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The officer (of the guard) of the temple: literally, the magistrate of the temple. But this magistrate, by the Greek, was an officer over soldiers; we may presume, over those who were to guard the temple. (Witham)
An officer of the guard of the temple. Magistratus templi, Greek: strategos tou ierou.
The resurrection. This vexed particularly the Sadducees, who denied the resurrection: and they had great power among the Jews. (Witham)
Five thousand. Not that hereby is meant the whole number of the believers, but five thousand, by this miracle and preaching, were added to those that believed before. (Witham) --- Here again we remark the visible increase of the Catholic Church, by the preaching of the word.
Their rulers, &c. The chief of them, and Annas, the high priest; perhaps he had lately succeeded Caiphas, high priest of the year before. (Witham)
By what authority? Is it by your own authority, or that of some other, you have healed this lame man? They wished the know if it was a true miracle, or the effects of some secret magic or enchantment. The knowledge of this kind of affairs belonged to them. It was their duty to repress the attempts of false prophets, seducers, and magicians. But they might easily discover that the apostles were far removed from any thing of this kind. The simple narration of the fact was enough to acquit them. (Calmet)
Name of our Lord Jesus. From this, St. John Chrysostom takes occasion to make several pathetic exhortations against swearing and profaning this adorable name. What profit do you propose to yourselves by abusing this name? Is it to gain credit to your discourse? So you will tell me; but, believe me, you are mistaken: if people saw you respected oaths, and were afraid to make free with them, then they would believe you. Not when you give them to understand that you undervalue them, by your frequent abuse of them. Break then so profane a custom. It will cost you neither money nor labour to do so: you are not required to part with any gratification for this purpose. Use only at the beginning a little diligence, and you will easily overcome so idle a practice. Wish, and it is done. (St. John Chrysostom, super Act. sparsim.) (Haydock) --- Whom you crucified. St. Peter, without fear or apprehension, openly and boldly tells them of their heinous crime: that Christ is the head corner stone, which they had rejected, as Christ himself had told them, (Matthew xii. 10.) and that there is no name under heaven given to men to be saved by. (Witham)
The constancy of Peter and John, surprised the council very much. They admired their knowledge of the Scriptures, seeing them men without learning or letters, and (as they are called idiots) they could not find how to contradict the fact, the man that was healed, being there present. (Witham) --- Here, with the Jewish people, you may admire the constancy, wisdom, and learning of the apostles, after the coming of the Holy Ghost, who, before that event, were simple, unlettered, and timorous men. See ver. 19; and again, Chap. v. 29.
Sine literis, Greek: agrammateis. Idiotæ, Greek: idiotai, plebeii.
What shall we do to these men? They were perplexed, says St. John Chrysostom, and in greater fear than the apostles. They saw they could do nothing but threaten and charge them to speak no more of Jesus. (Witham)
But Peter and John stopped their mouths, by asking them, if it was reasonable for them to hearken to men rather than to God. For we, they say, (ver. 20.) cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard. (Witham)
We have seen and heard. From these words, St. John Chrysostom make some important remarks on the conduct of Christians. On returning from the theatre, or any public meeting, each can relate what he has seen and heard. This is the fruit they reap from attending at public places an amusement; and would to God it were merely pleasure unmixed with poison. But on returning from Church, where they have been for instruction, they remember nothing, speak of nothing they have seen or heard. All is silence. Not even a thought is turned on what has been performed. (Hom. x. in Act.) --- It is a curious fact, which the apologists for the innocence of modern plays would do well to attend to, that the theatre has always been avoided by the good and the virtuous of every age. When one of the ancient Fathers was exorcising a female demoniac, who had been possessed at the theatre, and bade the devil to depart; No, replied he, I had a right to take possession of her, for I found her in my own house. (Haydock)
Threatening them. Here commences the history of the first persecution of religious opinion, which the passions of men have continued, and swelled to such a frightful length. But on this, as on all other occasions, it has defeated its own purpose, by adding firmness and constancy to the persecuted. Truth is not to be overpowered by violence. In vain have the kings and princes of the earth risen up against the Lord, and against his Christ. --- When will men learn, that charity is the principle of conversion! --- That is an unheard-of kind of preaching, said the great Pope, St. Gregory, which exacts belief by stripes. He was on this occasion reprehending the false zeal of certain indiscreet Christians at Rome, who were for compelling the Jews to become converts. (Haydock) --- The amiable Fenelon, in a letter to Prince Charles, the son of our James the Second, says: "No human power can force the impenetrable intrenchments of the human mind. Compulsion never persuades---it only makes hypocrites. When kings interfere in matters of religion, they do not protect it; they enslave it. Give civil liberty to all; not by approving all religions, as indifferent, but, by permitting in others, what God permits."
Being let go, they came to their own company, relating with simplicity all that had happened.
Ad suos, Greek: pros tous idious.
With one accord. With one mind, as in the Greek, and with one voice, being inspired by the Holy Ghost, they fell to prayer. (Witham)
That thou stretch forth thy hand. Literally, in this that thou stretch forth thy hand to cures, &c. They pray to God, that he would continue to confirm their faith by miracles. (Witham)
In eo quod extendas, Greek: en to ekteinein, by stretching forth, &c.
The place was shaken. Much in the same manner, as at the first coming of the Holy Ghost. --- They were all filled with the Holy Ghost. Their hearts were inflamed and excited by a new motion of grace. (Witham)
All things were common. Happy would it be for society, if the rich of the present day were to imitate, in some degree, this charity of the first disciples, by distributing to those that want. Both would hereby become more happy; nor would the rich derive less pleasure from such actions, than the poor. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. xi. in Acts.) --- That cold and fatal word, mine, and thine, which has caused so many misfortunes and wars, was banished from among them. (Id. hom. de St. Philogon.) --- Some take this to be the origin of a monastic life: but according to the Fathers, it is rather its progress and increase; for it began in the family of Jesus Christ. The apostles, indeed, may be said to institute here that common life, which they led under Christ, our Lord, and of which Peter speaks: behold, we have left all. This life, by St. Augustine and others, is called apostolic, and there among all, wives are particularly specified. Cajetan thinks no vow was required: St. Augustine is of a different sentiment. (Serm. de diversis & alibi.)
And great grace was in them all. All of them were present, were replenished with extraordinary graces of charity, zeal, &c. (Witham)
Joseph ... surnamed Barnabas, the son of consolation, &c. He seems to be mentioned as the first that sold all he had, and brought the price, and laid it at the feet of the apostles. (Witham) --- There was at that time a great number of Jews established in this city. (Bible de Vence)
Sold it, &c. It is probable, that the faithful of Palestine disposed of all their property, because they knew that presently Judea would be delivered up to its enemies, and they would be obliged to fly, to avoid the persecution of their countrymen, as well as of strangers. (St. Thomas Aquinas, ad Galatas. xi.) --- At the feet of the apostles, out of respect. Thus, the Sunamitess fell down and embraced Eliseus’s feet. Many that asked favours of Christ, fell down at his feet, and Mary kissed his feet. Such are signs of reverence paid both to Christ, and to other sacred persons, prophets, apostles, popes. See in St. Jerome, how the people of Jerusalem flocked together to the venerable bishop Epiphanius, in Cyprus, presenting their children for his blessing, kissing his feet, plucking the hem of his garment, so that he could not move for the throng. (St. Jerome, Ep. lxi. chap. 4. contr. error. Jovin.)
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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Acts 4". "Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Fifth Week after Epiphany