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The anguish of soul of the godly remnant on account of the sins of Israel.
Psalm 129 reviewed the outward afflictions of Israel in the presence of the righteousness of the Lord. Psalm 130 describes the inward distress of soul on account of sins seen in the light of the mercy of the Lord.
(vv. 1-2) The first two verses present the cry of anguish from a soul conscious of its guilt, and yet accompanied with faith which turns the soul to the Lord in spite of the conviction of sin.
(vv. 3-4) In the presence of the Lord the repentant soul learns three great truths. First, no sinner can stand before God on the ground of his own merit. If the Lord marks iniquities in the sense of observing them, or keeping them in memory in order to punish, there is no hope for man - none can stand ( Job_10:14 ; Job_14:16 ). Second, if there is no standing before God through our own merits, there is forgiveness through His mercy. Third, if God forgives it is that He may be feared, and not that men may think lightly of their sin or of God's mercy. Grace does not lead to a careless walk; on the contrary, it teaches us to live soberly, righteously, and godly ( Tit_2:12 ).
(vv. 5-6) The two following verses describe the condition of the soul that fears the Lord. Such wait upon the Lord, and confide in His word. There is an eager longing that leads the soul to wait for the delivering mercy of the Lord, more than those who, through a night of sorrow, watch for a morning without clouds.
(vv. 7-8) Realizing that the Lord will bring in a day of blessing for His suffering people, the godly man exhorts Israel to hope in the Lord, for with the Lord there is plenteous redemption to ransom His people from all their enemies, and redeem them from all their iniquities.
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Smith, Hamilton. "Commentary on Psalms 130". "Smith's Writings". https://www.studylight.org/
Eve of Ascension