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Babylon, when he was associated by Nabopolassar, three years before his death, the year of the world 3397. This year Joakim was taken to be conducted to Babylon, though he was afterwards permitted to remain on very hard conditions, while the sacred vessels, Daniel, &c., were taken away, and the 70 years of captivity commenced. They ended in the first of Cyrus, the year 3468. (Usher) --- This chapter should be placed before the 24th and after the 26th. (Calmet) --- The prophets did not observe the order of time, chap. xxi. (Worthington)
Josias. He prophesied nineteen years under him, and three under his successors.
All. We know of Joel, Habacuc, Sophonias, and Holda. (Calmet)
My servant. So this wicked king is here called; because God made him his instrument in punishing the sins of his people. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- He thought himself more than man, but he was only the rod destined for the fire.
Sound, or songs of women turning the mill, Matthew xxiv. 41. (Calmet) --- Lamp, or illuminations, on account of some victory, (Haydock) or festival. (Pers. v. 180.) The Jews "light a lamp for the sabbaths," (Seneca, Ep. xcv.) before they commence. (Haydock)
Years. Ver. 1. The neighbouring nations were also involved in this calamity, and were to be sent back by Cyrus. (Calmet) --- Another period of 70 years is specified, (chap. xxix. 10.) during which the city and temple should remain in ruins, till the second of Hystaspes, the year of the world 3485. (Usher) --- This system is not without difficulties. The present prediction seems rather to refer to the desolation, (Vatable; Aggeus i. 2.) as appears from Zacharias i. 12., or the prophet speaks of the same event in both places, dating from the year preceding the capture of Jerusalem, (the year 3415), till Darius gave entire liberty to the Jews, the year 3485. We differ from Usher in the years allotted to Cyrus, who began to restore the Jews, 1 Esdras i. 5. (Calmet) --- These 70 years are dated from the 11th of Sedecias. (Worthington)
Punish. Literally, visit upon. (Challoner) --- Cyrus overturned the monarchy, and the city was ruined by degrees, Isaias xiii., and xiv., and xxi. 1., and Ezechiel i. 5. (Calmet)
Kings. They perfidiously joined the Chaldeans, after making a league with Sedecias, chap. xxvii. 3. This is condemned, (Calmet) and not precisely their submitting to Nabuchodonosor, chap. xxviii. 8. Their league with Juda was indeed wrong; but the infringement of it was another crime. Septuagint is here much transposed almost to the end. See Grabe. (Haydock) --- Jeremias had prophesied against the nations, though his words are given, chap. xlvi., &c.
Fury. Chastisement, Isaias li. 17. --- All, who might be then at Jerusalem. Sanctius thinks Jeremias travelled into all these countries: most believe it was only done in vision. He might write to them. (Calmet) --- The cup metaphorically denotes God's wrath, Psalm lxxiv. 9. (Worthington)
As, &c. He probably inserted this (Haydock) after the event, (Vatable) or the country was much distressed even under Sedecias.
Pharao, who was defeated (Ezechiel xxx. 25.) coming to assist Juda, (chap. xxxvii.) and again plundered after the taking of Tyre, Ezechiel xxix. 18.
In. Hebrew, "the mixed multitude," (Exodus xii. 38.; Calmet) or "Arabs." (Grotius) --- Ausitis, near Palmyra, Job i. 1. --- Azorus, taken by the Egyptians, and afterwards by the Chaldeans, chap. xlvii. 2.
Ammon. The details are given in chap. xlviii., and xlix., and Ezechiel xxv. to xxxiv., and Abdias and Sophonias.
Kings. Ithobaal (Josephus, Antiquities x. 11.) had many governors under him. Nabuchodonosor besieged Tyre for 13 years, Ezechiel xxvi., &c. --- Sea, or Gibraltar. See Jos.[Josephus?], sup. v. 22. (Haydock) He had navies on the Mediterranean, Ezechiel xxx. 9.
Buz. Scenite Arabs, who cut off the hair of the eyebrows, chap. ix. 26. These Saracens left the hair below the ears long, as the Polonians and Hungarians do. (Worthington)
Zambri, sprung from Cethura, and dwelling in Arabia, (Calmet) or Persia, (St. Jerome) where Pliny ([Natural History?] vi. 28.) places the Zamarenians. --- Elam. Persians, (Haydock) by the sword of Alexander [the Great?], (St. Jerome) or Cyrus subdued those who were subject to the Medes, and united the two nations. --- North. Armenia, &c., subdued by Cyrus and by Alexander. --- Brother. When Cyrus stood up for the Persians. All shall drink, as at a feast, (Calmet) of this bitter wine. --- Face, and forming the empire of Babylon. (Haydock) --- Sesac. That is Babel, or Babylon; which after bringing all these people under her yoke, should quickly fall and be destroyed herself. (Challoner) --- The Chaldeans are not expressed, to avoid their resentment. The sh in sheshac, is at the same distance from the end as b in Babel is from the beginning of the alphabet. See St. Jerome. (Haydock) (2 Timothy iv. 17.) --- Yet they are not elsewhere spared, chap. xlix., &c. Sesac was probably the idol, "anais or the moon." (Calmet) --- The Sacean feasts were very dissolute, like the saturnalia at Rome. (Dio. Chrys.[St. Chrysostom?] iv.; Strabo xi.) (Calmet) --- Cyrus took Babylon after he had conquered the rest of Asia, and then seizing Nabonides at Borsippe, which was sacred to Anais, "the moon," (Calmet) or Diana, (Strabo xv.) suffered him to die in peace. (Berosus in Josephus, contra Apion 1.) --- Thus fell the king of Sesac, an idol worshipped both at Borsippe and at Babylon.
City. Jerusalem first fell a prey.
Beauty. The temple, which was like the palace (Calmet) of the great king. (Haydock) --- Grapes. Great feasting was then customary. The soldiers rushing to battle, "answer" the Lord. (Septuagint) (Calmet) --- People encouraged one another by songs under the labour of the vine-press, as those in distress must do. (Worthington)
Flesh. He will justify his conduct, particularly at the last day.
To nation. Jerusalem, Tyre, Syria, desert Arabia, Ammon, Idumea, and Egypt, shall fall one after another. Thus Cyrus will attack the Medes, Asia, and Babylon.
Leaders. Septuagint, "rams." He addresses the princes. --- Vessels. Septuagint, "chosen rams," fattened for slaughter.
Silent. The places where you fed your flocks so delightfully, are laid waste.
The dove. This is commonly understood of Nabuchodonosor, whose military standard, they say, was a dove. But the Hebrew word Jonah, which is here rendered a dove, may also signify a waster or oppressor, which name better agrees to that unmerciful prince; or by comparison, as a dove's flight is the swiftest, so would their destruction come upon them. (Challoner) --- Septuagint, "waste or impassible before the great sword,["] chap iv. 7. (Haydock) --- While God, like a lion, protected his people, none durst invade them. (Menochius) --- What is said respecting the Babylonian standards is very dubious, (Grotius; Calmet) as the same expression is applied to the Persians, (chap. l. 16.; Menochius) though it may there also be understood of the Chaldeans. (Haydock) --- God is like a dove, yet terrible. (Worthington)
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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 25". "Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
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