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Chapter 14:1-5 describes those present at the time of the division of the land west of Jordan among the nine and one-half tribes. The instructions for dividing the land had been given by Moses in Num_33:50-56 . Notice, they were to cast lots, with some special consideration so that the larger tribes received more and the smaller tribes less land. God could work in the casting of lots as Pro_16:33 says. Joshua notes that Levi received no land inheritance. Jacob adopted Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which gave Joseph the double portion of birthright and made 12 tribes to receive the land ( Gen_48:1-22 ).
Before the distribution of the land had gone too far, it was appropriate for Caleb to come to Joshua and remind him of the promise God had made ( Num_14:21-24 ; Deu_1:35-36 ). Caleb says he was forty years old when he helped spy out the land. The powerful influence of faithless leaders can be seen in their ability to make the hearts of the people to melt. In contrast, the man who "wholly followed the Lord" was rewarded ( Heb_11:6 ; Heb_6:10 ).
We know Israel wandered thirty-eight more years in the wilderness before she came again to the promised land, so Caleb's report of forty-five years passing tells us the conquest of Canaan had taken seven years to that time ( Deu_2:14-15 ).
Great men of God, like Caleb, rely upon God to give them the strength to complete their task (compare 1Sa_17:37 ; 1Sa_17:45-47 ; 2Ti_4:16-18 ). Notice, Caleb knew he had lived to be eighty-five because of God's blessing ( Jos_14:10 ). He even yet knew that he could only accomplish conquest if the Lord was with him ( Jos_14:12 ; Jam_4:13-15 ; Rom_8:31 ; Php_4:13 ; Heb_13:5-6 ). Caleb had told the children of Israel that they could conquer the land and, with the help of God, he and his son-in-law, Othniel, did just that despite the fact that they faced the strongest of the giants who lived in Canaan ( Jos_14:13-15 ; Jos_15:13-19 ).
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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Joshua 14". "Hampton's Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent