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1Ch 10:1 Now the Philistines fought against Israel; and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in mount Gilboa.
Ver. 1. Now the Philistines. ] See on 1 Samuel 31:1-2 , &c.
1Ch 10:2 And the Philistines followed hard after Saul, and after his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchishua, the sons of Saul.
Ver. 2. And the Philistines slew Jonathan. ] Though a pious and valiant prince.
“ Non te tua plurima, Pentheu,
Labentem texit pietas. ” - Ovid.
“ Cadit et Ripheus iustissimus unus,
Qui fuit in Teucris, et servantissimus aequi. ” - Virg.
1Ch 10:3 And the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers hit him, and he was wounded of the archers.
Ver. 3. And the battle went sore against Saul. ] The weight of the war was turned against him. See the like policy used, 1 Kings 22:31 . This is the right bird, said that officer of the cuirassiers, a who shot the king of Sweden through the body at the battle of Lutzen.
And he was wounded of the archers. ] Heb., He was grieved, or frighted: he, who by his tyranny had been terrible and grievous to others, &c., his sin hath found him out, being worse than any archer’s.
a A horse soldier wearing a cuirass.
1Ch 10:4 Then said Saul to his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.
Ver. 4. Lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. ] Heb., Mock me. He was more solicitous about his own glory than the glory of God and salvation of his poor soul.
But his armourbearer would not. ] The like unhappiness befell Nero, who hearing that the senate had proclaimed him a public enemy to mankind, and condemned him to be whipped to death, entreated that some one of those that were with him would kill him; which when they refused to do, he cried out, Itaque nec amicum habeo nec inimicure: What I have I neither friend nor foe to do me this last good office? and so struck himself through with his own sword, and was a horrible spectacle to all beholders. a
So Saul took a sword. ] A just hand of God upon him for his cruelty at Nob and other places. Per quod quis peccat, per idem punitur.
a Aurel. Victor. Sueton.
1Ch 10:5 And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on the sword, and died.
Ver. 5. He fell likewise on his sword, and died. ] He had done better if he had died by the hand of the enemy, in his master’s defence.
1Ch 10:6 So Saul died, and his three sons, and all his house died together.
Ver. 6. And all his house died together. ] His courtiers and evil counsellors, who had sinned with him, perished with him.
1Ch 10:7 And when all the men of Israel that [were] in the valley saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, then they forsook their cities, and fled: and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.
Ver. 7. And the Philistines came and dwelt in them. ] But before they were well warm in these their new nests, David unroosted and dislodged them "The triumphing of the wicked is but short." Job 20:5
1Ch 10:8 And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen in mount Gilboa.
Ver. 8. And it came to pass on the morrow. ] They flew not on the spoil, till they had secured the victory: for
“ Victorem a victo superari saepe videmus. ”
1Ch 10:9 And when they had stripped him, they took his head, and his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to carry tidings unto their idols, and to the people.
Ver. 9. They took his head. ] Heb., His brainpan; the seat of his understanding; wherein he had hammered so many evil devices against good David and others.
To carry tidings. ] Ad evangelizandum.
1Ch 10:10 And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.
Ver. 10. And fastened his head. ] In way of abuse and mockage; so, that which Saul feared came upon him. 1Ch 10:4
1Ch 10:11 And when all Jabeshgilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul,
Ver. 11. And when all Jabeshgilead. ] See 1 Samuel 31:11 . Jabeshgilead had not many inhabitants; but being all of a mind, they did great matters.
1Ch 10:12 They arose, all the valiant men, and took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
Ver. 12. And took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons. ] Which the Philistines, in disgrace of them, had fastened to the wall of Bethshan, afterwards called Scythopolis.
And fasted seven days. ] A tanto, but not a toto, as Daniel 10:2 . In public calamities lugendum, scilicet non indulgendum genio, men must be deeply affected with the divine displeasure.
1Ch 10:13 So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, [even] against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking [counsel] of [one that had] a familiar spirit, to enquire [of it];
Ver. 13. So Saul died, &c. ] This and the subsequent verse we have here about the causes of Saul’s death, more than that we read in 1 Samuel 31:3-6 .; like as we meet with many remarkable passages in St Mark, that are not in Matthew or Luke.
For his transgression which he committed. ] "Adding rebellion to sin," Job 34:37 for he was not so very bad at first, as neither is any wicked person. He first neglected the word of God, and then despised it, and then harboured in his heart hypocrisy, hatred, envy, cruelty, &c. Here he is taxed for three vices especially: (1.) For flat disobedience, which "is as the sin of witchcraft"; 1Sa 15:23 (2.) For consulting with a witch; (3.) For not inquiring of the Lord. He did not "draw nigh to God with a true heart, in full assurance of faith, having his heart sprinkled from an evil conscience, and his body washed with pure water." Heb 10:22
1Ch 10:14 And enquired not of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.
Ver. 14. And inquired not of the Lord. ] He did, and yet he did not. See Trapp on " 1Sa 28:6 "
Therefore he slew him. ] He killed him with death, as Revelation 2:23 .
And turned the kingdom unto David. ] Though it were long first, and after many trials and tribulations. Sic petitur caelum; heaven is not to be had, but after much pains and patience.
“ Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis ”
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 10". Trapp's Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany