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On The East Side of Jordan
v. 1. Now, these are the kings of the land which the children of Israel smote, and possessed their land on the other side Jordan toward the rising of the sun, from the river Arnon, the northern boundary of Moab, unto Mount Hermon, in the Anti-Lebanon range, and all the plain on the east, the valley of Jordan with its eastern tributaries:
v. 2. Sihon, king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and ruled from Aroer, which is upon the bank of the river Arnon, and from the middle of the river, that is, from the middle of the valley, from the city of Ar, or Areopolis, and from half Gilead, the hilly section on the south side of Jabbok, even unto the river Jabbok, which is the border of the children of Ammon, that is, in its upper reaches;
v. 3. and from the plain, the Arabian Desert, to the sea of Chinneroth on the east, and unto the sea of the plain, even the Salt Sea, on the east, the way to Bethjeshimoth, which was located near the mouth of the Jordan; and from the south, under Ashdothpisgah, under the foothills of the range flanking the Dead Sea on the east, all this country, as thus bounded, being included in the kingdom of Sihon, who was defeated by the army of Israel, Numbers 21; Deuteronomy 2;
v. 4. and the coast of Og, king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, a descendant of the ancient giant races, that dwelt at Ashtaroth and at Edrei, Deuteronomy 1:4; Deuteronomy 3:11; Numbers 21:33,
v. 5. and reigned in Mount Hermon and in Salcah, Deuteronomy 3:10, on the southern border of the Hauran, and in all Bashan, the Hauran proper, the entire upper valley of the Hieromax River, unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites, the former located on the southeastern, the latter on the southwestern slopes of Mount Hermon, and half Gilead, the part north of the Jabbok, the border of Sihon, king of Heshbon.
v. 6. Them did Moses, the servant of the Lord, and the children of Israel smite; and Moses, the servant of the Lord, gave it for a possession unto the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, Numbers 32:33. These kings of the Amorites had been powerful monarchs, but they had been helpless before the army of the Lord.
The Conquered Kings West of Jordan
v. 7. And these are the kings of the country which Joshua and the children of Israel smote on this side Jordan on the west, from Baal-gad, in the Valley of Lebanon, in the north, even unto the Mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, Joshua 11:17; which Joshua gave unto the tribes of Israel for a possession according to their divisions;
v. 8. in the mountains, and in the valleys, and in the plains, and in the springs, and in the wilderness, and in the south country; the Hittites, the Amorites, and the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, Cf Joshua 10:40-42; Joshua 11:16:
v. 9. the king of Jericho, one; the king of Ai, which is beside Bethel, one;
v. 10. the king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one;
v. 11. the king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Lachish, one;
v. 12. the king of Eglon, one, the last five being those defeated at Gibeon, and executed at Makkedah, Joshua 10; the king of Gezer, one, Joshua 10:33;
v. 13. the king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, in the lowlands of Judah, one;
v. 14. the king of Hormah, on the extreme southern boundary, one; the king of Arad, south of Hebron, one;
v. 15. the king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
v. 16. the king of Makkedah, one; the king of Bethel, one, all those named till now being in the central and southern part of Canaan;
v. 17. the king of Tappuah, in the Plain of Jezreel, near the river Kishon, one; the king of Hepher, in the same region, one;
v. 18. the king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon, one;
v. 19. the king of Madon, one; the king of Hazor, one, he being the leader in the northern confederacy, Joshua 11:10;
v. 20. the king of Shimronmeron, one; the king of Achshaph, one;
v. 21. the king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo, one, both these cities being situated in the Valley of Jezreel;
v. 22. the king of Kedesh, on the mountains of Naphtali, one; the king of Jokneam of Carmel, one;
v. 23. the king of Dor in the coast of Dor, Joshua 11:2, one; the king of the nations of Gilgal, not far from Naphothdor, one;
v. 24. the king of Tirzah, north of Shechem, in Samaria, one: all the kings thirty and one. The enumeration of these conquered kings served as a reminder to the children of Israel never to forget the powerful and miraculous help of Jehovah, by which He gave them possession of the country promised to their fathers and them. It is only by always keeping the great deeds of God for our salvation before our eyes that we appreciate them with any degree of proper gratitude.
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Kretzmann, Paul E. Ph. D., D. D. "Commentary on Joshua 12". "Kretzmann's Popular Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20