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Friday, July 19th, 2024
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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Bible Commentaries
Hebrews 1

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE HEBREWS

The Writer and date of writing are uncertain, but it was before the Jewish temple was destroyed, perhaps A.D. 60-64. The letter has been ascribed by scholars to Paul, Barnabas, .Luke, Apollos, and various other persons. Both the weight of opinion and this writer’s judgement is that Paul was the author.

The epistle seems to have been written primarily to Hebrew Christians of the church in Jerusalem, who had long been in danger of lapsing into Judaism by attaching too much importance to Jewish ceremonial observances.

The chief purpose of the letter was to show the transcendent or (much greater) glory of the New Testament Church Covenant than that of the Old Testament or Law Covenant.

A. The Law spoke in mandates:

a) "Thou shalt"

b) "Thou shalt not."

B. But The New Covenant gives primary exhortation emphasis to "Let us:”

1 ) "Let us fear," Hebrews 4:1

2) "Let us labor," Hebrews 4:11

3) "Let us come boldly," Hebrews 4:16

4) "Let us go on," Hebrews 6:1 .

5) "Let us draw near," Hebrews 10:22

6) "Let us hold fast," Hebrews 10:24.

7) "Let us consider one another," Hebrews 10:24

8) "Let us lay aside every weight," Hebrews 12:1

9) "Let us have grace," Hebrews 12:28

10) "Let us go forth," Hebrews 13:13.

11) "Let us offer the sacrifice of praise," Hebrews 13:15

OUTLINE OF HEBREWS

I. The Pre-eminence of Christ (Doctrinal, ch. 1-10:1-18)

Chapter 1

1) Over the prophets, v, 1-3.

2) Over the angels, v. 4-14.

Chapter 2

1) To be given more earnest heed, v. 1-4.

2) Though made lower than angels, to conquer Satan and death, v. 5-14.

3) Deliverance, Reconciliation, as seed of Abraham, able to help all, v. 15-18.

Chapter 3

1) As High Priest, Intercessor, v. 1.

2) As pre-eminent over Moses -

a) Moses’ House was the law order of worship, v. 2-5.

b) Jesus’ House was and is the church, the better covenant, v. 6; 1 Timothy 3:15.

3) Israel’s delay, failure to enter Canaan’s rest for unbelief, doubt, v. 7-19.

Chapter 4

1) A warning to the church, lest they be delayed, not accounted worthy, v. 1-8; Luke 21:34-36.

2) A call to fidelity in labors, to be ready for "that day," v. 9-11.

3) Power of the word in preparation to meet God, v. 12, 13.

4) Jesus a touchable, understanding, responding High Priest, v. 14-16.

Chapter 5

1) Office, work, and choosing of the High Priest, v. 1-4.

2) Character of Christ’s Pre-Eminent High Priesthood, v. 5-10.

3) Parenthetical Rebuke for dullness, (dummies) immaturity of church members, perhaps in Jerusalem church, v. 11-14.

Chapter 6

1) Call for progress in Doctrinal truth, v. 1-3.

2) Warning to those who wilfully turn from known truth, v. 4-8.

3) Faithful church service brings promised inheritance (heirsetting), v. 9-12.

4) Faithfulness exemplified in life of Abraham, v. 13-15.

5) God’s faithfulness in his covenant to Abraham confirmed by an oath, v. 1-6, 17.

6) Dependable to Abraham and the church, like an anchor to the . Soul, v. 18, 19.

7) Assured by our Anchoring High Priest within the veil, v. 20.

Chapter 7

1) Melchisedec priesthood, a type of Christ, v. 1-3.

2) Melchisedec priesthood honored by Abraham, v. 4.

3) Melchisedec priesthood superior to Aaronic or Levitical, v. 5-10.

4) Priesthood of Christ Pre-eminent over that of Melchisedec, v. 11-22.

5) Priesthood of Christ unchangeable and infinite in power, v. 23-25.

6) Christ the only sinless High Priest, without infirmity, consecrated forever, v. 26-28.

Chapter 8

1) High Priesthood now exercised in heaven, v. 1-5; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2.

2) He (Jesus) mediates a better covenant, v. 6-13.

Chapter 9

1)Old Testament rites and ceremonies only types and shadows, v. 1-10.

2) Intercessory’ work of Christ, a sublime redemptive reality, v. 11-15.

3) Testamentary purging of things by blood, v. 16-22.

4) Christ as Sacrifice, High Priest, and coming Judge and King, v. 23-28.

Chapter 10

1) Law could never remit (take away) sin, v. 1-10.

2) Perfect remission, once for all, by offering of Christ’s body, v. 11-18; 1 Peter 2:24.

II. Pragmatic or Practical Teachings and Admonitions (Hebrews 10:19; Hebrews 13)

3) Boldness to approach the Divine throne, v. 19-21.

4) Exhortation to faithful church (assembly) worship, v. 22-25.

5) Mosaic perils and penalties of backsliding, v. 26-28.

6) A worse fate for those who despise (take lightly) the sacrifice of Christ and their commitment once made to Him, v. 29-31.

7) Recall your former sacrifices and sufferings in the church for me, v. 32-34.

8) A call to Perseverance and Patience, waiting for the Lord, v. 35-39.

(Roster of the Faithful) - Heroes and Heroines of Faith

Chapter 11

1) The Substance and Sphere of Faith, v. 1-3.

2) Heroic Examples of Faith: .

a) Abel, v. 4. Offered more acceptable sacrifice.

b) Enoch, v. 5, 6. Walked with God.

c) Noah, v. 7. Built an ark to the saving of his family.

d) Abraham and Sara, v. 8-19.

e) Moses and his parents, v. 23-29.

f) Joshua and Israel, v. 30.

g) Rahab the harlot, v. 31

h) Others of worthy note, v. 32.

i) Obtained a good report, yet waiting thru faith, for the rewarding hour with us, v. 33-40.

Chapter 12

1) The Christian Race - Spiritual Athletics, v. 1-13.

a) Audience, preparation, patient (pace) running, v. 1 .

b) Eyes on the goal, the Master, and the Victory, v. 2.

c) Motivation when weary, v. 3, 4.

d) Value of discipline and chastening in training, v. 5-10

e) Desirable results of training hardships, v. 11.

f) Exhortation to sturdiness and watchfulness, v. 12-15.

g) Warnings against selling out, morally, ethically, and doctrinally, v. 16, 17.

h) Contrast between Mt Sinai of the Old Testament and Mt Zion (the church) of the New Testament.

1. Mt Sinai the Law with its thunder of fear, v. 18-21.

2. Mt Zion (the Church) with her resplendent glory and peace or rest, in the New Jerusalem, v. 22-24. i) Final warning to the Hebrew brethren, perhaps the church at Jerusalem, v. 25-29.

Chapter 13

1) Final exhortation on Christian church members’ duties:

a) Their social and ethical duties, v. 1-6.

b) To elders (mature leaders) in their congregation, v. 7.

c) The unchangeable Christ and Christian stability, v. 8, 9.

d) Duty of Separated, sanctified living, v. 10-14.

e) Benevolence, thanksgiving, and obedience to the church leaders, v. 15-17.

2) Concluding Words:

a) A request for prayer, blessing pronounced, v. 18-21.

b) Final salutation and benediction, v. 22-25.

i

CHARTING HEBREWS

HEBREWS (Ch 1-10:18) (Doctrinal In Nature)

JESUS AS HIGH PRIEST - (BETTER).

1. Is Introduced - Hebrews 1:1-4.

2. As A Divine-Priest - Hebrews 1:4.

3. As A Redeeming-Priest - Hebrews 2:5.

4. As An Apostle-Priest - Hebrews 3:1.

5. As A Perfect-Priest - Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 5:11.

6. As An Eternal-Priest - .-

A BETTER PERSON

1. Than Prophets - Hebrews 1:1-4.

2. Than Angels - Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 2:1-4.

3. Than Moses - Hebrews 3:1-6.

4. Than Aaron or Melchisedec – Hebrews chapters 5, 6, 7. Administering A New Covenant (the church). .--A More Perfect Tabernacle.

WARNINGS TO THE NEGLIGENT

1. Angels Did Not Escape Judgment, Hebrews 2:1-4.

2. Israel’s Disobedient Did Not Escape, Hebrews 3:7 to Hebrews 4:13.

3. Of the New Covenant (the Church, Hebrews 3:1-6). Hebrews 5:11 to Hebrews 6:20.

4. Those Negligent In Assembly Worship and Service, Hebrews 10:26-31.

5. To Refuse Not the Voice From Heaven, Hebrews 1:1-3; Hebrews 12:25-29.

HEBREWS (Ch 10:19 to 13:25) (Exhortation and Motivation To Practical, Profitable, Christian Service)

THRU CHRIST THE BETTER WAY

1. To draw near, hold fast, and consider their better covenant of worship and service, Hebrews 10:19-39:

2. To Persevere (to go forward) in faith-service after the pattern of the Heroes and Heroines of Faith, Hebrews 11:1-40.

3. To Endure the Christian race, as an athlete, Hebrews 12:1-3.

4. To Accept Chastening, enduring it with profit, Hebrews 12:4-25.

5. To Show Charity

a) To one another, Hebrews 13:1.

b) To strangers, travelers, Hebrews 13:2.

c) To those in prison, Hebrews 13:3.

d) In holy matrimony, Hebrews 13:4.

e) In contentment, Hebrews 13:5-6.

f) To the elders (mature, ordained of the church) Hebrews 13:7; Hebrews 13:17; Hebrews 13:24.

g) In sound doctrine, not compromising the Lord’s Supper, Hebrews 13:8-25.

SO GREAT SALVATION - CH. 1, 2 (The Son better than the prophets)

1) "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners," (polumeros kai polutropos palai ho theos) "The God (who) of old (past times) in many portions (little by little) and in many ways"; Because of man’s limited ability to comprehend, God has chosen to reveal himself to humanity, little by little. He disclosed himself at times through the Law, then again through Prophecy, Types, Shadows, Sacrifices, Visions, Dreams, Audible Voice, and Angels, 2 Peter 1:21; Ex 201-3; Deuteronomy 18:15-18; Genesis 28:10-17; Genesis 37:5-11; Genesis 41:1-44; Isaiah 6:1-9.

2)"Spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,’’ (lalesas tois patrasin en tois prophetais) "Spoke (is having spoken) to the fathers (of us) by (means or agency of) the prophets;" Isaiah 1:1-2; Isaiah 6:8-11; Jeremiah 1:1-9; Ezekiel 1:2; Ezekiel 2:1-10; Ezekiel 33:1; Ezekiel 33:8-11; Daniel 12:8-13, Hosea 1:1-2; Malachi 1:1-2; Acts 7:52; Matthew 23:34-39. And "The testimony of Jesus Christ as the spirit, object, and essence of all prophecy, pointed to the coming of the Messiah, the Redeemer, the Lord Jesus Christ;" For "To him give all the prophets witness," Acts 10:43.

Verse 2

1) "Hath in these last days spoken unto us,’’ (ep’ eschatou ton hemeron touton elalesen hemin) ’’Spoke to us in these last days;" Our Creator, our refuge, our daily sustaining God, has condescended to speak to us in these “last days," days of the Gentile era and church age. This God spoke audibly from heaven saying, "This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased, hear ye him," Matthew 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35.

2) "By his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things," (en huio hon etheken kleronomon panton) "In (a) Son (manner), (Even by him) whom he appointed, assigned, or designated heir restorer of all things;” Luke 1:30-33; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28. The Father "Loved the Son and committed all things into his hands," John 3:35; Hebrews 2:6; Hebrews 2:8.

3) "By whom also he made the worlds," (di hou kai eposiesen tous aionas) "Through whom even or also he made, formed, fixed, or laid out the ages;” John 1:1-3; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Colossians 1:16, Jesus was the agent of the lay-out of the ages, the person by whom all creation came to exist.

Verse 3

1) "Who being the brightness of his glory," (hos on apaugasma tes dokses) "Who being (existing as) the radiance of his glory;" This radiance was perhaps reflected in Christ most fully before men on the mount of transfiguration, . It was described by Paul as reflected in his children, 2 Corinthians 4:6, and by John, Revelation 1:13-16.

2) "And the express image of his person," (kai charakter tes hupostaseos autou) "And the representation of his reality of being;" The very character and attributes of God’s existence were visibly, audibly, and physically expressed in the person of Jesus Christ, so that Jesus declared, "I and my Father are one," one in nature and essence of essential being or existence, John 1:14; 1 Timothy 3:16; John 17:22.

EXPRESS IMAGE

For the phrase "express image" there is a single word in the original, a word transferred and familiar in our own language, viz., character. It is formed from a word signifying to sharpen, then to scratch or furrow with a sharp instrument, to write, to engrave. Our term, therefore, means a writing or engraving, and in this sense we often use it. So, also, as a form is engraven on a seal, and then stamped upon wax, the word indicates a figure stamped upon wax or soft metal. The figure impressed is precisely like the graving which determines it. The word accordingly signifies likeness. Then, from the notion of likeness it extends to that of sameness, so that we say of one’s combined qualities, they constitute his character, and more emphatically the character is the man, It is the man revealed and known. The son of God is, then, the revelation of the person of God. And to this term person, in the language of the New Testament, we do not attach the later metaphysical notion. It is simply equivalent to self." We have now the whole thought in this pregnant phrase: Jesus Christ is God’s very Self revealed and known. He could say of Himself truly, as He said, "He that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me." - - Duryea.

3) "And upholding all things by the word of his power," (pheron te ta panta to hremati tes dunames autou) ’’As well as continually bearing, supporting, or sustaining all things by the word of his dynamic power," in whom men live, move, and have their being, Acts 7:12; Colossians 1:17. It is by this resurrected living redeemer all things consist or hold together.

4) "When he had by himself purged our sins," (katharismon ton hamartion poiesamenos) "When he had made a cleansing or purging of (our) sins;- through his voluntary, sacrificial, substitutionary death, he made himself to be or became a sin- purger for our sins, to meet the demands of an Holy God, Isaiah 53:11; 1 Peter 2:24; John 10:17-18; Hebrews 9:12; Luke 23:46.

5) "Sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high," (ekathisen en deksia tes megalosunes en hupselois) ’He sat down on (at) the right hand of the greatness (central throne of God) in high (elevated) places;" at the right hand of his Father in heaven, awaiting the hour of His earthly heirship, while now making intercession for his children to the Father, against Satan and his accusers, Ephesians 1:20, 1 John 2:1-2; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 8:7: Revelation 12:7-12.

Verse 4

THE SON BETTER THAN THE ANGELS

1) "Being made so much better than angels," (tosouto kreitton genomenos ton angelon) "Becoming so much better than the angels," who are gathered around the throne and directed from it to serve him and the redeemed. He is better in dignity and authority than angels; For angels are to worship and serve him in time and eternity, Hebrews 1:6-7; Matthew 4:10-11; Luke 22:43. On the Mount of Temptation Jesus resisted Satan, till an angel came to minister to him, and in Gethsemane he prayed likewise; See also, Hebrews 1:14; Revelation 5:11-12.

2) "As he hath by inheritance obtained;" (hoso kokleronomeken) "As (since or because) he has inherited (from his Father)," an heir-setting, a right to the ownership jurisdiction, to rule and to reign over the earth which he also died to redeem from its bondage to restore to his Father, John 3:34-35; Luke 1:30-33; 1 Corinthians 15:23-28.

3) "A more excellent name than they," (diaphoroteron par’ autous onoma) "A more excellent name than (that given) them;" He is that Prophet, that Priest, that Redeemer, that King, that Judge, that Lord of lords who is to bring redeemed men to full Victory over all that is evil and hurtful one glorious day, John 14:6; John 8:24; Acts 4:12; Romans 1:16; Romans 14:11-12; Philippians 2:9-10; that men might adore His Excellence, the Lord Jesus Christ! How High He is above men and angels! Before Him both fall and worship, around and before heaven’s throne, and to Him all men should give honor, service, and allegiance through His church today, Revelation 5:6-11; Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 5

1) "For unto which of the angels said he at any time," (tini gar eipen pote ton angelon) "For to which of the angels did he ever say;" which individual angel or which of the bands of angels, (either those of Michael or Gabriel), did he (God the Father) directly say, or assert, at any point in time? Answer if you can, the Inspired Written Challenges.

2) "Thou art my Son," (huios mou ei su) "Thou art (the) Son of me," or "you are my heir," to inherit all my possessions, the universe- - Did God ever affirm such, make a sweeping pledge to any angel?

3) ’’This day have I begotten thee," (ego semeron gegenneka se) "Today I have begotten thee;" Did God ever say to any angel "I have begotten you?" the writer rhetorically challenges. The answer is "no;" Angels were created, but Jesus was begotten of the Father, that he might be heir-redeemer to all that the Father had, John 1:14; Romans 8:17.

4) "And again, I will be to him a Father," (kai palin ego esomai auto eis patera) "And again I will be (or exist) to him for ((with reference to him as) a Father;" God is the creator of angels, but not the Father or a Father-begetter to them, granting to them heirship or inheritance rights, Ezekiel 28:14-15; Colossians 1:16.

5) "And he shall be to me a Son?" (kai autos estai moi eis huion?) "And he shalI be to or toward me for a Son; " A son is his father’s inheritor, 1 Corinthians 3:22-23. The heritage redemption and restitution of all things have been pledged to Jesus Christ by the Father. And through faith in the Son, men may become heir inheritors of all things, jointly with the Son; But angels are not heirs to such; They are only servants, Hebrews 1:14; ; 1 Corinthians 15:23-28; Romans 8:17, Galatians 3:26.

Verse 6

1) "And again, when he bringeth in the first begotten," (hotan de palm eisagage ton prototokon) "And again when he brings (leads in) the firstborn," the first-begotten from the dead; when he brings the first-begotten to the earth again, in power and great glory, as he shall, Acts 1:10-11; Revelation 1:7; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9.

2) "Into the world, he saith," (eisten oikoumenen legei) "Into the inhabited earth," man’s habitat, "he says;” As surely as God sent his only begotten into the world, the inhabited earth, to redeem men the first time, he shall send him the second time to the inhabited earth to restore all things to their original perfection, holiness, and beauty; John 3:17; Galatians 4:4-5; Romans 8:11; Romans 8:23.

3) "And let all angels of God worship him," (kai proskunesatosan auto pantes angeloi theou) "And let all the (host of) the angels of God worship him;" At his birth angels sang or spoke words of praise to God for him, Luke 2:10-13; In Revelation 5:9-11 angels are disclosed as praising him with a loud voice and they are to worship Him, owning Him as their Lord, Matthew 25:31; Mark 8:38; 1 Peter 3:22. Indeed the Master is greater than the worshipper. Thus the Writer (Paul) concludes and affirms the excelling greatness of Jesus Christ above angelic beings ’ who never become Kings, Priests, Judges, or Heirs of God’s World, such as is given to Christ and to his obedient covenant children, Romans 8:17; Galatians 3:26; 1 Corinthians 6:3; Revelation 5:9-10.

Verse 7

1) "And of the angels he saith," (kai pros men tous angelous legei) "And with regard to the angels he says;” he discloses, informs, or makes known the following information:

2) "Who maketh his angels spirits," (ho poion tous angelous autou pneumata) "The one making his angels spirits;” forming them as spiritual beings, invisible beings, not as physical creatures, having physical bodies; they have not flesh and bones, Luke 24:39.

3) "And his ministers a flame of fire," (kai tous leitourgous autou puros phloga) "And the service ministers of him, (his service) ministers, a flame of fire;” to move like fire or like the wind through space. They are often mentioned as flying, having near omnipresent powers of movement, to do service to God and to men, Daniel 9:21; Luke 2:13; Hebrews 1:14. These ministering servants, as guardian or sentry angels, watch over and protect God’s people through life, and in death bear their souls to the presence of the Lord, Psalms 34:7; Luke 16:22.

Verse 8

1)"But unto the Son he saith," (pros de ton huion)" But with regard to the Son, (he saith):" But with regards to the heir-Son, the inheritance Son, who is more excellent than angel servants, God speaks, commits a vow, a covenant pledge, as follows:

2) "Thy throne, 0 God," (ho thronos sou ho theos) "Thy throne (central throne) 0 God;" historically alluding to David and Solomon’s Throne Divinely appointed, yet more specifically to that on which His Son is to preside, 2 Samuel 7:12-16; Isaiah 9:6; Luke 1:33.

3) "Is for ever and ever," (eis ton auona tou aionos) "(exists) into the age of the age," into eternity, without cessation, termination, or end, Daniel 7:14; Daniel 7:27; Revelation 11:15.

