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Bible Commentaries

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Matthew 20

Verses 1-16

The Testimony of Scripture Regarding Man’s Eschatological Hope Theme - The testimony of Scripture regarding man’s eschatological hope declares that God accepts man’s faith and obedience to Him from the heart rather than through his own efforts of good works. Salvation comes by God’s grace through man’s faith in Him. Perhaps the testimony of the Scriptures is offered first among the other testimonies of Jesus, John the Baptist, His miracles, and God the Father because the Scriptures offer the strongest testimony in this area of man’s redemption. This passage of Scripture is found within narrative material (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) that immediately precedes the Escatalogical Discourse (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46). Since the five-discourse outline of the Gospel of Matthew reflects a common theme between the narrative material and the discourse that follows, this narrative passage in the fifth narrative section has an escatalogical emphasis as well the Olivet discourse that follows. Therfore, the rich young ruler’s question of what he must do to inherit eternal life is an escatalogical question. Jesus’ answer at the end of this passage is therefore cast in an escatalogical manner when He says, “So the last shall be first, and the first last.” (Matthew 20:16)

Structure The story of the Pharisees with their question on divorce is placed beside the story of Jesus blessing the children in order to contrast man’s efforts to obtain eternal life with the simplicity of entrusting oneself into God’ grace. The Pharisees knew the Scriptures well; yet they trusted in their own good works for a right standing before God. For this reason, they refused to come to Jesus, whom the Scriptures declared to be the Messiah and Son of God (Matthew 19:3-40.19.12). In contrast, the small children came to Jesus with little or no knowledge of the Scripture, entrusting themselves into His love and care in order to receive divine blessings (Matthew 19:13-40.19.15). A second contrast is made between the story of the rich young ruler and the disciple’s inquiry about forsaking all to follow Him. The rich young ruler was unable to fulfill the Law of Moses in that he could not relinquish his trust in earthly riches (Matthew 19:16-40.19.26), while the disciples forsook all to follow Jesus, entirely entrusting themselves unto Him (Matthew 19:27-40.19.30). Jesus concludes these two sets of lessons with the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard to explain how eternal rewards are not based upon the knowledge of the Law or upon good works, but solely upon divine grace being poure forth to those who in genuine faith entrust themselves into God’s tender care (Matthew 20:1-40.20.16).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Trusting in the Knowledge of the Scriptures Matthew 19:3-40.19.15

2. Trusting in Earthly Riches Matthew 19:16-40.19.30

3. The Parable of Workers in the Vineyard Matthew 20:1-40.20.16

Matthew 19:3-40.19.15 Trusting in the Knowledge of the Scriptures to Receive Eternal Life (Mark 10:1-41.10.12 ) Matthew 19:3-40.19.15 Jesus reveals that eternal life does not come through the head knowledge of the Scriptures, but through simple faith in Jesus Christ, of whom the Scriptures testify to be the Son of God.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Pharisees on the Law Matthew 19:3-40.19.9

2. The Inquiry of the Disciples Matthew 19:10-40.19.12

3. Example of Those Entering the Kingdom Matthew 19:13-40.19.15

The Scriptural Teaching on Marriage and Divorce - The focus of Matthew 19:3-40.19.12 is Jesus’ teaching on marriage and divorce in the Kingdom of Heaven. In this passage Jesus gives to us God’s commandments on marriage from three difference ages of mankind. Jesus addresses God’s commandments before the Mosaic Law (Matthew 19:3-40.19.6), then His commandments during the dispensation of the Law (Matthew 19:7-40.19.8) and finally God’s commandment during the dispensation of the Church (Matthew 19:9-40.19.12).

The Transition of Themes Reflected in the Teaching on Marriage in the Kingdom of Heaven While the fourth narrative section placed emphasis upon perseverance in God’sWord, the fifth narrative section emphasizes eschatology. Matthew 19:3-40.19.12 serves as a transitional passage in that Jesus explains the need to follow God’s original laws even in regards to the institution of marriage and not be offended by His Word in order to partake of the Kingdom of Heaven. [508]

[508] Christopher Smith says, “The first narrative episode after a discourse often serves both to recapitulate its theme and to introduce a new one.” Christopher R. Smith, “Literary Evidences of a Five-Fold Structure in the Gospel of Matthew,” in New Testament Studies 43 (1997): 549-550.

Matthew 19:3-40.19.9 The Pharisees on the Law In Matthew 19:3-40.19.9 the Pharisees came to Jesus to ask Him which interpretation of the Law regarding the institution of marriage has God’s blessings. Jesus explains God’s original purpose and plan for marriage, which takes priority over the Law. While the Pharisees sought God’s blessings through the Law, the children will gather around Jesus in Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 and receive His blessings on an entirely different base, that of divine mercy and grace. While the Pharisees based their right standing before God upon adherence to the Law, the children sought the priviledge to stand before Jesus based upon His love for them.

Matthew 19:3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?

Matthew 19:3 Comments Grant Osborne says there were two predominant schools of Jewish thought during the first century, the school of Shammai which developed first, and the school of Hillel, which came later and held a dominant role in Jewish society during the time of Jesus. He explains that the school of Shammai interpreted Deuteronomy 24:1 to mean that a man could only divorce his wife because of adultery, while the school of Hillel taught that a man could divorce for any reason. [509] The Pharisees knew the arguments over this issue, but they wanted to hear what Jesus said in order to find fault with Him.

[509] Grant R. Osborne, Matthew, in Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, ed. Clinton E. Arnold (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010), 703.

Deuteronomy 24:1, “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

With the context of this ongoing debate on the Law regarding marriage and divorce, the Pharisees were essentially saying to Jesus, “We are experts in the Law; and we are not sure how to interpret its view on marriage and divorce. Let us see how well you handle this issue.”

Matthew 19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female,

Matthew 19:4 “Have ye not read” Comments - Jesus is saying, “You’ve read, but you have not read.” In other words, the Pharisees may have read the Scriptures, but they had missed the “spirit” God’s Word. Jesus used this approach on an earlier occasion with the Pharisees when discussing Jewish tradition and the Scriptures.

Matthew 12:3, “But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him;”

Matthew 12:5, “Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?”

Matthew 19:4 that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female Comments The phrase “made them male and female” is found verbatim in Genesis 1:27; Genesis 5:2 in the LXX.

Genesis 1:27, “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.”

Genesis 5:2, “Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.”

Matthew 19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?

Matthew 19:5 Comments Matthew 19:5 is a close, but not exact, citation of Genesis 2:24 in the LXX, “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.”

Matthew 19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.

Matthew 19:6 “What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” Comments - A better reading says, “What God has joined together, man cannot divide.” Jesus refers back to God’s original plan for the institution of marriage. When a man and a woman join in holy matrimony, they become one flesh in God’s eyes. Although the couple may not live happily together and decide to divorce, this does not disannul God’s view that these two people are one flesh. Man’s legal decrees cannot disannul God’s Word, which declares the couple as one flesh. Therefore, Jesus will explain how a second marriage is an adulterous affair in God’s eyes (Matthew 19:8-40.19.9).

Illustration - We see how strong this sentence can be translated by looking at examples in Scripture. When Matthew wrote his Gospel, God still referred to Bathsheba as the wife of Uriah. Thus, Matthew wrote, “And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her (that had been the wife) of Urias;” (Matthew 1:6) The Greek text literally reads, “David the king begat Solomon of her of Urias.” The phrase “that had been the wife” was added later by translators.

This is why Jesus can say in verse 9 that whoever marries someone from a divorce that God had not honored commits adultery. Someone can only commit adultery with another man’s wife, but not with his own wife. If a marriage is not annulled by adultery or widowhood, then God does not recognize the divorce, and thus, further marriages by these partners become adultery.

Because David repented of his sin, God was able to sanctify his marriage with Bathsheba. It is important for married couples to repent of their sins if they have wrongly entered into unscriptural marriages, so that God’s blessings may be found.

In contrast, we see Herod taking his brother’s wife and being rebuked by John the Baptist, who states that this was an evil act. Herod was unrepentant.

Matthew 14:3-40.14.4, “For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.”

Matthew 19:4-40.19.6 Comments Original Purpose and Intent of the Institution of Marriage When the Pharisees asked Jesus to state His opinion on the current controversy over divorce and remarriage under the Mosaic Law, He went to the book of Genesis and explained the original purpose and intent of the institution of marriage.

Matthew 19:7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?

Matthew 19:7 Comments The Pharisees quote Deuteronomy 24:1 from the Mosaic Law, which allowed a man to divorce his wife. Because the Pharisees depended upon the Law for their right standing with God and for their salvation, they had a great amount of knowledge regarding its statutes. The Pharisees discussed at length among themselves the various interpretations of marriage and divorce under the Law.

Deuteronomy 24:1, “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

Matthew 19:8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.

Matthew 19:8 Comments In Matthew 19:8 Jesus explains the purpose of the Deuteronomy 24:1, which was to give some measure of boundaries to the carnal mind in hopes of pointing an individual to his own need of redemption in Christ Jesus; for no man was able to fulfill the entirety of the Law as will be demonstrated in the passage that follows with the rich young ruler.

Matthew 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.

Matthew 19:9 Word Study on “fornication” - Vine defines “fornication” as “unlawful, illicit sexual intercourse.”

Matthew 19:9 “And I say unto you Variations of the phrase “but I say unto you” are employed fourteen times in the Sermon on the Mount, six of those times immediately after quoting an Old Testament passage of Jewish regulation, as Jesus does in Matthew 19:9.

Jesus has just quoted from the book of Genesis when explaining God’s original purpose and intent of marriage (Matthew 19:4-40.19.6). He then explains how the Law allowed divorce because of the hardness of men’s hearts (Matthew 19:8). Jesus now says, “And I say unto you” as a way of reconciling these two passages of Old Testament Scripture and establishing the rules for the Kingdom of Heaven. He will then explain to His disciples that these rules will not be obeyed by everyone, only those whose hearts are able to accept them (Matthew 19:10-40.19.12).

Matthew 19:9 Comments In Matthew 19:9 Jesus explains the application of Genesis 1:27; Genesis 2:24; Genesis 5:2 to the child of God. Because man and woman are one flesh in the eyes of God, a divorce made by man does not disannul God’s Word. God still sees this man and woman as one flesh, even when they enter into second marriages for reasons other than the death of a spouse or adultery on the part of a spouse. Therefore, such remarriages without biblical grounds constitute a state of adultery in God’s eyes.

God gave the institution of marriage to Adam and Eve before the Fall as individuals who had not yet committed disobedience. Therefore, the original purpose and intent of Genesis 1:27 still applies under the new covenant instituted by Jesus Christ, since the new covenant is God’s means of restoring mankind back to fellowship with Him and human immortality that existed in the beginning. In contrast, Deuteronomy 24:1 applies to the carnal man, both Jews and Gentiles, who is sinful by nature.

Matthew 19:10-40.19.12 The Inquiry of the Disciples In Matthew 19:10-40.19.12 the disciples inquire from Jesus about His dialogue with the Pharisees on marriage and divorce. The disciples had left all to follow Jesus so that those who were single became “eunuchs” for the Kingdom of Heaven, while Peter honored his existing marriage.

Matthew 19:10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry.

Matthew 19:10 Comments The disciples respond by saying if the case of the man is such that he has put away his wife for other than reasons of fornication, then it is not good for him to remarry.

Matthew 19:11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given.

Matthew 19:11 “to whom it is given” Comments - What is given? The word “it” refers to the saying that was given. Not everyone will follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. Most men will follow the ways of the world.

Matthew 19:11 Comments Jesus could have simply said, “Yes, it is not good to marry after putting away a wife for any reason.” However, because God allows man the free will to choose whether to obey Him or not, Jesus explains that only certain men will be willing to follow this rule. Because of the hardness of men’s hearts, many will divorce their wives for reasons other than adultery.

Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 Example of Those Entering the Kingdom (Mark 10:13-41.10.16 , Luke 18:15-42.18.17 ) In Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 Jesus teaches us about the role of child-like faith in the Kingdom of Heaven using children as an example a humble and pure heart, a heart that characterizes those who seek the Kingdom of Heaven. Within the context of this narrative passage, this pericope follows after a teaching dealing with the hardness of men’s hearts in regards to the divine institution of marriage. In contrast to the hardness of heart of the Jewish leaders, children offer themselves to God in a humble and pure heart, a heart that characterizes those who seek the Kingdom of Heaven. While adults come to God believing they must offer good works in order to be received by Him, children come to God entirely dependent upon His grace. In contrast to the Pharisees who were very educated in the Scriptures, the child came to Jesus unhindered in simple faith and devotion.

Matthew 19:13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.

Matthew 19:13 Comments Matthew 19:13 begins with the Greek τότε is an adverb of time and means, “at that time,” or “that which follows in time…then, thereupon.” ( BDAG) This adverb places two events together, the questioning by the Pharsiees (Matthew 19:3-40.19.12) and the gathering of the children (Matthew 19:13-40.19.15). By using τότε , Matthew is able to contrast two opposing characters in the development of the narrative plot to explain the qualifications for eternal life, the hard-hearted Pharisees and the pure-hearted children.

While the Pharisees depended upon their good works under the Law to establish their right standing with God, the children had nothing to offer God as recipents of His blessings but their simple faith and trust in His willingness to bless them. In contrast to the educated Pharisees, the children had very little understanding of the Law; but their conscience was pure.

Matthew 19:14 But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 19:14 Comments - The question is sometimes asked, “When children die, do they go to heaven or hell?” Matthew 19:14 gives the clearest answer of any passage in the Scriptures on this subject when Jesus tells us that the Kingdom of Heaven is opened to little children.

Matthew 19:15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence.

Matthew 19:15 Comments The parallel account in Mark’s Gospel says Jesus picked up the children and blessed them (Mark 10:16). The doctrine of the laying on of hands is one of the six foundational doctrines of the New Testament Church (Hebrews 6:1-58.6.2). This doctrine has its roots in the Old Testament. For example, Jacob (Israel) laid hands upon the sons of Joseph and pronounced a blessing upon them (Genesis 48:14; Genesis 48:17-1.48.18). Moses ordained Joshua through the laying on of hands (Numbers 27:18) so that he was filled with the Spirit of God (Deuteronomy 34:9). Some of the Old Testament sacrifices were presented to God through the laying on of hands (Exodus 29:10; Leviticus 1:4). Under the new covenant, the believers were filled with the Holy Spirit through the laying on of hands (Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6). Believers were also set apart and ordained through the laying on of hands (Acts 6:6; Acts 13:1-44.13.3, 1 Timothy 4:14, 2 Timothy 1:6).

Verses 1-16

The Testimony of Scripture Regarding Man’s Eschatological Hope Theme - The testimony of Scripture regarding man’s eschatological hope declares that God accepts man’s faith and obedience to Him from the heart rather than through his own efforts of good works. Salvation comes by God’s grace through man’s faith in Him. Perhaps the testimony of the Scriptures is offered first among the other testimonies of Jesus, John the Baptist, His miracles, and God the Father because the Scriptures offer the strongest testimony in this area of man’s redemption. This passage of Scripture is found within narrative material (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) that immediately precedes the Escatalogical Discourse (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46). Since the five-discourse outline of the Gospel of Matthew reflects a common theme between the narrative material and the discourse that follows, this narrative passage in the fifth narrative section has an escatalogical emphasis as well the Olivet discourse that follows. Therfore, the rich young ruler’s question of what he must do to inherit eternal life is an escatalogical question. Jesus’ answer at the end of this passage is therefore cast in an escatalogical manner when He says, “So the last shall be first, and the first last.” (Matthew 20:16)

Structure The story of the Pharisees with their question on divorce is placed beside the story of Jesus blessing the children in order to contrast man’s efforts to obtain eternal life with the simplicity of entrusting oneself into God’ grace. The Pharisees knew the Scriptures well; yet they trusted in their own good works for a right standing before God. For this reason, they refused to come to Jesus, whom the Scriptures declared to be the Messiah and Son of God (Matthew 19:3-40.19.12). In contrast, the small children came to Jesus with little or no knowledge of the Scripture, entrusting themselves into His love and care in order to receive divine blessings (Matthew 19:13-40.19.15). A second contrast is made between the story of the rich young ruler and the disciple’s inquiry about forsaking all to follow Him. The rich young ruler was unable to fulfill the Law of Moses in that he could not relinquish his trust in earthly riches (Matthew 19:16-40.19.26), while the disciples forsook all to follow Jesus, entirely entrusting themselves unto Him (Matthew 19:27-40.19.30). Jesus concludes these two sets of lessons with the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard to explain how eternal rewards are not based upon the knowledge of the Law or upon good works, but solely upon divine grace being poure forth to those who in genuine faith entrust themselves into God’s tender care (Matthew 20:1-40.20.16).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Trusting in the Knowledge of the Scriptures Matthew 19:3-40.19.15

2. Trusting in Earthly Riches Matthew 19:16-40.19.30

3. The Parable of Workers in the Vineyard Matthew 20:1-40.20.16

Matthew 19:3-40.19.15 Trusting in the Knowledge of the Scriptures to Receive Eternal Life (Mark 10:1-41.10.12 ) Matthew 19:3-40.19.15 Jesus reveals that eternal life does not come through the head knowledge of the Scriptures, but through simple faith in Jesus Christ, of whom the Scriptures testify to be the Son of God.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Pharisees on the Law Matthew 19:3-40.19.9

2. The Inquiry of the Disciples Matthew 19:10-40.19.12

3. Example of Those Entering the Kingdom Matthew 19:13-40.19.15

The Scriptural Teaching on Marriage and Divorce - The focus of Matthew 19:3-40.19.12 is Jesus’ teaching on marriage and divorce in the Kingdom of Heaven. In this passage Jesus gives to us God’s commandments on marriage from three difference ages of mankind. Jesus addresses God’s commandments before the Mosaic Law (Matthew 19:3-40.19.6), then His commandments during the dispensation of the Law (Matthew 19:7-40.19.8) and finally God’s commandment during the dispensation of the Church (Matthew 19:9-40.19.12).

The Transition of Themes Reflected in the Teaching on Marriage in the Kingdom of Heaven While the fourth narrative section placed emphasis upon perseverance in God’sWord, the fifth narrative section emphasizes eschatology. Matthew 19:3-40.19.12 serves as a transitional passage in that Jesus explains the need to follow God’s original laws even in regards to the institution of marriage and not be offended by His Word in order to partake of the Kingdom of Heaven. [508]

[508] Christopher Smith says, “The first narrative episode after a discourse often serves both to recapitulate its theme and to introduce a new one.” Christopher R. Smith, “Literary Evidences of a Five-Fold Structure in the Gospel of Matthew,” in New Testament Studies 43 (1997): 549-550.

Matthew 19:3-40.19.9 The Pharisees on the Law In Matthew 19:3-40.19.9 the Pharisees came to Jesus to ask Him which interpretation of the Law regarding the institution of marriage has God’s blessings. Jesus explains God’s original purpose and plan for marriage, which takes priority over the Law. While the Pharisees sought God’s blessings through the Law, the children will gather around Jesus in Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 and receive His blessings on an entirely different base, that of divine mercy and grace. While the Pharisees based their right standing before God upon adherence to the Law, the children sought the priviledge to stand before Jesus based upon His love for them.

Matthew 19:3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?

Matthew 19:3 Comments Grant Osborne says there were two predominant schools of Jewish thought during the first century, the school of Shammai which developed first, and the school of Hillel, which came later and held a dominant role in Jewish society during the time of Jesus. He explains that the school of Shammai interpreted Deuteronomy 24:1 to mean that a man could only divorce his wife because of adultery, while the school of Hillel taught that a man could divorce for any reason. [509] The Pharisees knew the arguments over this issue, but they wanted to hear what Jesus said in order to find fault with Him.

[509] Grant R. Osborne, Matthew, in Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, ed. Clinton E. Arnold (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010), 703.

Deuteronomy 24:1, “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

With the context of this ongoing debate on the Law regarding marriage and divorce, the Pharisees were essentially saying to Jesus, “We are experts in the Law; and we are not sure how to interpret its view on marriage and divorce. Let us see how well you handle this issue.”

Matthew 19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female,

Matthew 19:4 “Have ye not read” Comments - Jesus is saying, “You’ve read, but you have not read.” In other words, the Pharisees may have read the Scriptures, but they had missed the “spirit” God’s Word. Jesus used this approach on an earlier occasion with the Pharisees when discussing Jewish tradition and the Scriptures.

Matthew 12:3, “But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him;”

Matthew 12:5, “Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?”

Matthew 19:4 that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female Comments The phrase “made them male and female” is found verbatim in Genesis 1:27; Genesis 5:2 in the LXX.

Genesis 1:27, “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.”

Genesis 5:2, “Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.”

Matthew 19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?

Matthew 19:5 Comments Matthew 19:5 is a close, but not exact, citation of Genesis 2:24 in the LXX, “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.”

Matthew 19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.

Matthew 19:6 “What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” Comments - A better reading says, “What God has joined together, man cannot divide.” Jesus refers back to God’s original plan for the institution of marriage. When a man and a woman join in holy matrimony, they become one flesh in God’s eyes. Although the couple may not live happily together and decide to divorce, this does not disannul God’s view that these two people are one flesh. Man’s legal decrees cannot disannul God’s Word, which declares the couple as one flesh. Therefore, Jesus will explain how a second marriage is an adulterous affair in God’s eyes (Matthew 19:8-40.19.9).

Illustration - We see how strong this sentence can be translated by looking at examples in Scripture. When Matthew wrote his Gospel, God still referred to Bathsheba as the wife of Uriah. Thus, Matthew wrote, “And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her (that had been the wife) of Urias;” (Matthew 1:6) The Greek text literally reads, “David the king begat Solomon of her of Urias.” The phrase “that had been the wife” was added later by translators.

This is why Jesus can say in verse 9 that whoever marries someone from a divorce that God had not honored commits adultery. Someone can only commit adultery with another man’s wife, but not with his own wife. If a marriage is not annulled by adultery or widowhood, then God does not recognize the divorce, and thus, further marriages by these partners become adultery.

Because David repented of his sin, God was able to sanctify his marriage with Bathsheba. It is important for married couples to repent of their sins if they have wrongly entered into unscriptural marriages, so that God’s blessings may be found.

In contrast, we see Herod taking his brother’s wife and being rebuked by John the Baptist, who states that this was an evil act. Herod was unrepentant.

Matthew 14:3-40.14.4, “For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.”

Matthew 19:4-40.19.6 Comments Original Purpose and Intent of the Institution of Marriage When the Pharisees asked Jesus to state His opinion on the current controversy over divorce and remarriage under the Mosaic Law, He went to the book of Genesis and explained the original purpose and intent of the institution of marriage.

Matthew 19:7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?

Matthew 19:7 Comments The Pharisees quote Deuteronomy 24:1 from the Mosaic Law, which allowed a man to divorce his wife. Because the Pharisees depended upon the Law for their right standing with God and for their salvation, they had a great amount of knowledge regarding its statutes. The Pharisees discussed at length among themselves the various interpretations of marriage and divorce under the Law.

Deuteronomy 24:1, “When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”

Matthew 19:8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.

Matthew 19:8 Comments In Matthew 19:8 Jesus explains the purpose of the Deuteronomy 24:1, which was to give some measure of boundaries to the carnal mind in hopes of pointing an individual to his own need of redemption in Christ Jesus; for no man was able to fulfill the entirety of the Law as will be demonstrated in the passage that follows with the rich young ruler.

Matthew 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.

Matthew 19:9 Word Study on “fornication” - Vine defines “fornication” as “unlawful, illicit sexual intercourse.”

Matthew 19:9 “And I say unto you Variations of the phrase “but I say unto you” are employed fourteen times in the Sermon on the Mount, six of those times immediately after quoting an Old Testament passage of Jewish regulation, as Jesus does in Matthew 19:9.

Jesus has just quoted from the book of Genesis when explaining God’s original purpose and intent of marriage (Matthew 19:4-40.19.6). He then explains how the Law allowed divorce because of the hardness of men’s hearts (Matthew 19:8). Jesus now says, “And I say unto you” as a way of reconciling these two passages of Old Testament Scripture and establishing the rules for the Kingdom of Heaven. He will then explain to His disciples that these rules will not be obeyed by everyone, only those whose hearts are able to accept them (Matthew 19:10-40.19.12).

Matthew 19:9 Comments In Matthew 19:9 Jesus explains the application of Genesis 1:27; Genesis 2:24; Genesis 5:2 to the child of God. Because man and woman are one flesh in the eyes of God, a divorce made by man does not disannul God’s Word. God still sees this man and woman as one flesh, even when they enter into second marriages for reasons other than the death of a spouse or adultery on the part of a spouse. Therefore, such remarriages without biblical grounds constitute a state of adultery in God’s eyes.

God gave the institution of marriage to Adam and Eve before the Fall as individuals who had not yet committed disobedience. Therefore, the original purpose and intent of Genesis 1:27 still applies under the new covenant instituted by Jesus Christ, since the new covenant is God’s means of restoring mankind back to fellowship with Him and human immortality that existed in the beginning. In contrast, Deuteronomy 24:1 applies to the carnal man, both Jews and Gentiles, who is sinful by nature.

Matthew 19:10-40.19.12 The Inquiry of the Disciples In Matthew 19:10-40.19.12 the disciples inquire from Jesus about His dialogue with the Pharisees on marriage and divorce. The disciples had left all to follow Jesus so that those who were single became “eunuchs” for the Kingdom of Heaven, while Peter honored his existing marriage.

Matthew 19:10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry.

Matthew 19:10 Comments The disciples respond by saying if the case of the man is such that he has put away his wife for other than reasons of fornication, then it is not good for him to remarry.

Matthew 19:11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given.

Matthew 19:11 “to whom it is given” Comments - What is given? The word “it” refers to the saying that was given. Not everyone will follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. Most men will follow the ways of the world.

Matthew 19:11 Comments Jesus could have simply said, “Yes, it is not good to marry after putting away a wife for any reason.” However, because God allows man the free will to choose whether to obey Him or not, Jesus explains that only certain men will be willing to follow this rule. Because of the hardness of men’s hearts, many will divorce their wives for reasons other than adultery.

Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 Example of Those Entering the Kingdom (Mark 10:13-41.10.16 , Luke 18:15-42.18.17 ) In Matthew 19:13-40.19.15 Jesus teaches us about the role of child-like faith in the Kingdom of Heaven using children as an example a humble and pure heart, a heart that characterizes those who seek the Kingdom of Heaven. Within the context of this narrative passage, this pericope follows after a teaching dealing with the hardness of men’s hearts in regards to the divine institution of marriage. In contrast to the hardness of heart of the Jewish leaders, children offer themselves to God in a humble and pure heart, a heart that characterizes those who seek the Kingdom of Heaven. While adults come to God believing they must offer good works in order to be received by Him, children come to God entirely dependent upon His grace. In contrast to the Pharisees who were very educated in the Scriptures, the child came to Jesus unhindered in simple faith and devotion.

Matthew 19:13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.

Matthew 19:13 Comments Matthew 19:13 begins with the Greek τότε is an adverb of time and means, “at that time,” or “that which follows in time…then, thereupon.” ( BDAG) This adverb places two events together, the questioning by the Pharsiees (Matthew 19:3-40.19.12) and the gathering of the children (Matthew 19:13-40.19.15). By using τότε , Matthew is able to contrast two opposing characters in the development of the narrative plot to explain the qualifications for eternal life, the hard-hearted Pharisees and the pure-hearted children.

While the Pharisees depended upon their good works under the Law to establish their right standing with God, the children had nothing to offer God as recipents of His blessings but their simple faith and trust in His willingness to bless them. In contrast to the educated Pharisees, the children had very little understanding of the Law; but their conscience was pure.

Matthew 19:14 But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 19:14 Comments - The question is sometimes asked, “When children die, do they go to heaven or hell?” Matthew 19:14 gives the clearest answer of any passage in the Scriptures on this subject when Jesus tells us that the Kingdom of Heaven is opened to little children.

Matthew 19:15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence.

Matthew 19:15 Comments The parallel account in Mark’s Gospel says Jesus picked up the children and blessed them (Mark 10:16). The doctrine of the laying on of hands is one of the six foundational doctrines of the New Testament Church (Hebrews 6:1-58.6.2). This doctrine has its roots in the Old Testament. For example, Jacob (Israel) laid hands upon the sons of Joseph and pronounced a blessing upon them (Genesis 48:14; Genesis 48:17-1.48.18). Moses ordained Joshua through the laying on of hands (Numbers 27:18) so that he was filled with the Spirit of God (Deuteronomy 34:9). Some of the Old Testament sacrifices were presented to God through the laying on of hands (Exodus 29:10; Leviticus 1:4). Under the new covenant, the believers were filled with the Holy Spirit through the laying on of hands (Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6). Believers were also set apart and ordained through the laying on of hands (Acts 6:6; Acts 13:1-44.13.3, 1 Timothy 4:14, 2 Timothy 1:6).

Verses 1-34

Preparing for the King’s Departure and Second Coming Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 25:46 records the fifth major division of the Gospel of Matthew. The narrative material in this division (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) emphasizes the need to serve the Lord after His departure while awaiting His expected Second Coming. [507] For example, the Parables of the Wicked Vinedressers and the Wedding Feast, which are found in this passage, teach on working in the kingdom while waiting for the return of the Master. We must await His Second Coming by doing the Father’s will. Jesus also teaches on key issues that affect our lives most dramatically regarding our readiness for His Second Coming, such as marriage and riches. The cares of this world that most hinder our sanctification are marriage (Matthew 19:1-40.19.12) and the pursuit of this world’s goods (Matthew 19:16 to Matthew 20:16). Those who do not heed His calling will perish if no fruit is shown. Jesus carries this theme of readiness and Christian service into His discourse with the Parables of the Virgins and the Parable of the Talents. Five virgins remained ready for the bridegroom. Two of the three servants were faithful with their master’s goods, but one foolish virgin and the man who kept his one talent were cast into outer darkness. A key verse for this narrative material is Matthew 22:14, “For many are called, but few are chosen.” This narrative passage ends with Jesus giving a final woe to the scribes and Pharisees as well as to the city of Jerusalem.

[507] Benjamin Bacon identifies the theme of the fifth narrative-discourse section of Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 19:1 to 25:46) as apocalyptic. He believes this theme follows a natural progression from the previous theme of Matthew’s fourth narrative-discourse, saying, “It was inevitable that Mt's fourth Book should lead up to a great Discourse on the Consummation as the climax of his Gospel.” See Benjamin W. Bacon, Studies in Matthew (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1930), 412-413.

The discourse that follows (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46) teaches on the Second Coming of Jesus. Thus, He prepares His disciples for His departure and Second Coming. Much of this material can be found in the book of Revelation, which also deals with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Note that both narrative and discourse material contain warnings against being caught up with the cares of this world and exhortations to readiness for His Second Coming and to Christian service while waiting for His Return.

As with all of the narrative material, Matthew includes one Old Testament Scripture that is introduced with “that it might be fulfilled.” In Matthew 21:4-40.21.5 we find a quote from Zechariah 9:9 which sets the underlying theme of this division of Matthew on eschatology, which is the coming of the King.

Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, “All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.”

Zechariah 9:9, “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”

Glorification: Deuteronomy Versus Fifth Discourse Which Establishes a Future Hope In the book of Deuteronomy, Moses gives the children the prophetic vision of their future hope for those who obey the Law and of future judgment for those who are disobedient. In like manner, the fifth discourse on Eschatology gives the prophecy of the future hope of the Church and judgment upon sinners.

The next narrative passage (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) emphasizes the need to serve the Lord after His departure while awaiting His expected return. For example, the parables of the Wicked Vinedressers and the Wedding Feast teach on working in the kingdom while waiting for the return of the Master. This passage ends with Jesus giving a final woe to the scribes and Pharisees as well as to the city of Jerusalem. The discourse that follows (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46) teaches on His Second Coming. Thus, Jesus prepares His disciples for His departure. This reminds us of the purpose of the book of Deuteronomy, which was to prepare the children of Israel for the Promised Land. Both this passage in Matthew and the book of Deuteronomy give promises of blessings to those who obey the Lord and both give severe warnings of divine judgments to those who do not serve the Lord.

The one Old Testament prophecy found in this division in Matthew’s Gospel is Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, which quotes Zechariah 9:9 and simply prophesies of the coming of the Messiah and supports the theme of this division of Matthew on eschatology.

Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, “All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.”

Zechariah 9:9, “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

A. Narrative: Jesus Prepares to Depart Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39

Verses 1-34

Preparing for the King’s Departure and Second Coming Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 25:46 records the fifth major division of the Gospel of Matthew. The narrative material in this division (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) emphasizes the need to serve the Lord after His departure while awaiting His expected Second Coming. [507] For example, the Parables of the Wicked Vinedressers and the Wedding Feast, which are found in this passage, teach on working in the kingdom while waiting for the return of the Master. We must await His Second Coming by doing the Father’s will. Jesus also teaches on key issues that affect our lives most dramatically regarding our readiness for His Second Coming, such as marriage and riches. The cares of this world that most hinder our sanctification are marriage (Matthew 19:1-40.19.12) and the pursuit of this world’s goods (Matthew 19:16 to Matthew 20:16). Those who do not heed His calling will perish if no fruit is shown. Jesus carries this theme of readiness and Christian service into His discourse with the Parables of the Virgins and the Parable of the Talents. Five virgins remained ready for the bridegroom. Two of the three servants were faithful with their master’s goods, but one foolish virgin and the man who kept his one talent were cast into outer darkness. A key verse for this narrative material is Matthew 22:14, “For many are called, but few are chosen.” This narrative passage ends with Jesus giving a final woe to the scribes and Pharisees as well as to the city of Jerusalem.

[507] Benjamin Bacon identifies the theme of the fifth narrative-discourse section of Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 19:1 to 25:46) as apocalyptic. He believes this theme follows a natural progression from the previous theme of Matthew’s fourth narrative-discourse, saying, “It was inevitable that Mt's fourth Book should lead up to a great Discourse on the Consummation as the climax of his Gospel.” See Benjamin W. Bacon, Studies in Matthew (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1930), 412-413.

The discourse that follows (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46) teaches on the Second Coming of Jesus. Thus, He prepares His disciples for His departure and Second Coming. Much of this material can be found in the book of Revelation, which also deals with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Note that both narrative and discourse material contain warnings against being caught up with the cares of this world and exhortations to readiness for His Second Coming and to Christian service while waiting for His Return.

As with all of the narrative material, Matthew includes one Old Testament Scripture that is introduced with “that it might be fulfilled.” In Matthew 21:4-40.21.5 we find a quote from Zechariah 9:9 which sets the underlying theme of this division of Matthew on eschatology, which is the coming of the King.

Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, “All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.”

Zechariah 9:9, “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”

Glorification: Deuteronomy Versus Fifth Discourse Which Establishes a Future Hope In the book of Deuteronomy, Moses gives the children the prophetic vision of their future hope for those who obey the Law and of future judgment for those who are disobedient. In like manner, the fifth discourse on Eschatology gives the prophecy of the future hope of the Church and judgment upon sinners.

The next narrative passage (Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39) emphasizes the need to serve the Lord after His departure while awaiting His expected return. For example, the parables of the Wicked Vinedressers and the Wedding Feast teach on working in the kingdom while waiting for the return of the Master. This passage ends with Jesus giving a final woe to the scribes and Pharisees as well as to the city of Jerusalem. The discourse that follows (Matthew 24:1 to Matthew 25:46) teaches on His Second Coming. Thus, Jesus prepares His disciples for His departure. This reminds us of the purpose of the book of Deuteronomy, which was to prepare the children of Israel for the Promised Land. Both this passage in Matthew and the book of Deuteronomy give promises of blessings to those who obey the Lord and both give severe warnings of divine judgments to those who do not serve the Lord.

The one Old Testament prophecy found in this division in Matthew’s Gospel is Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, which quotes Zechariah 9:9 and simply prophesies of the coming of the Messiah and supports the theme of this division of Matthew on eschatology.

Matthew 21:4-40.21.5, “All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.”

Zechariah 9:9, “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

A. Narrative: Jesus Prepares to Depart Matthew 19:1 to Matthew 23:39

Verses 17-19

Jesus Foretells of His Death and Resurrection a Third Time (Mark 10:32-41.10.34 , Luke 18:31-42.18.34 ) - Matthew 20:17-40.20.20 gives us the third mention of the Crucifixion. The first two mentions are:

Matthew 16:21, “From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.”

Matthew 17:22-40.17.23, “And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry.”

Jesus Foreknew the Events of His Passion - Note that according to Hebrews 12:2-58.12.3 Jesus Christ knew exactly what was going to take place before His great sufferings. He knew of Judas Iscariot’s betrayal to the chief priest and scribes, of the forsaking of the disciples, of His condemnation at the trials, of His being mocked, of the crown of thorns piercing His head, of the slappings, of the spitting in His face and the parting of the robe, of the reed for a sceptre, etc. For all of these things were prophesied in the Scriptures. He knew of His horrible death, perhaps having seen and heard beforehand of the Roman crucifixions. He knew of His Glory to follow. Amen!!!

Hebrews 12:2-58.12.3, “Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.”

In Matthew 20:18-40.20.19 Jesus said that he would be betrayed into the hands of the chief priests and scribes (Matthew 26:3-40.26.56), that they would condemn Him to death (Matthew 26:57-40.26.66), that He would be delivered into the hands of the Gentiles (Matthew 27:1-40.27.26), mocked (Matthew 27:27-40.27.31), sourged (Matthew 27:27-40.27.28), crucified (Matthew 27:32-40.27.66), and raised from the dead (Matthew 28:1-40.28.10). All of these events came to pass as Jesus had predicted.

Jesus was about to fulfill His destiny at Calvary by making an atonement for the sins of mankind. His three-year ministry upon earth was not His ultimate destiny; rather, this was a season of preparing the Twelve so that they could fulfill their destinies.

Matthew 20:19 Comments - Jesus Christ knew the very events involved in His crucifixion.

Verses 17-34

The Testimony of Jesus Regarding Man’s Inheritance of Eternal Life Theme The testimony of Jesus regarding man’s eschatological hope declares that man must offer himself in sacrifice and servanthood through the example offered by Jesus Himself. The previous section (Matthew 19:3 to Matthew 20:16) testifies that man cannot find redemption through head knowledge of the Scriptures, nor through his efforts to perform the duties of the Law, but through simple faith and dependence upon the grace of God. This section (Matthew 20:17 to Matthew 21:22) now testifies that through prayer and faith in God’s grace, He works abundantly in our lives to bring us to our destinies both in this life and in eternity. Man must offer himself to God as a living sacrifice after receiving God’s grace and salvation in order to live an abundant life. Perhaps the testimony of Jesus is offered second among the other testimonies of the Scriptures, John the Baptist, His miracles, and God the Father because Jesus offers the second strongest testimony in this area of man’s redemption.

Structure This narrative section begins with Jesus testifying about His future passion and sacrifice on the Cross as an example of how to obtain eternal life (Matthew 20:17-40.20.19). The story of the the mother of James and John requesting Jesus to exalt her sons (Matthew 20:20-40.20.28) is placed beside the story of Jesus healing two blind men pleading for His mercy, who in turn follow Him as their expression of ultimate sacrifice to God (Matthew 20:29-40.20.34). These two stories contrast man’s views of obtaining eternal life based upon merited favor and God’s principle of unmerited favor upon those who obtain His mercy by humbling themselves at the feet of Jesus. Jesus denied the request of the mother of James and John because such grace was not His to give, coming from the Father alone (Matthew 20:20-40.20.23); however, He immediately answered the plea of the two blind men who based their request entirely upon God’s mercy. The story of the the multitudes honoring the King (Matthew 21:1-40.21.11) is placed beside the story of the Pharisees rejecting their King (Matthew 21:12-40.21.17). These two stories contrast man’s traditions of worship with the worship that God has ordained for Himself coming forth from the pure hearts of His children. Jesus then reveals to His disciples the authority in which His servants are to walk when they learn to serve the Lord sacrificially and worship Him in truth (Matthew 21:18-40.21.22).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Exaltation in the Kingdom thru Servanthood Matthew 20:17-40.20.34

2. The Revelation of Jesus as King Matthew 21:1-40.21.17

3. The Servant’s Work in the Kingdom: Prayer and Faith Matthew 21:18-40.21.22

Walking in the Kingdom with Authority Once the disciples understood Jesus to be the Christ, the Son of the Living God, Jesus began to show them that His authority extended beyond healing the sick and forgiveness of sin. He now displays His divine authority in a number of new ways. In Matthew 20:20 to Matthew 21:22 Jesus walks in the divine authority that the Father has entrusted Him with. He heals a blind man on His way to Jerusalem demonstrating His authority over sickness and sin (Matthew 20:29-40.20.34). He enters Jerusalem with the authority of a king (Matthew 21:1-40.21.11). He then cleanses the Temple with the authority of a high priest (Matthew 21:12-40.21.17). He curses a fig tree with the authority over creation (Matthew 20:18-40.20.22).

Opposition in the Kingdom of God Each of the petitions and prayers offered to Jesus in Matthew 20:17 to Matthew 21:22 are met by opposition. When the mother of James and John asked Jesus to exalt her sons, the other disciples opposed this request (Matthew 20:24). When the two blind men cried out to Jesus, the multitudes tried to stop their pleas (Matthew 20:31). When the multitudes worshipped Jesus as He entered Jerusalem and the Temple, the Jewish leaders opposed such pure worship (Matthew 21:15). When we offer our prayers unto God, we must be ready to persevere against such opposition in demonstration of our faith in God that He will truly hear and answer our prayers.

Verses 17-34

The Testimony of Jesus Regarding Man’s Inheritance of Eternal Life Theme The testimony of Jesus regarding man’s eschatological hope declares that man must offer himself in sacrifice and servanthood through the example offered by Jesus Himself. The previous section (Matthew 19:3 to Matthew 20:16) testifies that man cannot find redemption through head knowledge of the Scriptures, nor through his efforts to perform the duties of the Law, but through simple faith and dependence upon the grace of God. This section (Matthew 20:17 to Matthew 21:22) now testifies that through prayer and faith in God’s grace, He works abundantly in our lives to bring us to our destinies both in this life and in eternity. Man must offer himself to God as a living sacrifice after receiving God’s grace and salvation in order to live an abundant life. Perhaps the testimony of Jesus is offered second among the other testimonies of the Scriptures, John the Baptist, His miracles, and God the Father because Jesus offers the second strongest testimony in this area of man’s redemption.

Structure This narrative section begins with Jesus testifying about His future passion and sacrifice on the Cross as an example of how to obtain eternal life (Matthew 20:17-40.20.19). The story of the the mother of James and John requesting Jesus to exalt her sons (Matthew 20:20-40.20.28) is placed beside the story of Jesus healing two blind men pleading for His mercy, who in turn follow Him as their expression of ultimate sacrifice to God (Matthew 20:29-40.20.34). These two stories contrast man’s views of obtaining eternal life based upon merited favor and God’s principle of unmerited favor upon those who obtain His mercy by humbling themselves at the feet of Jesus. Jesus denied the request of the mother of James and John because such grace was not His to give, coming from the Father alone (Matthew 20:20-40.20.23); however, He immediately answered the plea of the two blind men who based their request entirely upon God’s mercy. The story of the the multitudes honoring the King (Matthew 21:1-40.21.11) is placed beside the story of the Pharisees rejecting their King (Matthew 21:12-40.21.17). These two stories contrast man’s traditions of worship with the worship that God has ordained for Himself coming forth from the pure hearts of His children. Jesus then reveals to His disciples the authority in which His servants are to walk when they learn to serve the Lord sacrificially and worship Him in truth (Matthew 21:18-40.21.22).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Exaltation in the Kingdom thru Servanthood Matthew 20:17-40.20.34

2. The Revelation of Jesus as King Matthew 21:1-40.21.17

3. The Servant’s Work in the Kingdom: Prayer and Faith Matthew 21:18-40.21.22

Walking in the Kingdom with Authority Once the disciples understood Jesus to be the Christ, the Son of the Living God, Jesus began to show them that His authority extended beyond healing the sick and forgiveness of sin. He now displays His divine authority in a number of new ways. In Matthew 20:20 to Matthew 21:22 Jesus walks in the divine authority that the Father has entrusted Him with. He heals a blind man on His way to Jerusalem demonstrating His authority over sickness and sin (Matthew 20:29-40.20.34). He enters Jerusalem with the authority of a king (Matthew 21:1-40.21.11). He then cleanses the Temple with the authority of a high priest (Matthew 21:12-40.21.17). He curses a fig tree with the authority over creation (Matthew 20:18-40.20.22).

Opposition in the Kingdom of God Each of the petitions and prayers offered to Jesus in Matthew 20:17 to Matthew 21:22 are met by opposition. When the mother of James and John asked Jesus to exalt her sons, the other disciples opposed this request (Matthew 20:24). When the two blind men cried out to Jesus, the multitudes tried to stop their pleas (Matthew 20:31). When the multitudes worshipped Jesus as He entered Jerusalem and the Temple, the Jewish leaders opposed such pure worship (Matthew 21:15). When we offer our prayers unto God, we must be ready to persevere against such opposition in demonstration of our faith in God that He will truly hear and answer our prayers.

Verses 20-23

The Mother’s Request (Mark 10:35-41.10.45 ) Matthew 20:20-40.20.23 records the request of the mother of James and John for Jesus to exalt her sons in His Kingdom. Jesus did not deny her request; rather He explained how this request can only be fulfilled as God’s children yield themselves in divine sacrifice so that God the Father can exalt His faithful servants in due season. Jesus then explained that these two sons must offer themselves as a living sacrifice in order to qualify for such a reward, a reward that only God the Father could measure.

Illustration God always hears our prayers just as Jesus heard the request of the mother of James and John. However, in order for God to answer our prayers, we have to place our lives and our confessions in agreement with His Word and His divine plan of redemption. Many times in our prayers we ask for future events to take place towards our favour. Above all of our petitions and desires, God the Father is continually working out His divine plan of redemption for mankind. Therefore, some prayers simply conflict with this plan of redemption in violation of God’s will and His Word, or they are based upon the divine principles of sowing and reaping that must work towards such answers to prayers. We must not think that God did not hear our prayers; for He certain hears everything we ask of Him. If we will then listen to Him, He will guide us through a plan so that our prayers can be fulfilled in accordance to His Word. James says, “…yet ye have not, because ye ask not. Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.” (James 4:2-59.4.3) God wants us to pray and ask Him; and if we will humble ourselves before Him, He will guide us when our prayers are amiss so that we can pray with maturity and self-sacrifice rather than self-centered. The mother of James and John along with her sons were taught by Jesus that there would be many things they had to do in order for such a prayer to come to pass.

Matthew 20:20 Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him.

Matthew 20:20 “Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons” - Comments - Although Mark 10:35 records James and John coming to Jesus, Matthew records their mother coming with them as she makes the request. These two parallel passages obviously record the same event. James and John were the sons of Zebedee according to Matthew 27:56.

Matthew 27:56, “Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children .”

If we compare the list of names in Mark 15:40-41.15.41 to those in Matthew 27:56, it is most likely that Salome was John's mother, though there is no direct mention of this in Scripture.

Mark 15:40-41.15.41, “There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome ; (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.”

If we now compare the parallel verse in John 19:25, we may conclude that Salome, the mother of Zebedee's children, is also referred to by John as “the sister of Jesus' mother.”

John 19:25, “Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister , Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.”

Therefore, many scholars go so far as to suggest that John was related to Jesus Christ through his mother Salome. In his Gospel, John neither mentions his own name, nor the name of Mary, the mother of Jesus, nor the name of his own mother Salome. Thus, if John is deliberately avoiding the use of these names, he may very well be referring to his mother as “the sister to the mother of Jesus.” Thus, the fact that John avoids using these particular names is an indication to his relationship to them.

Upon this premise, the mother of James and John would feel that her two sons would have preference to become rulers with Jesus, seeing that they were blood kin.

“worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him” Comments - In worshipping Jesus, the mother acknowledges that He is the Son of God. She understood how to approach God with her petitions. Thus, we do not see Jesus denying her request, but rather doing what was within His power to grant her request. He led these two disciples into an acceptance of the cup and the baptism that He Himself was partaking of, which type of sacrifice was the only way to receive such glory. Yet, He left the final decision as to who sits at His right and left hand up to the Heavenly Father, who is the only one that can made such a decision.

Matthew 20:20 Comments - Matthew 20:20 begins with the Greek τότε is an adverb of time and means, “at that time,” or “that which follows in time…then, thereupon.” ( BDAG) This adverb places two events together, the revelation of Jesus’ passion (Matthew 20:17-40.20.19) and the request of a mother for Jesus to exalt her two sons in the kingdom (Matthew 20:20).

Matthew 20:21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom.

Matthew 20:21 “And he said unto her, What wilt thou” Comments - Jesus’ response of “What wilt thou?” reveals His willingness to answer this request. God always wants to bless His children. However, He is often limited by a believer’s carnality in doing so. Although we can pray amiss, God is willing to do whatever He can within the boundaries of His will and purpose and plan to redeem humanity. The epistle of James tells us that we do not receive from God when we pray amiss.

James 4:3, “Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.”

“She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom” - Comments - Their mother, as well as many other disciples, believed that Jesus was going to set up an earthly kingdom at this time. In fact, Jesus had recently said to His disciples, “Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” (Matthew 19:28) Jesus was not headed to Jerusalem for His triumphant entry (Matthew 20:17). In addition, the disciples again asked Jesus after His resurrection if He were going to immediately set up His kingdom on earth (Acts 1:6). This mother wanted her two sons to be given positions of great authority in this new kingdom. After all, James and John were a part of the inner circle of three disciples that Jesus favored, and she had observed the Lord’s intimacy with her sons above the others. At this point, as a mother trying to instinctively care for her children, she just could not hold back this request.

Acts 1:6, “When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?”

Matthew 20:21 Comments In Matthew 20:21; Matthew 20:32 Jesus asks the persons addressing Him to make their request. While the mother’s request is not quickly answered, the two blind men find God’s immediate grace and healing. While the mother depended upon the good works of her two sons James and John as Jesus’ close inner circle of disciples, the two blind men had nothing to offer Jesus except their devotion to follow Him after being healed.

Matthew 20:22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.

Matthew 20:22 “Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of” Word Study on “I shall drink of” - In the Greek, the verb “I shall drink of” is inflected in the tendential future tense. This tense means that this event of His suffering is in the impending, or immediate, future. In other words, it is about to take place soon. Therefore, it could be translated, I am about to drink.”

Comments - The phrase “to drink of the cup” is used figuratively in Matthew 20:22 to refer to the cup of the suffering and death of the Lord Jesus Christ for all the sins of mankind. Jesus will use this figurative phrase at other times in His ministry to refer to His Passion.

Matthew 26:39, “And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.”

John 18:11, “Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?”

The cup of wrath and vengeance and suffering is used throughout the Old and New Testaments as well.

Job 21:20, “His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the wrath of the Almighty.”

Psalms 11:6, “Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup.”

Psalms 16:5, “The LORD is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup: thou maintainest my lot.”

Psalms 75:8, “For in the hand of the LORD there is a cup, and the wine is red; it is full of mixture; and he poureth out of the same: but the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them.”

Isaiah 51:17, “Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at the hand of the LORD the cup of his fury; thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung them out.”

Isaiah 51:22, “Thus saith thy Lord the LORD, and thy God that pleadeth the cause of his people, Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, even the dregs of the cup of my fury; thou shalt no more drink it again:”

Jeremiah 25:15, “For thus saith the LORD God of Israel unto me; Take the wine cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it.”

Jeremiah 49:12, “For thus saith the LORD; Behold, they whose judgment was not to drink of the cup have assuredly drunken; and art thou he that shall altogether go unpunished? thou shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely drink of it.”

Revelation 14:10, “The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:”

Revelation 16:19, “And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.”

Matthew 20:22 “and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with” - Comments - The word baptism is also used to describe our identification with Christ (Romans 6:3-45.6.5). However, that is not the case in this passage. Here, Jesus is referring to a baptism of suffering.

Romans 6:3-45.6.5, “Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:”

Matthew 20:22 “They say unto him, We are able” - Comments - The sons of Zebedee were talking about reigning with Jesus. However, Jesus knew that for someone to reign with Jesus, he must share in His sufferings.

Matthew 20:23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

Matthew 20:23 “And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with” - Comments - In Mathew Matthew 20:23 Jesus grants His disciples their request as far as it was within His dominion and authority. He uses the phrases of drinking of a cup and being baptized figuratively to refer to their future physical suffering and martyrdom as apostles. These two disciples did in fact enter into his sufferings. James was the first of the twelve apostles to become a martyr. John was the last of the twelve apostles to die. Both were faithful. Greatness is bestowed upon those who are faithful.

Acts 12:2, “And he killed James the brother of John with the sword.”

Revelation 1:9, “I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.”

This divine truth applies to us as well as we identify with Jesus on the Cross like Romans 6:3-45.6.4.

Romans 6:3-45.6.4, “Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.”

We, too, must suffer with Him if we are to share in His glory. Suffering precedes glory.

1 Peter 1:11, “Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow .”

We begin this identification with Jesus at salvation and continue to grow more and more like Jesus Christ.

Romans 8:17, “And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.”

Philippians 3:10, “That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death;”

2 Timothy 2:12, “If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:”

Paul experience the “fellowship of His sufferings” (Philippians 3:10).

Philippians 3:10, “That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death;”

“but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father” Comments The New Testament records a number of distinctions between God the Father and Jesus Christ His Son. In Matthew 20:23 Jesus tells us that the Father has prepared positions of leadership and enthronement beyond the office and ministry of Jesus. In Matthew 24:36 Jesus tells us that only God the Father knows the day and hour of the Second Coming of Jesus; for neither the angels nor Jesus Himself know the time of this event.

Verses 24-28

The Inquiry of the Disciples In Matthew 20:24-40.20.28 Jesus explains to His disciples about becoming great in the Kingdom of Heaven. The mother of James and John, two close apostles, has just asked Him if they could sit at his right and left hand when He becomes king over Jerusalem and the Jewish people. The other ten disciples were angry about this request. However, Jesus answers them by explaining how any of the twelve can achieve this special recognition before God the Father. In other words, the request of the mother of James and John was not limited, but available for all who are willing to pay the price to become first in the Kingdom of Heaven.

It becomes clear that the disciples were expecting Jesus to overthrow the Roman oppression off of their people and set up an earthly kingdom. His earthly ministry was at its highest popularity as they were approaching Jerusalem. His triumphant entry into Jerusalem would only reinforce their view of an earthly kingdom. Although Jesus has just revealed to them about His impending death and suffering, it was necessary to teach them about servanthood.

Matthew 20:24 And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren.

Matthew 20:24 Comments The ten disciples were angry about the request of the mother of James and John because they did not believe such a request was proper.

Illustration - When we pray and ask God to use us in the Kingdom of Heaven, it is not uncommon for others to become jealous and oppose our promotions and efforts to serve. For example, when my wife and I were chosen out of our congregation to go into the mission field, it was not without opposition. Everyone should be prepared for such opposition when serving the Lord. I asked the Lord why he chose me out of such a large congregation to be the one to represent our church overseas. The Lord spoke to me and said, “Because you were available.” No one knew about the vow I had made to the Lord that if He would give me a godly wife, I would “build Him the largest house in the world.” No one knew about the Scriptures He had given me to stand on and the efforts I had made to qualify in His sight.

Matthew 20:27 Comments The Greek adjective πρῶτος (first) has been used by Matthew in the immediate passages to teach the same theme of the characteristics of those who will inherit eternal life (Matthew 19:30; Matthew 20:8; Matthew 20:10; Matthew 20:16; Matthew 20:27). In the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard, Jesus taught that the first shall be last and the last shall be first. Jesus now develops this theme to include servanthood among those who desire to be first as recipients of God’s grace.

Matthew 20:26-40.20.27 Comments Servanthood as a Type of Sowing and Reaping In Matthew 20:26-40.20.27 Jesus states a divine principle in the Kingdom of Heaven. He states this principle in Matthew 20:26, then repeats this same principle in Matthew 20:27, using repetition as a teaching device. The two disciples James and John have just asked to be exalted in the Kingdom of Heaven. Jesus is teaching them that they must sow servanthood in order to reap exaltation. In other words, Jesus is giving all of His disciples the principle by which anyone in the Kingdom can reach positions of exaltation and leadership. In other words, all twelve disciples have the opportunity to be exalted in the Kingdom of Heaven.

Matthew 20:28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.

Matthew 20:28 Comments Jesus sets the example for His disciples throughout the narrative sections. He continually demonstrates the work of the Kingdom of Heaven; then He explains these divine principles to His disciples.

Paul will express his passion to achieve this goal in his epistle to the Philippians when he says, “That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death;” (Philippians 3:10)

Verses 29-34

Healing of Two Blind following Jesus (Mark 10:46-41.10.52 , Luke 18:35-42.18.43 ) Matthew 20:29-40.20.34 records the account of Jesus healing of two blind men along His journey to Jerusalem. Just as the children come and receive favor from Jesus based upon nothing they have to offer but themselves, so do the two blind men come to Jesus with nothing to offer in their request for healing but a dependence upon God’s grace. In response to being healed, they offer themselves in sincere devotion by following Jesus.

In contrast to the utter dependency of the two blind men upon God’s favor, the previous passage records how the mother of James and John made a request to Jesus based upon her belief that they had earned a reward and deserved favor from God. While the two blind men became recipient of God’s grace, the mother heard Jesus deny her request when He explained that only the Father determines how to bestow His grace when He disperses eternal rewards.

Both Matthew 19:13-40.19.15; Matthew 20:29-40.20.34 have opponents rebuking either the children or the two blind men for approaching Jesus to receive from Him based upon God’s grace rather than works. The disciples rebuked the children, and the multitudes rebuked the two blind men because they did not believe the blind qualified as recipients of God’s grace. However, the conditions for receiving an answered prayer was their faith in God, and nothing else, as Jesus is able to say, “And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.” Thus, these two blind men qualified before Jesus because they believed in Him, and they petitioned Him; and He answered their prayers.

Comparison of Parallel Passages in the Gospels - The parallel accounts found in Mark and Luke only mention one blind man whom Mark identified by the name of Bartimaeus.

The Healing of Two Blind Men - It takes no faith to say that God is able to heal. We all know that God is able to do anything. The fallen angels know that God is able; for they know His power. However, it takes faith to say, “He will.” God reveals His omnipotent power when He says that He is able; but He reveals His love when He says, “I will.” The two blind men believed in God’s power, knowing that Jesus was able; but they did not know His love until Jesus said, “I will.”

Matthew 20:29 And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him.

Matthew 20:29 Comments The opening participial phrase in Matthew 20:29 denotes a change in time and place in Jesus’ public ministry, a grammatical structure used often by Matthew to develop movement in the narrative plot. Jesus has been moving towards Jerusalem (Matthew 20:17), and now He departs Jericho as He approaches Jerusalem from the East (Matthew 20:29).

Matthew 20:30 And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David.

Matthew 20:30 Comments The good news of Jesus Christ healing the sick and causing the blind to see had echoed throughout the land of Palestine. These two blind men had probably heard that Jesus was finally passing this way after months and perhaps years of anticipating His presence near their home. They may have travelled miles to get near Him. As they sat by the side of the road that day, they waited, perhaps hours, anxious for His arrival. As the noise of the people increased, they listened intently for any indication that Jesus was near. The minute they heard that Jesus was passing by them, they both jumped up as quickly as possible and began to shout.

Matthew 20:31 And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David.

Matthew 20:31 Comments - No one was able to stop these two blind men from shouting as loud as they could shout. They had invested too much time and effort for this moment. As they hear each other shouting, they encouraged themselves to shout even louder. Now was not the time to be quiet, but to make as much noise as possible.

Just as James and John faced the opposition of the other ten disciples when they petitioned Jesus for exaltation in the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 20:24), so do these two blind men face the opposition of the multitudes when making their requests to Jesus. The multitudes did not believe that these two blind men were qualified to ask and receive from God. We must understand that prayers can be hindered by opposition, but we must press in and be determined to receive from God. Such determination is an indication of our faith in Him.

Matthew 20:32 And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you?

Matthew 20:32 Comments In Matthew 20:21; Matthew 20:32 Jesus hears the cries of the two blind men. In other words, He heard their faith. Faith in God is the element that moves God to respond to prayer. Jesus stops and asks the two blind men addressing Him to make their request. Before He asked, He knew their needs. Jesus wanted them to make a confession of faith through their petition. Jesus then met them at their point of faith by restoring their sight.

While the mother’s request was more involved and would take years and even a lifetime to be answered, the two blind men immediately found God’s grace and healing because it was freely provided in the atonement of Christ. While the mother based her request upon the good works of her two sons James and John as Jesus’ close inner circle of disciples, the two blind men had nothing to offer Jesus except their devotion to follow Him after being healed.

Matthew 20:33 They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened.

Matthew 20:33 Comments Jesus needed these two men to confess their requests before Him so that He could meet them at their point of faith. They believed that Jesus could heal their blindness, so they made this request known to Him.

Matthew 20:34 So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received sight, and they followed him.

Matthew 20:34 Comments Jesus touched those who needed healing as a means of imparting the power of the Holy Spirit to heal. Jesus appeared to Kenneth Hagin and gave him a special healing anointing by touching the palms of his hands with Jesus’ finger. Kenneth Hagin says that when he laid hands upon someone, he could feel the anointing flow through him and into the individual if the person believed. If the person was doubting, then the anointing would not flow. [512] These two blind men had a measure of faith to believe that when Jesus touched them, they would be healed.

[512] Kenneth Hagin, A Commonsense Guide to Fasting (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1981, 1994), 21-2; Kenneth Hagin, I Believe In Visions (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1984, 1986), 53-4, 57.

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Matthew 20". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/matthew-20.html. 2013.