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Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king's house, over against the king's house: and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house. Esther put on her royal apparel. It was not only natural, but, on such occasions, highly proper and expedient, that the queen should decorate herself in a style becoming her exalted station. On ordinary occasions she might reasonably set off her charms to as much advantage as possible; but on the present occasion, as she was desirous to secure the favour of one who sustained the twofold character of her husband and her sovereign, public as well as private considerations-a regard to her personal safety, no less than the preservation of her doomed countrymen-urged upon her the propriety of using every legitimate means of recommending herself to the favourable notice of Ahasuerus, especially decking her person with all the costly jewels and superb attire which had been the gifts of the royal liberality to her.
The king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house. The palace of this Persian king seems to have been built, like many mere of the same quality and description, with an advanced cloister, over against the gate, made in the fashion of a large pent-house, supported only by one or two contiguous pillars in the front, or else in the center. In such open structures as these, in the midst of their guards and counselors, are the bashaws, kadis, and other great officers accustomed to distribute justice, and transact the public affairs of the provinces. In such a situation the Persian king was seated; and, at least in Shushan, "the house of the women" was separated from the "king's house" by the intervention of a "court." similar was the position of the harem at Khorsabad ('Nineveh and Babylon,' p. 646; Fergusson's 'Palaces of Nineveh,' p. 254; Botta, 'Monumens de Nineve,' 5:, p. 42). The seat he occupied was not a throne according to our ideas of one but simply a chair, and so high that it required a footstool. It was made of gold, or, at least, inlaid with that metal, and covered with splendid tapestry, and no one except the king might sit down on it under pain of death. It is often found pictured on the Persepolitan monuments, and always of the same fashion. A fly-flapper usually attended at the side or back of the throne.
And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight: and the king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre.
The king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. This golden sceptre receives an interesting illustration from the sculptured monuments of Persia and Assyria. In the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, copied by Sir Robert Ker Porter, we see king Darius enthroned in the midst of his court, and walking abroad in regal state; in either case be carries in his right hand a slender rod or wand, about equal in length to his own height, ornamented with a small knob at the summit. In the Assyrian alabasters, as well those found at Nimroud as those from Khorsabad, 'the great king' is furnished with the same appendage of royalty-a slender rod, but destitute of any knob or ornament. On the Khorsabad reliefs the rod is painted red, doubtless to represent gold; proving that "the golden sceptre" was is sample wand of that precious metal, commonly held in the right hand, with one end resting on the ground, and that whether the king was sitting or walking. "The golden sceptre" has received little alteration or modification since ancient times (Gosse). It was extended to Esther as a token that not only her intrusion was pardoned, but that her visit was welcome, and a favourable reception given to the suit she had come to prefer.
Touched the top of the sceptre. This was the usual way of acknowledging the royal condescension, and at the same time expressing reverence and submission to the august majesty of the king.
Then said the king unto her, What wilt thou, queen Esther? and what is thy request? it shall be even given thee to the half of the kingdom.
It shall be even given thee to the half of the kingdom. This mode of speaking originated in the Persian custom of appropriating for the maintenance of great men, or royal favourites, one city for his bread, another for his wine, a third for his clothes, etc., so that the phrase denoted great liberality.
And Esther answered, If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him.
Let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him. There was great address in this procedure of Esther's; because, by showing such high respect to the king's favourite, she would the better insinuate herself into the royal affections; and gain a more suitable opportunity of making known her request.
Then the king said, Cause Haman to make haste, that he may do as Esther hath said. So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared.
No JFB commentary on these verses.
If I have found favour in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to grant my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do to morrow as the king hath said.
Let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare. The king ate alone, and his guests in an adjoining hall; but they were admitted to sit with him at wine. 'Sometimes,' says Mr. Rawlinson ('Ancient Monarchies,' 4:, p. 167), 'at a "banquet of wise," a certain number of privileged boon companions were received, who drank in the royal presence, not, however, of the same wine, nor on the same terms. The monarch reclined on a couch with golden feet, and sipped the rich wine of Helbon; the queen, when present, sat on a chair beside him; while the guests invited drank an inferior beverage seated upon the floor' (Athenaeus, 'Deipno,' 4:, p. 145). Such was the custom of the country. Haman being the only invited guest with the king and queen on the occasion referred to, it was natural that he should have been elated with the honour.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Esther 5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/
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