Wilderness. Hebrew, "all the plain country (Arabia) on the east."
Galaad. Sehon occupied from the middle of the torrent Arnon, as far as half of the mountains of Galaad, and the torrent Jaboc. (Calmet) --- Og possessed the other half of the mountains northward, while the Ammonites had the eastern parts. (Haydock)
Bethsimoth is ten miles from Jericho, (Eusebius) near the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab. (Calmet) --- Phasga. Asedoth lay at the foot of this mountain, being well supplied with water. Subjacet Acedoth usque Phasga, the southern limits of Sehon's dominions had "abundance of springs, as far as Phasga." (Haydock)
Og. See Numbers xxi. 33., and Deuteronomy iii. 11.
Seir. The same expression occurs, chap xi. 17. Hebrew, "from Baalgad, in the vale of Libanus, even unto Mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir." (Haydock) --- Halak means, "bald or naked." It is not know what mountain it denotes. Josue, (Calmet) or the Israelites, (Haydock) conquered "all the country beyond the Jordan, on the north from Baalgad, at the foot of Libanus, and from Hermon, where these mountains meet, as far as the mountains of separation," which divide the country of Chanaan from that of Seir, on the south of Judea. (Calmet) --- Baalgad was situated on the north western borders of this territory, not of the Jordan. (Haydock)
Asedoth, or "in the springs," or valleys, ver. 3.
Herma, "a curse," where the Israelites defeated king Arad, Numbers xiv. 45., and xxi. 3.
Odullam, ten miles east of Eleutheropolis, and famous for the retreat of David. (Calmet)
Bethel. Josue perhaps slew the king, but did not take the city, Judges i. 22. (Menochius)
Aphec. A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda. --- Saron. Hebrew, "Lasharon;" probably Sarona, (Acts ix. 35,) or a canton near Joppe. (Eusebius)
Madon, or Maron, Septuagint, chap xi. 1. This place is joined with Semeron, in Hebrew (ver. 20,) improperly. Perhaps it may be the Meros, (Judges v. 23,) or Maronia, a city of Phœnicia.
Thenac, a city of the Levites, but seized afterwards by the Chanaanites, Judges i. 27. It was near the town of Legion, built by the Romans. --- Mageddo, where Josias was overcome, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 22. (Calmet)
Jachanan was near Mount Carmel. Sometimes Josue specifies both the city and the canton, where it was situated; at other times he only mentions the latter, as in the following verse.
Galgal, not where the Israelites had encamped, but that part which was afterwards called the Galilee of the Gentiles, in some corner of which the king in question had fixed his residence. For we cannot suppose that he ruled over all that country, extending from Tyre to beyond the Jordan. His people might probably be a mixed multitude of various nations, as Strabo (xvi.) observes, that many parts of Palestine were peopled by men of this description.
Thersa. Here the kings of Israel kept their court, till Amri built Samaria, (Calmet) about nine miles more to the north. (Brocard.) --- One. The two kings slain by Moses (Worthington) are not included. (Menochius)
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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 12". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany