(a) The prophet confesses God to be just in all his doings, although man is not able to give a reason for all his actions.
(b) This question has been always a great temptation to the godly, to see the wicked enemies of God in prosperity, and his dear children in adversity, as in (Job 21:7) ; (Psalm 37:1), (Psalm 73:3) ; (Habakkuk 1:3).
(c) They profess God in mouth, but deny him in heart, which is here meant by the reins, (Isaiah 29:13) ; (Matthew 15:8).
(d) The Hebrew word is "sanctify them", meaning that God would be sanctified in the destruction of the wicked to whom God for a while gives prosperity, that afterward they would the more feel his heavy judgment when they lack their riches which were a sign of his mercy.
(e) Abusing God's leniency and his promises, they flattered themselves as though God would ever be merciful and not utterly destroy them therefore they hardened themselves in sin, till at length the beasts and insensible creatures felt the punishment of their stubborn rebellion against God.
(f) Some think that God reproves Jeremiah, in that he would reason with him, saying that if he was not able to march with men, then he was far unable to dispute with God. Others, by the footmen mean them of Anathoth: and by the horsemen, them of Jerusalem who would trouble the prophet worse than his own countrymen did.
(g) God wills the prophet to denounce his judgments against Jerusalem, even though they will both by threatenings and flatteries labour to silence him.
(h) Ever ranting and raging against me and my prophets.
(i) Instead of bearing my livery and wearing only my colours, they have change and diversity of colours of their idols and superstitions therefore their enemies as thick as the fowls of the air will come about them to destroy them.
(k) He prophecies of the destruction of Jerusalem, by the captain of Nebuchadnezzar, whom he calls pastors.
(l) Because no man regards my word, or the plagues that I have sent on the land.
(m) That is, the prophets.
(n) They lamented the sins of the people.
(o) For instead of amendment, you grew worse and worse, as God's plagues testified.
(p) Meaning the wicked enemies of his Church who blasphemed his Name, and whom he would punish after he had delivered his people.
(q) After I have punished the Gentiles I will have mercy on them.
(r) The true doctrine and manner to serve God.
(s) Read (Jeremiah 4:2).
(t) They will be of the number of the faithful, and have a place in my Church.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 12". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany