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Bible Commentaries
2 Corinthians 5

Bengel's Gnomon of the New TestamentBengel's Gnomon

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Verse 1

2 Corinthians 5:1 . Γὰρ , for ) A reason given [ætiologia] for this statement, affliction leads to glory [ch. 2Co 4:17 ]. ἡ ἐπίγειος ) which is on the earth: 1 Corinthians 15:47 . The antithesis is, in the heavens . ἡμῶν , our ) The Antithesis is, of [ from ] God . οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους , the house of this tabernacle ) The Antithesis is, a building, a house not made with hands . A metaphor taken from his own trade might produce the greater interest in the mind of Paul, who was a tent-maker [Acts 18:3 .] καταλυθῇ , were dissolved ) a mild expression. The Antithesis is, eternal . ἔχομεν , we have ) The present; straightway from the time of the dissolution of the earthly house. ἀχειροποίητον ) not made with the hands of man.

Verse 2

2 Corinthians 5:2 . Ἐν τούτῳ , in this ) The same phrase occurs, ch. 2 Corinthians 8:10 , and elsewhere. στενάζομεν , we groan ) The epitasis [25] follows, we do groan being burdened , 2 Corinthians 5:4 . οἰκητήριον , a dwelling-place, a domicile ) οἰκία , a house , is somewhat more absolute; οἰκητήριον , a domicile , has reference to the inhabitant. τὸ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ) which is from heaven: ἐξ here signifies origin , as, of the earth , John 3:31 . Therefore this domicile (abode) is not heaven itself. ἐπενδύσασθαι , [to have the clothing put upon us] to be clothed upon ) It is in the Middle voice: ἔνδυμα , the clothing , viz., the body: hence the expression, being clothed [ 2Co 5:3 ], refers to those living in the body; ἐπένδυμα , the clothing upon , refers to the heavenly and glorious habitation, in which even the body, the clothing , will be clothed. As the clothing of grass is its greenness and beauty, Matthew 6:30 , so the heavenly glory is the domicile and clothing of the whole man, when he enters into heaven.

[25] See App. Strengthening of the words already used by something additional on their repetition. ED.

Verse 3

2 Corinthians 5:3 . Εἴγε καὶ , if indeed even [ if so be ]) That, which is wished for, 2 Corinthians 5:2 , has place [holds good] should the last day find us alive. ἐνδυσάμενοι , being clothed ) We are clothed with the body, 2 Corinthians 5:4 , in the beginning. οὐ γυμνοὶ ) not naked , in respect to [not stripped of] this body, i.e. dead. εὐρεθησόμεθα , we shall be found ) by the day of the Lord.

Verse 4

2 Corinthians 5:4 . Καὶ γὰρ , for even ) The reason of the earnest desire [2 Corinthians 5:2 .] στενάζομεν βαρούμενοι , we do groan being burdened ) An appropriate phrase. A burden wrings out sighing and groaning. ἐκδύσασθαι ) to be unclothed, to strip off the body. Faith does not acknowledge the philosophical contempt of the body, which was given by the Creator.

Verse 5

2 Corinthians 5:5 . Κατεργασάμενος , He that hath wrought or prepared us) by faith. εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο , for this selfsame thing ) viz. that we should thus groan, Romans 8:23 . καὶ ) also; new proof [ token to assure us] of our coming blessedness. τὸν αῤῥαβῶνα , the earnest ) ch. 2 Corinthians 1:22 , note. τοῦ πνεύματος , of the Spirit ) who works in us that groaning.

Verse 6

2 Corinthians 5:6 . Θαῤῥοῦντες ) The antithesis is between θαῤῥοῦντες οὖν πάντοτε , and θαῤῥοῦμεν δὲ καὶ εὐδοκοῦμεν μᾶλλον , κ . τ . λ . Its own explanation is subjoined to each of the two parts: we are confident as well at all times and during our whole life; as also we are most of all confident in the hope of a blessed departure. καὶ ) and, even . ἐνδημοῦντες · ἐκδημοῦμεν ) These two words here signify abiding [sojourning in a place]; but 2 Corinthians 5:8 , where they are interchanged, departure. ἐκδημοῦμεν , we live as pilgrims absent from the Lord) In this word, there lies concealed the cause of confidence , for a pilgrim [though abroad yet] has a native country, whether he be about to reach it sooner or later, Hebrews 11:14 . ἀπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου , from the Lord ) Christ, Philippians 1:23 .

Verse 7

2 Corinthians 5:7 . Διὰ πίστεως , by faith ) Not to see, is nearly the same as being separated. γὰρ , for ) This refers to ἀπὸ , from [2 Corinthians 5:6 , absent from the Lord]. περιπατοῦμεν , we walk ) in the world. So πορεύεσθαι , Luke 13:33 . οὐ διὰ εἴδους , not by what appears to the eye [Engl. V. sight ]) The LXX. translate מראה , εἶδος , vision, aspect, appearance. [26] See especially Numbers 12:8 : ἐν εἴδει , ΚΑῚ Οὐ ΔΙʼ ΑἸΝΙΓΜΆΤΩΝ , apparently and not in dark speeches; likewise Exodus 24:17 . Faith and sight are opposed to one another. Faith has its termination at death in this passage, therefore sight then begins.

[26] Not the act or power of seeing (as ‘sight’ often means): but the thing seen , what presents itself to the eye, the appearance seen. ED.

Verse 8

2 Corinthians 5:8 . Δὲ , indeed ) An epitasis [Repetition of a previous enunciation with some strengthening word added; Append.]; comp. 2 Corinthians 5:6 , note. εὐδοκοῦμεν ) we have so determined [we regard it as a fixed thing], that it will be well-pleasing to us . ἐνδημῆσαι , to go home ) 2 Corinthians 5:6 , note. πρὸς τὸν Κυρίον , to the Lord ) Philippians 1:23 .

Verse 9

2 Corinthians 5:9 . Διὸ καὶ , wherefore also ) that we may obtain what we wish. φιλοτιμούμεθα , we [ labour ] strive ) This is the only φιλοτιμία , or lawful ambition . εἰτε , whether ) construed with we may be [ accepted ] well-pleasing . ἐνδημοῦντες , being at home ) in the body. [27]

[27] Vulg. g and Syr. Versions, Origen Lucif. 151 read ἐκδημ . εἴτε ἐνδημ . But most MSS. and f have the order of Rec. Text. ED.

The margin of both Ed. has settled the reading εἴτε ἐκδημοῦντες εἴτε ἐνδημοῦντες , inverting the order, as equal to the received reading of the text. But if the critical note (App. Ed. II. p. iv. nro . xiv. p. 896) be compared, the Author seems afterwards to have changed both the order and the meaning of the words , such as the Gnomon shows. For the Crit. Not. has ἐνδημοῦντες , going home, not being at home; and the Germ. Ver. reads Wir mogen in der Fremde seyn, ( i.e . ἐκδημοῦντες ) oder heimgehen ( i.e . ἐνδημοῦντες .) E. B.

ἐκδημοῦντες departing ), i.e. out of the body.

εὐάρεστοι , well pleasing ) accepted especially in respect to the ministry.

Verse 10

2 Corinthians 5:10 . Τοὺς γὰρ πάντας , for all ) when treating of death, the resurrection, and eternal life, he also thinks appropriately, of the judgment. The motive is herein assigned for that holy ambition . πάντας ἡμᾶς , that we all ) even apostles, whether abiding as pilgrims here or departing. φανερωθῆναι ) not only to appear in the body , but to be made manifest along with [as well as] all our secrets, 1 Corinthians 4:5 . Even the sins of believers, which have been long ago pardoned will then be laid open; for many of their good deeds, their repentance, their revenge directed against their sin, in order to be made known to the world, require the revelation of their sins. If a man has pardoned his brother an offence, the offence will also be exhibited, etc. But that will be done to them, with their will, without shame and grief; for they will be different from what they were. That revelation will be made indirectly, with a view to their greater praise [credit, honour]. Let us consider this subject more deeply.

§ 1. The words of sacred scripture respecting the remission of sins are extremely significant. Sins are covered: they will not be found: they are cast behind: sunk in the sea: scattered as a cloud and as mist: without being remembered. Therefore not even an atom of sin will cleave to any, who shall stand on the right hand in the judgment.

§ 2. On the other hand, the expressions concerning all the works of all men, which are to be brought forward in the judgment, are universal, Ecclesiastes 12:14 ; Romans 14:10 ; 1 Corinthians 3:13 , etc., 2 Corinthians 4:5 .

§ 3. The passage 2Co 5:10 is consistent with these, where the apostle from the manifestation of all, whether of those going home or of those remaining as pilgrims, before the tribunal of Christ, infers the TERROR of the Lord and of the Judge, 2 Corinthians 5:11-12 , and declares that terror to be the occasion of anxiety not only to the reprobate, but also to himself and to those like himself. Such fear would have no existence in the case of the saints if the opinion as to their sins not being about to be revealed were assumed to be true. Furthermore Paul says, that he, and such as he, would be manifested not only so far as they have acted well on the whole, but also so far as they have failed in any particular. There is wonderful variety of rewards among those, who are saved; and demerits [of saints] have effect, though not indeed in relation to punishment [which the saints wholly escape] but to loss, as opposed to reward, 1 Corinthians 3:14-15 : comp. 2 Corinthians 1:14 ; Philippians 2:16 ; Philippians 4:1 . That phrase, that every one may receive , etc., shows, that the deficiencies in the case of the righteous will be also manifested. For thus and thus only will it be manifested, why each man receives neither more nor less than the reward, which he actually receives. The Lord will render to every one, AS his work shall be.

§ 4. Wherefore we ought not to press too far the words quoted in § 1. The sins of the elect, which are past, will not cease to be the objects of the Divine Omniscience for ever, although without any offence and upbraiding. And this one consideration is of more importance, than the manifestation of their sins before all creatures, though it were to continue for ever, much less as it is, in the day of judgment alone, when their sins will appear not as committed, but as retracted and blotted out in consequence of repentance.

§ 5. In the case of the elect themselves, their own sins will not cease to be the object of their remembrance, although without any uneasiness attending it. He, to whom much has been forgiven, loves much. The everlasting remembrance of a great debt, which has been forgiven, will be the fuel of the strongest love.

§ 6. So great is the efficacy of the Divine word with men in this life, that it separates the soul from the Spirit, Hebrews 4:12 , and lays bare the secrets of the heart, 1 Corinthians 14:25 . Shame for what has been committed and remitted belongs to the soul , not the spirit . Men wallowing in gross sins often throw out their secrets; in despair they conceal nothing. But grace, much more powerful, renders those, who have received it, quite ingenuous. Men truly penitent proceed with the utmost readiness to the most open confessions of their secret wickedness, Acts 19:18 . How much more in that day will they bear, that they be manifested, when the tenderness of the natural affections is entirely swallowed up? Comp. 1 Corinthians 6:9 ; 1 Corinthians 6:11 . Such candour confers great peace and praise. If in the judgment there were room in the minds of the righteous, for example, for shame, I believe that those sins, which are now most covered, would cause less uneasiness, than those, of which they are less ashamed at the present time. We are most ashamed at present of the sins, which are contrary to modesty. But it is right, that we should be more ashamed of other sins, for example against the first table.

§ 7. That Adam was saved, we have no doubt, but his fall will be remembered for ever; for otherwise I do not understand, how the restitution made by Christ can be worthily celebrated in heaven. The conduct of David in the case of Uriah, the denial of Peter, the persecution of Saul, the sins of others, though they have been forgiven, have yet continued on record for so long a time in the Old and New Testament. If this fact presents no obstacle to the forgiveness long ago granted, the mention of sins will be no obstacle to their forgiveness even in the last judgment. It is not every manifestation of offences, which constitutes a part of punishment.

§ 8. Good and evil have so close a connection, as well as so inseparable a relation to each other, that the revelation of the good cannot be understood without the evil. But since certain sins of the saints shall be laid bare, it is fitting, that all the circumstances [all things] should be brought to light. This view tends to the glory of the Divine Omniscience and mercy; and in such a way as this the reasons for pronouncing a mild judgment on some, and a severe judgment on others, along with the accurate adjustment, ἀκριβείᾳ , of the retribution, will shine forth in all their brightness.

§ 9. I do not say, that all the sins of all the blessed will be actually and distinctly seen by all the creatures. Perhaps the accursed will not know them; the righteous will have no cause to fear each other. Their sins, when the light of that great day discloses all things, will not be directly manifested, as is done in the case of the guilty, who are punished, whence in Matthew 25:0 no mention is made of them, but indirectly , so far as it will be proper; just as in a court of justice among men, it often occurs, that many things are wont to enter into the full view [aspect] of the deed incidentally. And in some such way as this also the good works of the reprobate will be made manifest. All things may be known in the light, but all do not know all things.

§ 10. This consideration ought to inspire us with fear for the future; for it had this effect on the apostles, as this passage 2 Corinthians 5:0 shows. But if more tender souls shrink back from that manifestation, on account of their sins past; when they have been duly instructed from what has been said, especially at § 6, they will acquiesce [acquire confidence in regard to the manifestation of all sins in the judgment]. Often does truth, which at first appeared bitter, become sweet after closer consideration. If I love any one as myself, he may, with my full acquiescence, know all things concerning me, which I know concerning myself. We shall judge of many things differently, we shall feel differently on many subjects, until we arrive at that point.

Κομίσηται , may receive ) This word is used not only regarding the reward or punishment, but also regarding the action , which the reward or punishment follows, Ephesians 6:8 ; Colossians 3:25 ; Galatians 6:7 . ἕκαστος , every one ) separately. τὰ διὰ τοῦ σώματος ) Man [along] with his body acts well or ill; [therefore also] man [along] with his body receives the reward; comp. Tertull. de resurr. carnis, c. 43. τὰ πρὸς ἃ , those inmost thoughts, according to which he performed outward actions . διὰ τοῦ σώματος , while he was in the body, 2 Corinthians 5:6 ; 2Co 5:8 2 Corinthians 4:10 , comp. διὰ Romans 2:27 . εἴτε ἀγαθὸν εἴτε κακὸν , whether good or bad ) construed with hath done . No man can do both good and evil at the same time.

Verse 11

2 Corinthians 5:11 . [28] Πείθομεν , we persuade ) We bear ourselves so, by acting as well with vehemence, as also with sobriety [“Whether we be beside ourselves , or whether we be sober ”] 2 Corinthians 5:13 , that men, unless they be unwilling, may be able to give us their approbation. Comp. what he says on conscience presently after, and at 2 Corinthians 4:2 . Πείθειν , ἀναγκάζειν are opposed; see at Chrysost. de Sacer, p. 396, 392, 393. πεφανερώμεθα , we are made manifest ) we show and bear ourselves as persons manifest [to God and in your consciences]. Those, who have this character, may be made manifest without terror in the judgment, [ φανερωθῆναι ], 2 Corinthians 5:10 . ἐλπίζω , I hope ) To have been made manifest is past, whereas hope refers to a thing future. Paul either hopes for the fruit of the manifestation , which has been already made; or else hopes, that the manifestation itself will still take place. συνειδήσεσιν , in your consciences ) The plural gives greater weight. [ It sometimes happens, that a man may be made manifest to the conscience even of such, as attempt to conceal the fact . V. g.]

[28] Τὸν φόβον , the terror ) Ecclesiastes 12:13 . V. g. ἀνθρώπους , men ). By many the things which God Himself does are not approved; and how can His servants be approved by any with regard to those things which they do? What is the counsel which His servants give [ πείθομεν ]? Thou hearest, reader, in this very passage. V. g.

Verse 12

2 Corinthians 5:12 . Γὰρ , for ) The reason assigned [aetiologia], why he leaves it to the conscience of the Corinthians to form their opinion. διδόντες , giving ) supply we write , or a similar general verb, the meaning of which is included in the particular expression, we commend . There is a participle of a similar kind, 2Co 7:5 to 2 Corinthians 11:6 . He says, we furnish you with arguments for glorying in our behalf. καυχήματος , glorying ) with regard to our sincerity; so far am I from thinking, that there is after all need of any commendation of us. ἔχητε , you may have ) repeat, occasion . ἐν προσώπῳ . καὶ οὐ καρδίᾳ , in appearance; and not in heart ) The same antithesis is found at 1 Samuel 16:7 , LXX., and in a different manner in 1 Thessalonians 2:17 . καρδίᾳ , in heart ) such was Paul’s disposition [vein] of mind truth shone from his heart to the consciences of the Corinthians.

Verse 13

2 Corinthians 5:13 . Εἴτε ἐξέστημεν ἔιτε σωφρονοῦμεν ) The former is treated of 2 Corinthians 5:15-21 : the latter 2 Corinthians 6:1-10 . The force of the one word is evident from the other, to act without or with moderation . Paul might seem to be without moderation from the Symperasma, [29] which he gave in the preceding verse [ namely, adorning his office with so many encominiums . V. g.] Θεῷ , it is to God ) viz., that we have acted without moderation , although men do not understand us. ὑμῖν , it is to you ) Even godly men bear the moderation of their teachers with a more favourable feeling, than their ἔκστασις , excessive enthusiasm; but it is their duty to obey the Spirit.

[29] See App. A brief and summary conclusion from the previous premisses. T.

Verse 14

2 Corinthians 5:14 . Γὰρ , for ) The same sentiment is found at 2 Corinthians 11:1-2 ; but greatly augmented in force of expression; for he says here, we have acted without moderation [whether we be beside ourselves ] and the love of Christ, etc., there, in my folly and I am jealous . ἀγάπη ) love , mutual: not only fear: 2 Corinthians 5:11 , the love of Christ, viz., toward us, in the highest degree, and consequently also our love towards Him [ That, which the apostle in this passage calls love, which may perhaps seem to go beyond bounds, he afterwards calls jealousy, which may be roused by fear even to folly, 2 Corinthians 11:1-3 . V. g.] συνέχει , constrains [‘distinet’ keeps us employed ]) that we may endeavour to approve ourselves both to God and you.

Verse 15

2 Corinthians 5:15 . Κρίναντας , judging ) with a most true judgment. Love and judgment are not opposed to each other in spiritual men. ὑπὲρ πάντων , for all ) for the dead and living. ἄρα οἱ πάντες , then these all ) Hence the full force of the ὑπὲρ , for and the utmost extent of the mystery is disclosed; not only is it just the same as if all had died, but all are dead; neither death, nor any other enemy, nor they themselves have power over themselves: they are entirely at the disposal and control of the Redeemer. οἱ has a force relative to πάντων , for all . An apt universality. The teachers urge; and the learners are urged, because Christ died for both. ἀπέθανον , are dead ) and so now no longer do they regard themselves. The generous lovers of the Redeemer apply that principally to themselves, which belongs to all. Their death was brought to pass in the death of Christ. καὶ , and ) this word also depends on ὅτι , because . First, the words, one , and, for all , correspond; in the next place, died , and, that they should live . οἱ ζῶντες , they that live ) in the flesh. ἀλλὰ , but ) namely, that they should live , viz., in faith and a newly acquired vigour, Galatians 2:20 . τῷ ) he does not say, ὑπὲρ τοῦ . It is the dative of advantage, as they call it; ὑπὲρ , denotes something more than this. καὶ ἐγερθέντι , and rose again ) Here we do not supply, for them; for it is not consonant with the phraseology of the apostle; but there is something analogous to be supplied, for example, [“that He might be Lord both of the dead and the living”] from Romans 14:9 .