4) "A sceptre of righteousness is," (kai he hrabdos tes euthutetos) "And the rod (sceptre) of righteousness is (exists as);" The sceptre denotes administrative rule of a royal ruler, a king- - and this king-ruler is an holy and righteous being in all his character and acts, .

5) "The sceptre of thy kingdom," (hrabdos tes basileias autou) "The rod (sceptre) of his kingdom;- As the Sceptre of Judah one, Genesis 49:10, as the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and as the Lamb he shall come to rule and reign with his people over his and their joint heritage. And even upon the horses’ bells or bridle shall be written "holiness to the Lord;" Isaiah 9:7; Zechariah 14:20-21.

Verse 9

1) "Thou hast loved righteousness," (egapesas dikaiosunen) "Thou didst (and dost) love righteousness," uprightness, rectitude, or holy morals and ethical conduct, Isaiah 32:1; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Because of righteousness even nations are exalted, Proverbs 14:34; 1 John 3:7.

2) "And hated iniquity," (kai emisesas animian) "And didst (and dost) hate lawlessness;” iniquity, even visiting it in judgement to the third and forth generation of those who do malicious evil, Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:7; Numbers 14:18; Deuteronomy 5:9-10.

3) "Therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee," (dia touto echrisen se, no theos, ho theos sou) "Therefore the (true) God, even thy God, anointed thee;" This is addressed to Jesus Christ, the Son of God. He came as the Son of God, God’s heir, the anointed one, pleasing not himself, but to do the will of his Father, with joy, gladness, and triumph, Isaiah 61:1-2; Luke 4:16-19; John 4:34; John 8:29; Hebrews 12:1-2.

4) "With the oil of gladness," (elaion agalliaseos) "With oil of gladness;" Psalms 45:7; Isaiah 61:3. The oil of gladness soothes the pains of earth’s daily cares; Exodus 4:14; Psalms 16:9, When souls are saved it is proper to be glad and rejoice, Luke 15:32; Even to the marriage of the Lamb, Revelation 19:5-9.

5) "Above thy fellows," (para tous metochous sou) ’’Above thy partners or fellow-ministers,’’ the angels. Tho there is rejoicing in glory in the presence of the angels when sinners repent our Lord seems to have joy and gladness above that experienced by his fellow servant, angelic helpers, Luke 15:7; Luke 15:10; Luke 15:32; Luke 10:20-21.

Verse 10

1) "And, thou, Lord, in the beginning," (kai su kat’ archas kurie) "And thou Lord, at the beginnings," according to the beginning or origin of all things; This certifies the coexistence of Jesus Christ with God from the beginning or origin of all things, even from the creation of angels, John 1:1-3; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Psalms 102:24.

2) "Hast laid the foundation of the earth," (ten gen ethemeliosas) "Didst found (establish) the earth;" Psalms 102:25-26. The earth did not lay its own foundation or come to be established in physical form without a first great cause - That first "cause" exists as and in God and the Lord Jesus Christ, Colossians 1:16-17.

3)"And the heavens are the works of thine hands," (kei erga ton cheiron sou eisin hoi ouranoi) "And the heavens are (exist as) the works (artifice) of thine hands;” Psalms 19:1-2; Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 11:3. The present heaven and earth are products of the Grand Architect of the Universe by whom they are also daily sustained, held together, Colossians 1:17; Acts 17:28.

Verse 11

1) "They shall perish," (autoi apolountai) "They will (all) perish;" "pass away" or "be dissolved," because both the heaven and the earth have been tainted by sin, Matthew 24:35; 1 Peter 1:23; 1 Peter 1:25; 2 Peter 3:10-13; Isaiah 51:6.

2) "But thou remainest," (su de diameneis) "But thou remainest," continuously. God is eternal in the essence or essential nature of his being. He shall be or exist forever, without end or cessation of being; as he existed before he created all things so shall he exist in every essential element of his being when heaven and earth’s tainted things are gone forever, Deuteronomy 33:27; Psalms 90:1-2; 1 John 5:11; 1 John 5:13.

