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In the past God spoke. God did not disclose his will to the ancients all at once, but in “bits and pieces,” With only a few exceptions (such as Melchizedek, Balaam, and Job), God spoke only to the prophets of the Jewish Nation. One part of God’s will was to be learned from one prophet, another part would come through a different one. Over 1,500 years passed, from Moses to Christ. The Old Testament was not complete until the last word of Malachi was written.
But in these last days. Peter identifies the last days as beginning on Pentecost (Acts 2:16-17). He has spoken. The importance of the message is shown by the Messenger! Not a prophet, but the Son of God! Paul says this to show us that the Good News, spoken all at once through Christ (and his apostles, John 14:26), was complete and no additions would ever be made to it. Compare what Paul says in Galatians 1:6-9. [The New Testament records in permanent form the Good News which came through Christ.] Through whom God created. Compare John 1:3; Colossians 1:15-20. The universe. See Hebrews 1:10; Hebrews 11:3. Whom God has chosen. This must be understood in view of 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.
With the brightness. See John 1:14; Matthew 17:1-9. The exact likeness. See 1 John 1:1-4. And sustains the universe. As Creator, Christ spoke the universe into existence, and all things (Colossians 1:17) have their proper place in union with him, as he sustains them with the same powerful word by which he created them. Made men clean. By his bloody death. Compare 2 Corinthians 5:14-21; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 2:20. He sat down in heaven. See Ephesians 1:20-21. The right side is the place of special honor. Jesus sitting down at God’s right side is mentioned five times in this Letter, because it presupposes the raising of Christ from death, and is a clear proof that Jesus is the divine Son of God!
Was made greater. The Jews were very proud of the Law of Moses, because it has been given through angels (Deuteronomy 33:2; Acts 7:53; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2). Some said Jesus was himself an angel and had no real human nature (compare 1 John 4:2-3). That God gave him. The name Son was not his until God gave it to him by the Incarnation (Hebrews 10:5; John 1:14). This is inheritance in the sense of his Messianic Sonship. The Old Testament is a witness of the fact of his Sonship.
Never said to. “God does not use this language to angels, but He does say this to the Son!” [God became the FATHER of Christ in the miraculous act of generation which took place prior to the Virgin Birth. See Luke 1:35.] The first quotation is from Psalms 2:7; the second is from 2 Samuel 7:14. His Sonship is proved by his raising from death! See Romans 1:4; Acts 13:32-33. In fact, the birth of Christ would be no more “greater than the angels” than the creation of Adam, were it not for the Resurrection! The whole FACT of the Messiahship stands or falls with the Resurrection (as Paul shows in 1 Corinthians 15:12-20). [See also notes on 1 John 5:6.]
When God was about to send. Chrysostom, Calvin, Bengel, Bruce, et. al., think this refers to the time when Jesus was born at Bethlehem. MacKnight thinks this refers to the Second Coming. Whatever time, it shows that Christ is superior to the angels, since they must worship him! A footnote on the NIV says this quotation is found: “Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls); Psalms 97:7.”
About the angels. The quotation is from Psalms 104:4 Septuagint. The Expositor’s Greek Testament says: “The writer accepts the LXX translation and it serves his purpose of exhibiting that the characteristic function of angels is service, and that their form and appearance depend upon the will of God.”
About the Son, however. The quotation is from Psalms 45:6-7. Remember that one of the gifts from the Spirit which every apostle had, was inspired understanding of the Old Testament Scriptures. Your throne, O God. The angels are servants; the Son has an eternal throne!!! Notice the Son is here called God. Compare what Jesus said in John 8:24. You rule. The whole point is that the Son is a Divine King with an eternal throne. See 1 Corinthians 15:25-28 and notes.
You love the right. His choosing is said here to be the result of his good qualities which equip him to rule as God’s representative. The whole quotation should be taken as a general statement of Christ being supreme over all!!!
He also said. This is from Psalms 102:25-27. Created the earth. See Hebrews 1:2 and notes. This is to prove that angels had nothing to do with Creation. It also proves that the evil god (Satan) had nothing to do with Creation. See notes on 1 Timothy 4:4.
But you will remain. “Although the material creation seems so SOLID yet it will disappear, but You will still be there!!!”
You will fold them up. Earth and sky will be folded like a coat. See 2 Peter 3:10-13. But you are always the same. The Son is eternal. He was always with the Father, He will always be with the Father. The Son (as the Logos) is UNCREATE! Not so the angels, who are a type of Creation.
God never did say. None of the angels are given authority to rule the earth. Angels are servants (Hebrews 1:4). Sit here at my right side. This is quoted from Psalms 110:1. What God never did say to any of his angels, He did say to the Son. The right side is the place of honor. Until I put. See Acts 2:35; 1 Corinthians 15:25-28 and notes.
What are angels, men? “Rather than ruling as kings over this Universe, angels are spirits who serve God, and are sent to help those who are to receive eternal life.” Note the contrast: Christ rules; angels serve. MacKnight says: “The apostle does not say minister to, but for them, etc. The angels are ministers [servants] who belong to Christ, not to men, though employed by him for the benefit of men. Therefore this passage affords no ground for believing that every heir of salvation has a guardian angel assigned to him. Of the ministry of angels for the benefit of the heirs of salvation, we have many examples, both in the Old and in the New Testament.”
These files are public domain.
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30