Verse 16

2 Corinthians 5:16 . Ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν , henceforth ) From the time that the love of Christ has engaged [has pre-occupied] our minds. Even this epistle differs in degree from the former. οὐδένα , no man ) neither ourselves, nor the other apostles, Galatians 2:6 ; nor you, nor others. We do not fear the great, we do not consider the humble more humble than ourselves; we do and suffer all things, and our anxiety is in every way to bring all to life. In this enthusiasm [ ἔκστασις , being beside ourselves], 2 Corinthians 5:13 , nay in this death , 2 Corinthians 5:15 , we know none of them that survive, [30] even in connection with our ministry, ΚΑΤᾺ ΣΆΡΚΑ , according to the flesh ) according to the old state, arising from nobility, riches, resources, wisdom, [so as that from more natural considerations, we should either do or omit to do this or that . V. g.] εἰ δὲ καὶ ἐγνώκαμεν ) ΟἾΔΑ and ἜΓΝΩΚΑ , [31] differ, 1 Corinthians 2:8 ; 1Co 2:11 1 Corinthians 8:1 . Such knowledge was more tolerable, before the death of Christ: for that was the period of the days of the flesh. κατὰ σάρκα , according to the flesh ) construed with ἐγνώκαμεν , we have known . Χριστὸν , Christ ) He does not say here Jesus . The name Jesus is in some measure more spiritual than the name Christ; and they know Christ according to the flesh , who acknowledge Him as the Saviour, not of the world , 2 Corinthians 5:19 , but only of Israel , ch. 2 Corinthians 11:18 , note: and who congratulate themselves on this account, that they belong to that nation from which Christ was descended, and who seek in His glory political splendour, and in their seeing Him when He formerly appeared, and in their hearing of His instructions of whatever kind, before His sufferings, some superiority over others, and in the knowledge of Him, the enjoyment of the mere natural senses: and who do not strive to attain that enjoyment which is here described, and which is derived from His death and resurrection, 2 Corinthians 5:15 ; 2 Corinthians 5:17-18 : comp. John 16:7 ; Romans 8:34 ; Philippians 3:10 ; Luke 8:21 .

[30] i.e . Those not yet dead with and in Christ, but living in the flesh: note on οἱ ζῶντες , 2 Corinthians 5:15 . ED.

[31] οἶδα seems to be used as scio (of an abstract truth well known ), or novi (of a person , with whom we are well acquainted ). ἔγνωκα as agnosco , or cognosco, come to the knowledge of , I perceive, or recognize . ED.

Verse 17

2 Corinthians 5:17 . Εἰ τις ἐν Χριστῷ , if any one be in Christ ) so as to live in Christ. If any one of those who now hear us , etc. Observe the mutual relation, we in Christ in this passage, and God in Christ , 2 Corinthians 5:19 ; Christ, therefore, is the Mediator and Reconciler between us and God. καινὴ κτίσις , a new creature ) Not only is the Christian himself something new; but as he knows Christ Himself, not according to the flesh, but according to the power of His life and resurrection, so he contemplates and estimates himself and all things according to that new condition. Concerning this subject, see Galatians 6:15 ; Ephesians 4:24 ; Colossians 3:10 . τὰ ἀρχαῖα , old things ) This term implies some degree of contempt. See Gregor. Thaum. Paneg. cum annot., p. 122, 240. πα ò ρῆλθεν , are passed away ) Spontaneously, like snow in early spring. ἰδοὺ , behold ) used to point out something before us.

Verse 18

2 Corinthians 5:18 . τὰ δὲ πάντα , and all these things ) which have been mentioned from 2 Corinthians 5:14 . Paul infers from the death of Christ his obligation to God, 2 Corinthians 5:13 . ἡμᾶς , us ) the world , and especially and expressly the apostles; comp. the following verse, where there is again subjoined [hath committed] unto us . That word us , especially comprehends the apostles; but not them alone; for at the beginning of 2 Corinthians 5:18 , the discourse is already widely extended [so as to apply to all men ]. Thus the subject varies [is changed] often in the same discourse, and yet subsequently the mark of the subject being distinct from what it had been, is not expressly added. ἡμῖν , to us ) apostles. τὴν διακονίαν , the ministry ) the word [of reconciliation] in the following verse. The ministry dispenses the word .

Verse 19

2 Corinthians 5:19 . Ὡς ὅτι ) Explanatory particles. ἦν καταλλάσσων ) was reconciling , comp. 2 Corinthians 5:17 , note. The time implied by the verb ἦν is shown, 2 Corinthians 5:21 . [32] ἐν Χριστῷ , ἘΝ ἩΜῖΝ , in Christ, in us) These words correspond to one another. ΚΌΣΜΟΝ , the world ) which had been formerly hostile. καταλλάσσων · μὴ λογιζόμενος , reconciling, not imputing ) The same thing is generally amplified by affirmative and negative words. τὰ παραπτώματα ) offences many and grave. θέμενος , having committed ) as it is committed to an interpreter what he ought to say.

[32] viz. the time when God made Jesus to be Sin for us , etc. ED.

Verse 20

2 Corinthians 5:20 . Ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ , for Christ ) Christ the foundation of the embassy sent from God. πρεσβεύομεν · δεόμεθα , we are ambassadors , [ we pray ], we beseech ) two extremes, as it were, put in antithesis to each other, which relate to the words we have acted without moderation [whether we be beside ourselves , 2Co 5:13 ]. In antithesis to these, the mean between those extremes is, we exhort [ παρακαλοῦμεν , not as Engl. Vers., We beseech ], ch. 2 Corinthians 6:1 , 2 Corinthians 10:1 , which appertains to the σωφρονοῦμεν , we act with moderation [whether we be sober , 2Co 5:13 ]. Therefore the discourse of the apostle generally παρακαλεῖ , exhorts; since the expression, πρεσβεύομεν , we are ambassadors , implies majesty, the expression δεόμεθα , we beseech , intimates a submission, which is not of daily occurrence; ch. 2 Corinthians 10:2 , [comp. 1Th 2:6-7 ]. In both expressions Paul indicates not so much what he is now doing, as what he is doing in the discharge of all the duties of his office. Ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ , for Christ , is placed before the former verb [though after the latter verb], for the sake of emphasis; comp. the preceding verses. Presently after, the latter verb is placed first for the same reason. καταλλάγητε , be ye reconciled ).

Verse 21

2 Corinthians 5:21 . Τὸν ) Him, who knew no sin, who stood in no need of reconciliation; a eulogium peculiar to Jesus. Mary was not one, ἡ μὴ γνοῦσα , who knew no sin. ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησε , made Him to be sin ) He was made sin in the same way that we are made righteousness . Who would have dared to speak thus, if Paul had not led the way? comp. Galatians 3:13 . Therefore Christ was also abandoned on the cross. ἡμεῖς ) we , who knew no righteousness, who must have been destroyed, if the way of reconciliation had not been discovered. ἐν αὐτῳ , in Him ) in Christ. The antithesis is, for us .

Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 5". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jab/2-corinthians-5.html. 1897.
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