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Lev 27:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Ver. 1. And the Lord spake. ] This is oft premised and prefaced for authority’s sake, and that we may learn to resolve all divine doctrines into Deus dixit.
Lev 27:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons [shall be] for the LORD by thy estimation.
Ver. 2. When a man shall make a singular vow. ] Votum eximium, as Vatablus renders it, a personal, particular, voluntary vow; which, drawn by some peculiar reason, a man promiseth to God of his own accord. It is a binding of one’s self to God by a holy and religious promise, to do or not to do something lawful, possible, useful for our increase in godliness. As here of persons, afterwards of things: all which might be redeemed, under such exception as the law provideth, by the estimation of the priest for certain shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary: this was double to the ordinary shekel. The aim and intent of these personal vows was, say some, that the price of their redemption might be employed either for the maintenance of the priests, Num 18:14 or for the repair of the sanctuary. 2Ki 12:4-5 Neither by such vows do we cast any new snares upon ourselves, but rather a new tie to the payment of an old debt.
Lev 27:3 And thy estimation shall be of the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy estimation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary.
Ver. 3. Fifty shekels of silver. ] This was the greatest rate, because people are then in their prime; and yet no very great one, lest they should think much to vow, or perform to the Lord their God.
Lev 27:4 And if it [be] a female, then thy estimation shall be thirty shekels.
Ver. 4. And if it be a female. ] She is set at a lower valuation then the male, because less able for any laborious or rational employment.
Lev 27:5 And if [it be] from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels.
Ver. 5. From five years old. ] Childhood and youth is vanity. There is a bundle of folly in a child’s heart. Pro 22:15 The same Greek word νηπιος , signifieth a fool, and a child. And the Hebrew word used to signify youth, Ecc 11:10 signifieth blackness or darkness, to note, that youth is a dark and dangerous age. Few Macariuses to be found, who, for his gravity in youth, was surnamed παιδαριογερων , the old young man. a
Lev 27:6 And if [it be] from a month old even unto five years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy estimation [shall be] three shekels of silver.
Ver. 6. From a month old. ] If his parents have made a vow concerning him.
Lev 27:7 And if [it be] from sixty years old and above; if [it be] a male, then thy estimation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels.
Ver. 7. And if it be from sixty years. ] The rate of old age is less than of youth, and more than of childhood.
Lev 27:8 But if he be poorer than thy estimation, then he shall present himself before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to his ability that vowed shall the priest value him.
Ver. 8. But if he be poorer. ] Indulged he shall be, but not exempted. Vows, in things lawful and possible, must be performed, as we can at least. If rashly made, that rashness must be repented of, but the vow, if otherwise lawful, must be kept, without delay or diminution, to the utmost of our power. Men may not play with vows, Ecclesiastes 5:3-4 Psa 76:11 as monkeys with their collars, which they can slip at pleasure. To vow is voluntary, to pay is necessary. And yet what more common in the world than shipmen’s vows? As he in Erasmus, a who in a storm promised his saint a picture of wax as big as St Christopher, but when he came to shore, would not give a tallow candle.
a Erasm. Colloq.
Lev 27:9 And if [it be] a beast, whereof men bring an offering unto the LORD, all that [any man] giveth of such unto the LORD shall be holy.
Ver. 9. Giveth, ] i.e., Consecrateth unto God by his vow; and so, giveth him of his own. 1Ch 29:14
Lev 27:10 He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad, or a bad for a good: and if he shall at all change beast for beast, then it and the exchange thereof shall be holy.
Ver. 10. Then it and the exchange thereof. ] For a punishment of his instability and lightness.
Lev 27:11 And if [it be] any unclean beast, of which they do not offer a sacrifice unto the LORD, then he shall present the beast before the priest:
Ver. 11. Any unclean beast. ] Unless the dog were excepted. Deu 23:18 See Trapp on " Deu 23:18 "
Lev 27:12 And the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad: as thou valuest it, [who art] the priest, so shall it be.
Ver. 12. So shall it be. ] What the priest doeth, God ratifieth.
Lev 27:13 But if he will at all redeem it, then he shall add a fifth [part] thereof unto thy estimation.
Ver. 13. Then he shall add. ] The owner, if he repent of his vow, shall pay for his levity. See Ecclesiastes 5:2 ; Ecclesiastes 5:4-5 .
Lev 27:14 And when a man shall sanctify his house [to be] holy unto the LORD, then the priest shall estimate it, whether it be good or bad: as the priest shall estimate it, so shall it stand.
Ver. 14. Sanctify his house. ] Consecrate it, or any thing in it, by vow to the Lord. Leviticus 27:15 ; Lev 27:13
Lev 27:20 And if he will not redeem the field, or if he have sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed any more.
Ver. 20. Or if he have sold the field. ] And so, sacrilegiously robbed God.
Lev 27:22 And if [a man] sanctify unto the LORD a field which he hath bought, which [is] not of the fields of his possession;
Ver. 22. Of his possession, ] i.e., Not his patrimony, but his purchase.
Lev 27:26 Only the firstling of the beasts, which should be the LORD’S firstling, no man shall sanctify it; whether [it be] ox, or sheep: it [is] the LORD’S.
Ver. 26. No man shall sanctify. ] Because they were due unto the Lord before.
Lev 27:28 Notwithstanding no devoted thing, that a man shall devote unto the LORD of all that he hath, [both] of man and beast, and of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed: every devoted thing [is] most holy unto the LORD.
Ver. 28. Notwithstanding no devoted. ] Hitherto of things consecrate; now of things execrate, whereof see a command, Deuteronomy 13:15 ; Deu 13:17 an example. Num 21:2 These could not be sold, nor redeemed, but must remain with the priest: if it were a beast, then to be put to death.
No devoted thing. ] No anathema: so the offerings of the temple were called. Luk 21:5
Lev 27:29 None devoted, which shall be devoted of men, shall be redeemed; [but] shall surely be put to death.
Ver. 29. None devoted, ] sc., To destruction: as were the Amalekites; 1Sa 15:3 Canaanites; Num 21:2 Jerichuntines. Jos 6:17
Lev 27:30 And all the tithe of the land, [whether] of the seed of the land, [or] of the fruit of the tree, [is] the LORD’S: [it is] holy unto the LORD.
Ver. 30. And all the tithe. ] See here in this chapter what a liberal maintenance God allowed the priests: (1.) Various votive oblations, or their redemptions; (2.) All the firstborn, or their redemptions; (3.) Every devoted thing, unless devoted to some particular use; (4.) All the tithes of what kind soever: besides firstfruits, oblations, portions of sacrifices, &c. And I see not, saith a reverend man, a but that tithes at least, or some better thing, should be due to the ministers of the gospel by Divine ordinance: and that those that take them from us should give us a better thing, as those here that had a mind to redeem their tithe, were bound by the law to add to the price every fifth penny above the true value.
a Mr Wilkinson’s Debt Book.
Lev 27:32 And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, [even] of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.
Ver. 32. Passeth under the rod. ] Coloured at the end with red, to mark out the tenth, as they passed out. See Jeremiah 33:13 .
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Leviticus 27". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29