3) "And they all shall wax old as doth a garment," (kai pantes hos himation palaiothesontai) "And they will all become old as (like) a garment," of cloth becomes old, decays, 2 Peter 3:7. More and more the earth becomes polluted, like a mighty garbage dump whose stench goes into the heavens, which Satan has entered to defile and pollute, in accusing the brethren before the throne of God, the heavens and the earth must pass from their defiled, polluted form, to be purged at the end of the world, 1 John 2:17; Matthew 24:35; 2 Peter 3:10-18.

Verse 12

1) "And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up," (kai hosei peribolaion helikseis autous) "And as like) a mantle thou wilt roll them up," fold them, or lay them aside to be dissolved; one has described the visible heaven and earth as God’s vesture, vestment, or robe that has been defiled so badly that he can not always use them to declare his glory, Psalms 19:1-2. Both the creation and dissolution of all things are attributed to God the Son, 2 Thessalonians 1:6-9.

2) "And they shall be changed," (hos himation kai allagesontai) "And as (similar to) a garment they will be changed," altered, renovated, restored or made new, even as our mortal bodies shall be made new in the regeneration, the restitution of all things of creation thru the redemption wrought in Christ, Acts 3:20; Revelation 21:1; 1 Corinthians 15:23-28.

3) "But thou art the same," (su de ho autos ei) "yet, thou art (dost continue to exist) the same," the unchangeable one, in all holy nature, attributes, and power; Malachi 3:6 reads, "I the Lord change not;" neither does his Son change; Hebrews 13:8 reads, "Jesus Christ the game yesterday, and today, and for ever."

4) "And thy years shall not fail," (kai ta ete sou ouk ekleipsousin) "And thy years will not fail," to exist or continue. His years or time of being is never completed or finished, Revelation 1:8; Revelation 22:12-13; Isaiah 9:6-7.

Verse 13

1) "But to which of the angels," (pros tina de ton angelon) "But (in contrast) to which of the angels;” To any who might worship angels the writer is persistent in declaring that the creator and sustainer of life, not angelic creatures of his creation, is to have preeminence in all things, Colossians 1:15-19.

2) "Said he at any time," (eireken pote) "Has he ever said," or "Has he said at any time;”

3) "Sit on my right hand," (kathou ek deksion mou) "Sit at my right hand;” Psalms 110:1. This is what God said to his Son when he instituted or announced the eternal priesthood of Jesus Christ in glory, according to the order of Melchisedec, Psalms 110:4. He was both the Sacrifice and the High Priest from the foundation of the world, 1 Peter 1:19-20.

4) "Until I make thine enemies thy footstool?" (heos en though tous echtrous sou hupopodion ton podon sou) "Until I put, place, or set thy enemies (like) a footstool (at) thy feet?" to bow down before his feet, Matthew 22:41-46; Romans 14:11-12; Philippians 2:9-11. This alludes to the ancient custom of the conqueror who put his foot on the neck of his conquered foe, to bring him to abject surrender.

No such promise did our Lord ever make to angels, to any angel, the writer contends. In all this it is emphasized that Jesus Christ is better (greater) than any or all angels, Mark 12:35-37.

Verse 14

1) "Are they not all ministering spirits" (ouchi pantes eisin leitourgika pneumata) "Are they not all service ministering spirits;” Do they not exist as service-rendering spirits? Rhetorically, Paul inquires. The inferred answer is an affirmation that all unfallen or holy angels are service-workers, ministers from God.

2) "Set forth to minister" (eis diakonian apostellomena) "Being commissioned ones for common spiritual service," or spiritual aid. The term "sent" is derived from the Greek root word "stello," which means or signifies an authoritative commission for a specific purpose. And here it is certified that good angels are such commissioned ministering helpers of men, especially those who have an inheritance or heir-setting with the Lord, .

3) "For them who shall be heirs of salvation?" (dia tous mellontas kleronomein soterian) "Because of those being about to receive a salvation heir-setting," a position of reigning with Christ in their resurrection bodies of glory. On the highway of life, in sickness and in health, yea even in death, God has sentry angels dispatched to minister to, aid, assist, protect and give understanding to those who shall be heirs of salvation, Luke 16:22; Daniel 8:16; Daniel 8:19; Daniel 9:21-22; Daniel 12:1-2; Acts 27:22-25; Revelation 12:7-12.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Hebrews 1". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/hebrews-1.html. 1985.
 
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