a life patterned after Jesus Christ, Mark 8:34-36; Romans 6:4; Philippians 2:12-13.

6) "By his life," (en te zoe autou) "in or by the life of him," in or by His life; He ever lives to make intercession for us, Hebrews 7:25; Galatians 2:20; Colossians 3:3-4.

Verse 11

1) "And not only so," (ou monon de) "And not only that," or not that alone, there is more to reconciliation to and with an offended God; peace and joy abide with us, John 14:27.

2) "But we also joy in God," (alla kai Kauchomenoi en to theo) "But are also boasting (of our own will or accord) in God," we speak out, witness, testify of him, out of sheer joy and gratitude for being his, John 16:33.

3) "Through our Lord Jesus Christ," (dia tou kuriou hemon lesou Christou) "Through our Lord Jesus Christ;" He reconciled us to God by the death of his cross-body, so that we might have sin pardoned, enmity, removed, favor restored, peace given, and make joy abound in us toward God, Ephesians 2:14-16; Colossians 3:15; Ephesians 2:18.

4) "By whom we have now received the atonement," (di’ ou nun ten katallagen elabomen) "Through whom we have now (and without end) received reconciliation or restoration to God’s favor," the atonement applied on behalf of our sins, Romans 3:24-25; Romans 4:16; 2 Corinthians 5:17-20. And to the obedient believers, the saved, baptized assembly or church, has been committed the ministry of reconciliation, telling the world how that the lost may be found, the condemned may be justified, the, perishing sinner may be saved, John 20:21; 2 Corinthians 5:18.

Verse 12


1) "Wherefore as by one man " (dia touto hosper di’ henos anthropon) "Therefore just as through one man;" Adam the head of the human race, through which channel sin began to flow in the blood stream of humanity, Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:3.

2) "Sin entered into the world," (he hamartia eis ton kosmon eiselthen) "The sin entered into the world, created universe;" When Adam by premeditation and intent aforethought disobeyed God, sin entered into the man-world or world of Man; Romans 5:19. This one man’s sin made the many (masses) sinners.

3) "And death by sin," (kai dia tes hamartias ho thanatos) "And death (entered) through the sin," of one man. There could be no infant mortality; no infant would die if there were no sin in his being, Romans 5:17-19; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22; Romans 6:23. Death is the wages of sin.

4) "And so death passed upon all men," (kai houtos eis pantos anthropous ho thanatos dielthen) "So also the universal death principle passed into all men;" After Adam’s sin every child conceived, begotten, or born into the human race inherited the germ of physical and spiritual death from conception, Psalms 51:5; Psalms 58:3; James 1:15; Romans 3:23.

5) "For that all have sinned," (eph’ ho pantes hemarton) "Inasmuch as all sinned;" all in human history had sinned, 1 Kings 8:46; Ecclesiastes 7:20; All not only have sinned but all are also sinners by nature, with the contagious, incurable, sin-germ of death in the body, bringing on judicially appointed death, James 1:15; Hebrews 9:27.

Verse 13

1) "For until the law," (Achri gar nomou) "For up until (prior to) the law;" even up until the giving of the law --sin existed, evidenced by the deeds of Wrong that men did, by the presence of recurring death, and by the conscience of doers of wrong to wit. Adam, Jacob, Joseph’s brethren.

2) "Sin was in the world," (hamartia ’en en kosmo) "Sin existed in the world;" and it had been since Adam’s sin for 2,500 years. It had been evident by the presence of death, a finished product in the depraved human body, James 1:1-27; Hebrews 9:27. And by the practice of men.

3) "But sin is not imputed," (hamartia de ouk ellogeitai) "But sin is not reckoned, accounted, or computed," held against one with so severe judgment, Romans 4:15; 1 John 3:4.

4) "When there is no law," (me ontos nomou) "When no law exists;" Still the principle of righteousness, a universal law principle did exist to indict the conscience of man regarding right and wrong, as witnessed by word of mouth from others, by practice of wrong before their eyes, and by their conscience, the Divine monitor of the soul of every man, Romans 2:14-15. The principles embodied in the ten commandments seem to be indelibly imprinted on the consciences of all responsible men.

Verse 14

1) "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses," (alla ebasileusen ho thanatos apo Adam mechri Mouseos) "But death reigned from Adam to Moses;" Death, held jurisdiction over all men from the period of Adam’s transgression to Moses law, evidenced in his and their death, as welI as deeds of sin, Genesis 2:17; Ecclesiastes 9:5.

2) "Even over them that had not sinned," (kai epi tous me hamartesantas) "Even over those not having sinned;” From Adam to Moses each man’s life concluded "and he died;" Death is the fruit, not of sin-deeds, but of the inherent sin nature, since Adam. Adam’s death came from the act of his Disobedience; all deaths since then have come because of the sin nature’s weakness inherited, James 1:15.

3) "After the similitude of Adams transgression," (epi to homoiomati tes parabaseos Adam) "After the likeness (similarity) of Adam’s transgression;" according to Adam’s voluntary disobedience to God in partaking of the forbidden fruit. The sin-fruit nature of Adam appeared in all his offspring and incited all to sin, even before the Law. Romans 6:23.

4) "Who is the figure of him that was to come," (hos estin tupos tou mellontos) "Who exists as a type of the one coming;- And How was Adam a figure or type of Christ? The answer is, "Death came to each because of transgression, Adam’s death because of his own voluntary transgression, and the death of Christ was voluntary for all men, because of Adam’s voluntary transgression, and its effect in causing sin nature and sin deeds in all men, John 10:17-18; Titus 2:11-14; Hebrews 2:9; 2 Corinthians 5:14; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 15:55-56. Note - in the latter verses that death is the "sting of sin," so that sin finished or mature in the fallen nature of all (even infants) produces death. If one could get rid of sin he could get rid of natural death –James 1:15; Hebrews 9:27.

Verse 15

1) "But not as the offence," (all’ ouch hos to paraptoma) "But not as the offence;" Every person born inherits the sin and death nature of his parents as a fruit of Adam’s sin, but one does not inherit Salvation as the result of a foreparent’s Salvation, John 1:11-12; Acts 10:43; Romans 14:11-12.

2) "So also is the free gift," (houtos kai to charisma) "So also (even) the Charismatic (free) gift;" The free gift of Salvation from sin is available to all without partiality, but it is not inherited, nor may it be received by works, John 3:16; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 2:8-9.

3) "For if through the offence of one," (ei gar to tou henos paraptomati) "For if by the offence of one person," by the offence of Adam, who offended God, disobeyed God, stirred the enmity and wrath of God, Romans 1:18; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22.

4) "Many be dead," (hoi polloi apethanon) "the many (Masses) died; Ecclesiastes 9:5; Romans 5:12; 1 Corinthians 15:22; 1 Corinthians 15:56. The masses of living human beings "be" or exist in a death state, See? James 1:15; 1 Corinthians 15:55-56.

5) "Much more the grace of God," (polio mallon he Charis tou theou) "By much more the grace of God;" The grace of God universally covers man’s need for release from sins’ consequences, but man must personally receive that grace to be saved from Spiritual death by it, Titus 2:11.

6) "And the gift by grace," (kai he dorea en Chariti) "And the gift in (by) grace;" 2 Corinthians 8:9; Ephesians 2:8-9; Romans 11:6.

7) "Which is by one man, Jesus Christ," (te tou henos anthropou lesou Christou) "Which (exists) of the one man, Jesus Christ;" Grace, the unmerited favor of God to Salvation, came by and in Jesus Christ, John 1:17; Romans 3:24.

8) "Hath abounded unto many," (eis tous pollous eperisseusen) "Abounded toward the masses;" to the many, or the masses, Titus 2:11; Ephesians 2:7; 2 Peter 3:18.

Verse 16

1) "And not as it was by one that sinned," (kai ouch hos di’ henos hamartesantos) "And not as through one (man) sinning;" that sin passed (and its nature) by one man’ through his sin, into the inherent nature of his offspring, Romans 5:12. The "not" indicates that the "similarity" of Romans 5:14, does not mean that the gift of Salvation by Christ is passed by inheritance.

2) "So is the gift," (to dorema) "So exists the gift;” the gift of God’s righteousness is passed, offered, made available to all men, but not by inheritance or natural birth. This is to emphasize that Salvation is of a gift, not an inheritance, John 3:3; John 3:6; John 3:16; Ephesians 2:8-9.

3) "For the judgment was by one to condemnation," (to men gar krima eks henos eis katakrima) "For the judgment of the one, (offence) on the one hand, is of condemnation;" That is the offence (transgression) of Adam was to condemnation or judgment that caused it to affect every human by natural birth, Ephesians 2:1-3.

4) "But the free gift is of many, offences," (to de Charisma ek pollon paraptomaton) "On the other hand the free gift is out of many offences;" Sin of Adam that caused the fall of humanity was one, but sins that caused redemption were many, involving --all offences of all men of all times, Isaiah 53:6; Isaiah 2:14.

5) "Unto justification," (eis dikaioma) "Unto acquittal or justification," to liberation, even release from the condemnation, Acts 13:38-39. This justification by faith in Christ is from all things that offend God.

Verse 17

1) "For if by one man’s offence," (ei gar to tou henos paraptomata) "For if by (or in) the offence of the one (Adam); This one offence of the one man was the one man (Adam), who, by knowledge of God’s holy law, Voluntarily, knowingly disobeyed it, Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:6-7.

2) "Death reigned by one," (ho thanatos ebasileusen dia) the one (Adam)," and it did, Romans 5:12; Romans 5:14. Death had Jurisdiction over all men as a primary cause of one man (Adam’s) Sin; This is "a case made out," incontestably evident in the Scriptures, 1 Corinthians 15:22.

3) "Much more they which receive abundance of Grace," (polio mallon hoi ten perisseian tes charitos lambanontes) "Much more those who receive abundance of grace;" Romans 5:15; Romans 5:20-21. It is also sufficient, 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 12:9, sufficient for every need, exceeding riches in his grace, Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 4:7.

4) "And of the gift of righteousness," (kai tes doreas tes dikaiosunes) "And (receiving) the gift of righteousness," imparted in remission of sins to every believer in Jesus Christ, Acts 10:43; 1 Corinthians 1:30; Romans 3:21-22; 2 Corinthians 5:21.

5) "Shall reign in life," (en zoe basileusousin) "Will reign in life," will have jurisdiction or predominance in life, the way one lives. The righteous in heart should show it in the way they live, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20; 1 Corinthians 9:26-27; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Romans 12:1-2; Ephesians 5:15; Galatians 5:25.

6) "By one, Jesus Christ," (dia tou henos lesou Christou) "Through the one (man, second Adam), Jesus Christ;" it is through him men are saved and by his life and example they are to live, John 6:37; John 14:6; Mark 8:34-37; Luke 9:23; Romans 8:11; Romans 8:17-18.

Verse 18

1) "Therefore as by the offence of one," (ara oun hos di’ henos paraptomatos) "So therefore as through the offence of the one," the offence of Adam; The conclusion of the relationship of Adam’s sin, and its consequences on the human race, and the subsequent Divine provision for its pardon is now introduced.

2) "Judgment came upon all men to condemnation," (eis pantas anthropous eis katakrima) "Judgment came) to or toward all men (human beings) unto condemnation," unto both physical and Spiritual death, Ecclesiastes 9:5; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Hebrews 9:27; John 3:3; John 3:16; John 3:6; Ephesians 2:1-3; Hebrews 2:9; John 3:18.

3) "Even so by the righteousness of one," (houtos kai di’ henos dikaiomatos) "Thus also on account of the righteous act," the death of Christ, inclusive of his burial, and resurrection for sin, Isaiah 53:4-12; 1 Corinthians 15:14; Ephesians 1:7.

4) "The free gift came upon all men," (eis pantas anthropous) "(the free gift came) to all men," came to availability, to be available to all men, John 3:6; Romans 3:8-13; Titus 2:11-14.

5) "Unto justification of life," (eis dikaiosin zoes), "Unto, (with provision for) justification of life," to acquit the one condemned to Spiritual death and impart to him Spiritual life, eternal life, John 5:24; John 10:27-29; 1 John 5:1; 1 John 5:13; Romans 3:24; Romans 3:28.

Verse 19

1) "For as by one man’s disobedience," (hosper gar dia tes parakoes tou henos anthropou) "For just as through disobedience of the one man (Adam)," as previously related in this chapter and affirmed, Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:5-6; 1 Corinthians 15:22; 1 Corinthians 15:55-56.

2) "Many were made sinners," (hamartoloi katestathesan hois polloi) "The masses were made (caused) to be sinners;" This does not say "they made themselves to be sinners," by the practice of one or many sins. It simply affirms that by Adam’s one primary act of disobedience to God in Eden the masses of his offspring (all) by natural birth were caused to be sinners, Romans 5:12; Romans 5:14-15; Romans 5:17; Psalms 51:5; Psalms 58:3; James 1:15; 1 Corinthians 15:56.

3) "So by the obedience of one," (houtos kai dia tes hupakoes tou henos) "Even so through the obedience of the one (man, Jesus Christ);- through perfect obedience to the will of the Father, Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 1:9; He finished the work God gave him to do, John 17:4; John 19:30.

4) "Shall many be made righteous," (dikaioi hoi polloi katastathesota) "Will the many be made righteous," or constituted, cause to stand justified before God, Jeremiah 23:5-6; Acts 13:39.

Verse 20

1) "Moreover the law entered," (nomos de pareiselthen) "But law entered;" the Mosaic law entered human history, by Divine Will, to measure how bad sin was, before an holy God, Exodus 20:1-17; Galatians 3:19-25; John 1:17.

2) "That the offence might abound," (hina pleonase to paraptoma) "In order that the offence might abound," that the contagious, incurable, heaven-quarantining disease might be described, better identified, be made to appear obnoxious, putrefying, Isaiah 1:4-7; Isaiah 1:18; Romans 3:20; Galatians 3:19; Galatians 3:22; Galatians 3:24; Revelation 21:27.

3) "But where sin abounded," (hou de epleonasen he hamartia) "But where the sin abounded," stood out on the horizon, on the surface in clear view for the offence that it was to God, 1 Kings 8:46; Ecclesiastes 7:20; Romans 3:20; Romans 3:23; Romans 6:23.

4) "Grace did much more abound," (hupereperisseusen) he charis) "Grace abounded even more;" Sin conquered man, but grace conquers sin. One may therefore rightly conclude that grace is greater than sin, greater in power, and greater in moral, ethical, and Spiritual value and worth, Ephesians 1:7-8; 1 Timothy 1:14; Titus 3:3-7.

Verse 21

1) "That as sin hath reigned unto death," hina hosper ebasileusen he hamartia en to thanato) "In order that just as sin reigned, had jurisdiction to or toward death," working toward death both physical and Spiritual, for sin "finished bringeth forth death," Romans 6:21; James 1:15, and sin is death matured in every dead body, 1 Corinthians 15:55-56; Ephesians 2:1-3.

2) "Even so might grace reign through righteousness," (houtos kai he charis Basileuse dia dikaiosunes) "Even so (that) grace might reign or have jurisdiction through righteousness," with as wide a sway and sovereign (Divine) power, in harmony with justice, bestowing through faith in Christ, the righteousness of God on every transgressor or sinner, Romans 4:4-6; Romans 4:16; 2Co 5- 21.

3) "Unto eternal life," (eis zoen aionion) "Into life eternal;" First, a believer in Jesus receives eternal life of the soul when he believes, or is born again, John 3:16; John 10:27-28; 1 John 5:1; 1 John 5:13; and Second, one receives eternal life of the body in the resurrection, after death. This is the eternal life of hope for which believers wait, Romans 8:11; Romans 8:23; Ephesians 1:14; Ephesians 4:30; Titus 1:2.

4) "By Jesus Christ our Lord," (dia lesou Christou tou kuriou hemon) "Through Jesus Christ our Lord;" The end or full purpose and promise of Grace involves not only the salvation of the soul but also the body of all believers and the restitution of all things to the Father, as foretold by the prophets, John 1:17; Acts 3:21; Romans 8:19-23; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Romans 5". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/romans-5.html. 1985.
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